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8, 1946.
~
M_ G, LEONARD
2,409,135
BUOYANGY CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Aug, 5, 1944
7791
BY
_
@MZK
,
ATTORNEY
Patented Uct. 8, 1946
UNETED
2,409,135 ,
STATES
PATENT
OFFICE
\
2,409,135
BUOYANCY CONTROL SYSTEM
Merrill G. Leonard, Sharon, Pa., assignor to West
ìnghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application August 5, 1944, Serial No. 548,279
10 Claims.
(Cl. 114-20)
2
l
provided with a pigtail type of connection (not
shown), is mounted in the insulating member 1.
The inverted saucer-shape member and insulating
member ‘l provide a hermetic closure of the lower
end of the Sylphon bellows. Since the Sylphon
My invention relates to torpedoes, and more
particularly to a speed and depth control for the
exercise head of a torpedo.
`
`
The Government of the United States has been
granted a-certain royalty-free license for gov
ernmental purposes with respect to the invention
herein described.
Pitot tube type of speed indicating devices have
been known in the torpedo art, and other arts,
which devices have been used to control the elec
trical system of a torpedo.
- bellows is open to the sea water by virtue of the
central openings through the closure 4, the bot
tom contact is acted upon to'move vertically with
changes of pressure of the sea water acting within
the Sylphon bellows.
A suitable U-sh'aped bracket IIJ’ is riveted to
the top of the closure member 4 for pivotally hold
'
It is an object of my invention to provide a
ing the scoop le. This scoop has a link II pivot
single unitary structure for producing an effect
responsive both to speed and depth of a torpedo
ally secured to it at the left of the pivot for the
15 scoop, and the scoop, as shown, projects upwardly
or other vessel.
towards the left, that is, toward the front of the
exercise head of the torpedo. A suitable latch I2
is pivoted at the left on another U-shaped
bracket I2’ secured to the closure member 4, and
Another object of my invention is the provision
of controlling the operation of the exercise head
of a torpedo by means of a unitary speed and
depth relay.
Another object of my invention is the provision 20 this latch is also so disposed with reference to the
exercise head contour that water ñowing from
of a relay having switch contacts diiïerentially
left to rightV with reference to the head will tend to
acted upon by the pressure oi the iluid outside of
actuate the latch member in a clockwise direction.
the torpedo and the rate of now of the fluid with
The upper end of` the latch member projects
reference to the torpedo.
Other objects and advantages of my invention 25 through an opening I3 at the right-hand end of
the portion of the scoop acted upon by the water
will become readily apparent from a study of the
following specification and the accompanying
drawing, in which:
l
Figure 1 is a schematic showing of the exercise
head of a torpedo including an electrical system
of control shown diagrammatically,
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal sectional View of Aa speed
and depth relay with certain parts broken away
so as to hold the scoop in the position shown be
'fore the torpedo is i'ired. To the right of the i
pivot for the scoop I position a compression spring
30 I3' between the closure member li and the right
end or tail end oi the scoop so as to bias the scoop
for rotation about its pivot in a counterclockwise
direction. No counterclockwise direction of rota
tion is, however, effected while the latch I2 is in
~
Fig. 3 is a bottom view of the relay with the 35 the position shown. This is so because the latch
is provided with a cam portion I4 preventing theA
bottom closure removed.
latch member I2 from rotating in a counterclock:
Referring to Figs. l and 2, I designates the ex
wise direction.
ercise head of the torpedo, and 2 the mounting
Secured to the lower( surfacel of the closure(
ilang'e, which mounting flange vis welded to the
head to provide a hermetical seal between the up 40 member 4 is a dependingchannel member I5.
This channel member is provided with a trans
per inner >cont-our of the head and the suitably
verse pivot pin IB for receiving the bearing ears
shaped annular portions of the mounting nange.
I6’ of the L-shaped member I'I. A compression
The mounting flange has a ledge 3> which is
provided with an annular groove for receiving a 45 spring I3 is disposed between the vertical leg of
the `L-shaped member I‘I and the lower end of the
gasket of rubber or >neoprene or some other simi
depending channel member I5 to thus bias the
lar material. Disposed over this gasket is a cir
I_-shaped member for rotation in a clockwise di
cular closure member 4 held down by a plurality
rection. The horizontal' leg of the L-shaped
of screwsfl’. This closure member has a plurality
member ll ' carries a strip of insulation upon
of openings at the central region and to a cylin
drical shoulder portion disposed about the open 50 which is mounted a Contact I9. This contact, by
suitable pigtail connection (not shown), is con
ings is brazed or soldered the Sylphon bellows 5.
nected to the control circuit hereinafter’discussed
This Sylphon bellows has a lower inverted dish
more in detail. To calibrate my relay, the con
shaped closure 5 provided with a strip of insulat
tacts Q_ and I9 have to be properly spaced in re
ing material held against the bottom face thereof
to show the details of the relay; and
55
by screws 8 and a suitable electrical contactgS, _
lation to each other. >This adjustment is accom
2,409,135"
3
4.
plished by the screw 20 engaging the base of the
channel member I5 and the vertical leg of the
L-shaped member above the pivot I5. It is thus
apparent that by suitably positioning the screw
2U, the spacing between the contacts 9 and I9 may
be adjusted.
The Sylphon bellows is sealed hermetically
trols the sequence of operation of its contacts
4|, 42 and 43 in the order named.
If no emergency of any kind arises that should
require that the ballast fluid be expelled from
the exercise head before the end of the run, the
controller will in due time be actuated so that
the controller segment bridges contacts 4| and
y42, whereupon a circuit is established from junc
from the inner» space of the exercise head by a
tion 30, through the firing cap 44 of the high
housing 2l, so that no ballast liquid can get into
pressure carbon dioxide bottle 44', conductor 45,
the housing 2 i . A suitable conduit 22 is connect
contacts 42, 4I and 39 to junction 38. Operation
ed hermetically to the housing and this conduit
of the firing cap opens the valves 3T between
carries the electrical conductors connected to
