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Oct. 8, 1946.
v
w. P. LEAR
’
2,409,132
REELING MECHANISM
Filed Oct. 19, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet l
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INVENTOR.
W/Zl/AM R ZZAR
“721.44%”,
A T TORNEY
Oct. 8, 1946.
_
‘
w. P. LEAR
REELING MECHANISM
2,409,132
~ Filed Oct. 19, 1943‘
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
W/Z 1 MM R L 54/?
B
' ATTORNEY
Oct 8, 1946-v
'
w. P. LEAR
2,409,132
REELING HECHANI SM
Filed Oct. 19, 1943
217g \5
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IN VEN TOR.
W/AZ MM P. A [AR _ ‘
AT TORNEY
Patented Oct. 8, 1946
2,409,132
UNITED STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE
2,409,132
REELING MECHANISM
William P. Lear, North Hollywood, Calif" as~
signor, by mesne assignments, to. Lear, Incor
porated, Grand Rapids, Mich., a corporation of
Illinois
Application October 19, 1943, Serial No. 506,796
9 Claims.
(01. 244410)
2
This invention relates to novel mechanical
actuator devices, and more particularly to‘ me
chemically and manually actuable apparatus
for extending and retracting the landing hook of
a carrier based airplane.
The invention is particularly directed to an
actuator for moving a member between a pair of
‘ energization of the power drive means at ‘either
extreme position of the landing hook to avoid.
destruction by impact; to provide such a mechai
nism including a manually operable device, nor
at mally' disconnected from the mechanism, but ef
fective upon actuation of the device to be- con—
nected, to the mechanism to extendv the landing
hook; to provide. such a mechanism including
limiting points, with means for stopping motion
power drive means and manual drive means to
of the actuator when the member reaches either
of the limiting points. Hitherto, this has gen 1.0 permit foolproof extension, of the hook, both con
trollable from a position adjacent the pilot’s seat;
erally been accomplished by means of electric
and.‘ to provide a simple reliable arresting gear
limit switches which require skilled and accurate,
actuator for an airplane.
setting in order to insure proper functioning at
These. and other objects, advantagesv and fea
the exact limiting point. In case of any im
tures of the invention will be apparent from the
proper setting of the limit switches, damage to
following description and accompanying draw‘
the elements of the actuator might occur from
ings. In the drawings:
shock or impact due to the member overrun-ning
Fig. l is a schematic elevation, partly broken
the limiting points. With the present invention,
away, of an airplane equipped with the hook op-»
a device is provided which automatically stops
erating mechanism of the present invention.
motion of the actuator when the movable member
Fig- 2- is a longitudinal sectional view through
reaches either limiting point, through the in
mechanism embodying the principles of the pres
creased torque exerted by the actuator power
ent invention.
drive means by reason of the member reaching
such limiting point.
‘Fig. 3 is a cross~sectional view on the line 3-—-3
.
The invention is capable of general application, 5 25 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is. a cross-sectional view on the line 4-4
but is more particularly applicable to a rotary
0f Fig. 2‘.
actuator for operating the arresting gear or land
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view on the line 5--5
ing hook of carrier based aircraft. Carrier based
of Fig. 2.
military aircraft are generally equipped with ar
resting gear, such as. an extendible hook, which, 30 Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view on, the line 6-6
of Fig. 2.
when the aircraft is landing on the deck of ‘a
Fig. 7 is a schematic wiring diagram illustrat
carrier is adapted to grip a suitable landing de
ing the electrical connections for controlling the
vice, such as a cable, to rapidly arrest forward
operation of the rotary actuator of the inven
motion of the aircraft on the deck. Such pro
vision is generally necessary in view of the rela- ,
tively high landing speeds of such military air
craft, as compared with the relatively short
length of the ?ight deck.
It is among the objects of this invention to
provide mechanism for moving a member between
a pair of limiting points and including a device
automatically e?ective when the movable mem
ber reaches either of such points to stop motion
to the mechanism; to provide an actuator for
moving a member between a pair of limiting,
points, and including an electric motor and‘ a
tion.
.
'
Referring to the drawings, and particularly to
Fig. 1 thereof, an airplane in is shown as equipped
with a landing hook shown in the extended posi
tion at I5 and in dotted lines in the retracted
position at I5’. The mechanism for extending
and retracting the hook comprises a pair. of
sprockets H and I2 interconnected by suitable
means such as an endless chain [4.
A rotary
actuator 20, shown more particularly in Figs. 2,,
5 and 6, is connected to the sprocket l l. A power
drive means is provided for actuator 20, and may
torque responsive device e?ective automatically
be an electric motor which is controlled from a
position adjacent the pilot’s seat by a pair of
to deenergize said. motor when the movable mem
ber reaches either of the limiting points; to pro
push buttons 18 and I1. Conductors l8 connects
vide a rotary actuator for extending and retract-. 50 the push buttonsto control box illustrated dia
.ing the landing hook of an aircraft;- to provide
grammatically at 22. Leads 23 connect the con
such a mechanism including power drive means,
trol box 22 to the electric motor associated with
such as an electric motor, for operating the same;
the actuator.
to provide such a mechanism including a novel
It is important to provide for manual actua
torque limiting arrangement for e?ecting de
tion in the event of Iailure of the power drive
2,409,132
3
4
means, to insure lowering of the hook at all times
position of which may be adjustable by screws
during a landing operation. For this purpose a
13 and 14 provided with lock nuts ‘(5 and 16. On
cable 26 extends from a manual actuating device
the upper end of sector 51 is a suitable operat
associated with actuator 20 to a point adjacent
ing means such as a roller '1‘! which cooperates
the pilot’s seat. Cable 26 may extend through 5 with push buttons 18 and 88 of a pair of switches
a bracket 21 and be provided with a suitable grip
8| and 82 mounted in housing 62. Leads 23 are
28. Upon actuation of one of the push buttons
brought into housing 62 through an entrance
l6 or H, hook I5 is either extended or retracted.
bushing 19.
In the event of failure of the power drive means,
_As explained in my copending application Se~
the pilot may grasp grip 28 and by pulling the 10 rial No. 499,010, sector 51 is normally maintained
same forwardly and releasing the samev a su?l»
in a position midway between push buttons 18
cient number of times, may extend hook IS in a
and 88. Springs 68 and 10 normally restrain
manner to be described more fully hereinafter
movement of the sector and of movable plate 42.
thus assuring positive lowering of the hook dur
However, when the torque upon the driven sys~
ing all landing operations.
'
1
15 tem exceeds a preselected value, plate 42 and sec
Actuator 20 is shown in longitudinal sectional
tor 5‘! are moved in one direction or the other
view in Fig. 2. It comprises anelectric motor
to open one of the switches 8! or 82 and thus
38 adapted to be connected through electromagg- _
deenergize motor 30 and instantaneously declutch
the motor armature from the actuator. Adjust
Torque limiting device 40 is connected through 20 ment of screws 13 and 14 predetermines the
reduction gearing 45 to sprocket II. A manual
torque required to cause sector 5'! to operate
netic clutch 35 to a torque limiting device 4!].
driving device 58, which is operated by cable 26,
is adapted to be connected to sprocket II‘, for
switches 81 or 82. '
‘
Referring to Fig. 5,’drive pinion 53 engages a
extending cable 26, in a manner to be described
spur gear 83 to which is secured a pinion 84
more fully hereinafter. Electromagnetic clutch 25 meshing with a spur gear 85. Pinion 86 ?xed
35 may be a quick acting clutch of the type de
to spur gear 85 meshes with a driving spur gear
scribed and claimed in my Patent No. 2,267,114,
81. Gear 81 is keyed to a shaft 88 having a re
and torque limiting device 40 may be of the‘ type
duced portion 98 mounted in bearings Si in a
described and claimed in my copending appli
housing 92 enclosing the gearing. The opposite
cation Serial No. 499,010.
_
30 end of shaft 88 is mounted in bearings 93 and is
Clutch 35 includes a driving disk 3i of mag
provided with a recess 84 for a purpose to be
netic material secured to armature shaft 32 of
described hereinafter. A collar 86 maintains
motor 30 and containing a non-magnetic ring
bearings 93 and spur gear 8'! in proper relation.
2|. A driven disk 33,'likewise of magnetic ma
Drive sprocket i I is keyed to shaft 88.
terial, is arranged adjacent driving disk‘ 3|. A
Upon depression of one of the push buttons 46
suitable magnetizing winding 34 is provided in
or IT, motor 30 and clutch 35 are energized to
the, clutch housing, and may be connected in
drive sprocket H through torque limiting device
either series or parallel circuit arrangement with
motor 30. Upon energization of winding 34,
driven disk 33 is simultaneously urged into mag
netic and frictional coaction with driving disk
40 and reduction gearing ‘45. Hook I5 is either
extended or retracted, dependent upon which
push button is operated. Upon hook l5 reaching
either limit of its movement, the torque exerted
3|, so that armature shaft 32 is effective to ro
by motor 30 willbe such as to cause movement
tate pinion 36 formed integrally with disk 33.
of plate 42 in one direction or the other. This
Upon deenergization of winding 34, a spring 3‘!
will accordingly open one of the switches 8| or
instantaneously snaps disk 33 into engagement 45 82 to deenerglze motor 30. Clutch 35 is cleaner
with a braking surface 38, to substantially in
stantaneously arrest motion of pinion 36 and ac
tuator 28 at the desired position.
gized simultaneously therewith, whereupon spring
31 snaps disk 33 into engagement with brake sur
face 38. This substantially instantaneously stops
Pinion 36 cooperates with torque limiting de
motion of sprocket I l.
_
vice 48. As shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4, pinion 36 50 The torque limiting device 48 avoids the use
meshes with a plurality of planetary gears 4i
of electric limit or stop switches which require
rotatably mounted on a movable mounting plate
skilled and accurate mounting and adjustment.
42. Pinions 43 are secured to gears 4i and mesh
Additionally, it insures foolproof operation of the
with an internal ring gear 44 rotatably mounted
mechanism with positive stopping‘thereof at the
on bearings46in a housing 41. A plate, 48 is 55 limits of operation, thus avoiding damage to the
provided to support the forward ends of the
apparatus. The electrical disconnection of the
shafts 5| on which gears 4| and pinions 43 are
motor 30 through the clutch 35, promptly me
mounted. Ring gear 44 is provided with a hub
chanically disconnects the stored rotative energy
52 terminating in a drive pinion 53.
of the motor armature from the actuator 28 in
Referring to Fig. 3, movable mounting mem 60 time to avoid breakage of mechanical components
ber 42 is provided with gear teeth 54 disposed
such as gearing by impact due to the hook l5
vadjacent an opening 55 in housing 41. Teeth 54
being drawn past its fully retracted or extended
mesh with teeth 56 of a sector 51. Sector 51 is
positions.
I
mounted on a sleeve 58, disposed on a longitudi
'
Should the electrical supply or the motor 30
nally adjustable shaft 60 mounted in one wall 65 fail, there is still an urgent need for extending
6| of a switch housing 62 secured to housing 41.
The opposite end of shaft 60 is mounted in an
upstanding ear 63 formed integrally with hous
‘the hook for landing operation.
For this reason,
the manual operating device 50 is provided to
extend the hook. This device is designed to sub
ing 62. A nut 64 is provided for adjusting shaft
stantially reduce the torque to be supplied by
'60 longitudinally, the shaft and the sector 51 70‘hand for extending the hook. Manual driving
being urged in one direction by a spring 65 en
device 50 is mounted in a bracket 81 secured to
gaging ear 63. Sector 51 is provided with spring
gear housing 92. Device 50 includes a cup
seats 66 and 61 which are engaged by springs 68
shaped bracket 98 secured to the forward wall of
and 18 respectively. The opposite ends of springs
the bracket 91. Bracket 88 supports a shaft I00
"68'and ‘I0 engage adjustable seats ‘H and 12, the 75 having a reduced portion IDI inserted in a sleeve
2,409,132
5
6
I02 set in recess 94. A boltr “'15v and lock nut
I06 are provided for proper adjustment of shaft
motor will cause arm 51 to move its roller 11
into engagement with push button 18. This will
move switch 8| to a position opening the circuit
I00. Fitted on shaft I00 with a driving ?t is
through motor 30. At the same time, switch 8|
a drum I01 provided with a helical groove I08
adapted to receive cable 26. A spring I I0 is se GI will engage a contact I34 closing a parallel cir
cuit for maintaining lighted a warning light I35
cured at one end to drum I01 and at its opposite
which indicates to the pilot that the hook is ex
end to a cup-shaped member Hi8 secured to
tended.
bracket 98 by pins I I0.
While a speci?c embodiment of the invention
Sprocket II is formed with a hub portion III
provided with ratchet teeth II2. A pawl II3 10 has been shown and described for the purpose of
illustrating the application of the principles
mounted on drum I01 has an end II4 normally
thereof, it will be obvious to those skilled in the
urged toward engagement with teeth H2 by a
art that the invention may be otherwise embodied
leaf spring H5. However, spring III) normally
without departing from such principles.
urges drum I01 to a position wherein a roller Hi I}
on the opposite end of pawl I I3 is engaged by a
What is claimed is:
l. Extending and retracting mechanism com
cam II‘I secured to the upper wall II8 of bracket
prising in combination a movable member; an
91. Cam II‘! is provided with a sloping surface
actuator operatively associated with said movable
I20 which engages roller I I5 and forces it against
member for extending and retracting the same;
a stop I2I. This moves end II4 of pawl H3 out
of engagement with teeth I I2.
20 a ratchet secured to said actuator; power drive
‘
means; a torque limiting device connected to said
One end of cable 26 extends through an aper
actuator; means effective upon energization of
ture I22 in drum I01 and has secured thereto a
said power drive means to connect the same to
stop I23. The other end of the cable extends
said torque limiting device to extend or retract
outwardly from bracket 91 to a position adjacent
said movable member, said torque limiting de
the pilot’s seat, as explained heretofore. When
vice having circuit means e?ective to deenergize
the pilot grasps grip 28 and pulls cable 28 out
said power drive means when the torque on said
wardly, drum I0‘! is rotated and spring III) is
actuator exceeds a preselected value; a reel; a
wound up. Such actuation of cable 26 moves the
bracket supporting said reel; a cable secured to
drum in a counter clock-wise direction. Upon
the start of such movement, pawl H3 is disen 30 said reel to rotate the same in one direction; a
grip secured to said cable; means urging said reel
gaged from cam II‘! and end II4 of the pawl
to rotate in the opposite direction to rewind said
engages teeth II2. This connects drum I01 to
cable thereon; means urging said pawl into en
sprocket II to move chain I4 in a direction to
gagement with said ratchet to interconnect said
extend hook I5. After a little less than one rev
reel and said actuator; and a cam secured to said
olution, pawl H3 engages the opposite side of
bracket and adapted to engage said pawl to re
cam II'I, stopping rotation of the drum. The
lease the same from said ratchet when said cable
pilot then releases cable 26 and spring IIO ro
tates drum I 01 back to its original position.
is rewound on said reel.
2‘. Extending and retracting mechanism com
During such reverse rotation, pawl I I3 slides over
teeth II2 leaving the sprocket II in its operated
prising in combination a movable member; an
position. The pilot again grasps grip 28 and
pulls cable 26 outwardly. This operation is re
peated until such time as hook I5 is fully ex
tended.
‘
A preferred control circuit arrangement for the
device of the present invention. is schematically,
illustrated in Fig. 7. As shown in this ?gure,
motor 30 is adapted to be energized through the
medium of push buttons I6 and I1. 015 these
push button I6 may be considered the “in” but- '
ton, and push button I‘! the “out" button. Upon
depression of button I6, its contacts close a cir
cuit through a relay I25. Relay I25, through its
upper armature I25, closes a circuit for motor 30
through torque limit switch 82 and motor ?eld
winding I21. Field I21 is so arranged that it
will cause motor 30 to operate in a, direction to
retract hook I5 into the fuselage of aircraft III.
actuator operatively associated with said movable
member for extending and retracting the same; a
ratchet secured to said actuator; an electric mo
tor; a torque limiting device connected to said
actuator; means effective upon energization of
said electric motor to connect the same to said
torque limiting device to extend or retract said
movable member, said torque limiting device
having circuit means e?ective to deenergize said
electric motor when the torque on said actuator
exceeds a preselected value; a reel; a bracket
supporting said reel; a cable secured to said reel
to rotate the same in one direction; a grip se
cured to said cable; means urging said reel to
rotate in the opposite direction to rewind said
cable thereon; means urging said pawl into en
gagement with said ratchet to interconnect said
reel and said actuator; and a cam secured to said
bracket and adapted to engage said pawl to re
When the hook has been fully retracted into the
aircraft, the increased torque exerted upon the 60 lease the same from said ratchet when said cable
motor will cause arm 51 to contact push button
80 and thus open switch 82. Push button I 5
need be depressed only momentarily, as relay I25
completes a holding circuit through its lower
armature I28.
Depression of “out” push button I‘! energizes a
relay I30 which attracts its armature I3I to ener
gize motor 36 through ?eld winding I32, in such
a direction as to cause hook !5 to be extended.
At the same time, relay I30 closes a holding cir
cuit for itself through its armature !33. A warn
ing light I35 is lighted to indicate extension of
hook I5. Motor 39 continues to operate until
the hook is substantially fully extended. At
such time, the increased torque exerted on the
is rewound on said reel.
3. Extending and retracting mechanism com
prising in combination a movable member; an
actuator operatively associated with said mov
able member for extending and retracting the
same; a ratchet secured to said actuator; an elec
trio motor; a torque limiting device connected to
said actuator; electromagnetic clutch means ef
fective upon energization of said electric motor
to connect the same to said torque limiting device
to extend or retract said movable member, said
torque limiting device having circuit means ef
fective todeenergize said electric motor when
the torque on said actuator exceeds a preselected
value; a reel; a bracket supporting said reel; a
2,409,132
7
cable secured to said reel to rotate the same in
one direction; a grip secured to said cable; means
urging said reel to rotate in the opposite direc
tion to rewind said cable thereon; means urging
said pawl into engagement with said ratchet to
to rewind said cable thereon; a pawl mounted on
said reel adjacent said ratchet; means urging
said pawl into engagement with said ratchet to
interconnect said reel and said one sprocket; and
interconnect said reel and said actuator; and a
cam secured to said bracket and adapted to en
gage said pawl to release the same from said
ratchet when said cable is rewound on said reel.
engage said pawl to release the same from said
ratchet when said cable is rewound on said reel.
'7. In combination, an aircraft having a fuse
4. An aircraft arresting gear operator compris
ing, in combination, a pair of sprockets; mech
anism interconnecting said sprockets; arresting
a cam secured to said bracket and adapted to
lage; a landing hook adapted to be extended from
10 and retracted into said fuselage; a ?rst sprocket
located adjacent the midsection of said fuselage;
a second sprocket located adjacent the rear sec
gear secured to said mechanism; a torque limit
tion of said fuselage; an endless chain engaging
ing device connected to one of said sprockets; a
said sprockets; means securing said hook to said
ratchet secured to said one sprocket; power drive 15 chain; a ratchet secured to said ?rst sprocket; an
means; clutch means effective upon energiza
electric motor; a torque limiting device connected
tion of said power drive means to connect the
to said first sprocket; clutch means effective upon
same to said torque limiting device to extend or
energization of said electric motor to connect the
retract said arresting gear; a reel; a bracket sup
same to said torque limiting device to extend or
porting said reel; a cable secured to said reel to
retract said landing hook; a reel; a bracket sup
rotate the same in one direction; a grip secured
porting said reel; a cable secured to said reel to
to said cable; means urging said reel to rotate in
rotate the same in one direction; a grip secured
the opposite direction to rewind said cable there~
to said cable; means urging said reel to rotate in‘
on; means urging said pawl into engagement
the opposite direction to rewind said cable
with said ratchet to interconnect said reel and
thereon; means urging said pawl into engage
said one sprocket; and a cam secured to said
ment with said ratchet to interconnect said reel
bracket and adapted to engage said pawl to
and said ?rst sprocket; and a cam secured to said
release the same from said ratchet when said
bracket and adapted to engage said pawl to re
cable is rewound on said reel.
lease the same from said ratchet when said cable
5. An aircraft landing hook operator compris 30 is rewound on said reel.
ing, in combination, a, pair of sprockets; endless
8. In combination, an aircraft having a fuse
means interconnecting said sprockets; a landing
lage; a landing hook adapted to be extended from
hook secured to said endless means; a torque lim
and retracted into said fuselage; a ?rst sprocket
iting device connected to one of said sprockets;
located adjacent the mid-section of said fuselage;
a ratchet secured to said sprocket; an electric
motor; electromagnetic clutch means effective
a second sprocket located adjacent the rear sec
tion of said fuselage; an endless chain engaging
upon energization of said electric motor to con
said sprockets; means securing said hook to said
nect the same to said torque limiting device to
chain; an electric motor; a torque limiting device
extend or retract said landing hook; a reel; a
connected to said ?rst sprocket; clutch means
bracket supporting said reel; a cable secured to 40 effective upon energization of said electric motor
said reel to rotate the same in One direction; a
to connect the same to said torque limiting de
grip secured to said cable; means urging said
vice to extend or retract said landing hook; a
reel to rotate in the opposite direction to rewind
reel; a bracket supporting said reel; a cable se
said cable thereon; means urging said pawl into
cured to said reel to rotate the same in one direc
engagement with said ratchet to interconnect
tion; ‘a grip secured to said cable; means urging
said reel and said one sprocket; and a cam se
said reel to rotate in the opposite direction to
cured to said bracket and adapted to engage said
rewind said cable thereon; a ratchet secured to
pawl to release the same from said ratchet when
said ?rst sprocket; a pawl mounted on said reel
said cable is rewound on said reel.
6. An aircraft landing hook operator compris 50 adjacent said ratchet; means urging said pawl
into engagement with said ratchet to intercon
ing, in combination, a pair of sprockets; a chain
interconnecting said sprockets; a landing hook
secured to said chain; a ratchet secured to one
.of said sprockets; reduction gearing connected to
nect said reel and said one sprocket; and a cam
secured to said bracket and adapted to engage
said pawl to disengage the same from said
ratchet.
said one sprocket; an electric motor; planetary
gearing, said planetary gearing including an ele
9. In combination, an aircraft having a fuse
lage; a landing hook adapted to be extended from
ment coupled to said reduction gearing, a mov
and retracted into said fuselage; a ?rst sprocket
able mounting plate and an element adapted to
located adjacent the mid-section of said fuse
be coupled to said electric motor; an electromag
netic clutch effective upon energization of said 60 lage; a second sprocket located adjacent the rear
section of said fuselage; an endless chain engag
electric motor to connect the same to said last
ing said sprockets; an electric motor; reduction
named element to extend or retract said landing
gearing connected to said one sprocket; plane
hook; a pair of switches interposed in the cir
tary gearing, said planetary gearing including an
cuit of said electric motor; an actuating member
element coupled to said reduction gearing, a
disposed in operative relation with said switches,
movable mounting plate and an element adapted
said actuating member being operable by said
to be coupled to said electric motor; means effec
mounting plate to selectively open said switches
tive upon energization of said electric motor to
to deenergize said electric motor and clutch when
connect said motor to said last named element; a
the torque of said motor exceeds a preselected
pair of switches interposed in the circuit of said
,value; means normally restraining movement of
electric motor; an actuating member disposed in
said mounting plate and said actuating member;
operative relation with said switches, said actuat
a reel; a bracket supporting said reel; a cable se
ing member being operable by said mounting
cured to said reel to rotate the same in one di
plate to selectively open said switches to deener
rection; a, grip secured to said cable; means urg
gize said electric motor when the torque of said
“in‘g said reel to rotate in the opposite direction ,
motor exceeds a preselected value; means nor
2,409,132
9
mally restraining movement of said mounting
plate and said actuating member; a reel; a
bracket supporting said reel; a cable secured to
said reel to rotate the same in one direction; a
grip secured to said cable; means urging said reel
to rotate in the opposite direction to rewind said
cable thereon; a ratchet secured to said ?rst
10
‘
sprocket; a pawl mounted on said reel adjacent
said ratchet; means urging said pawl into en
gagement with said ratchet to interconnect said
reel and said one sprocket; and a cam secured
to said bracket and adapted to engage said pawl
_ to disengage the same from said ratchet.
WILLIAM P. LEAR.
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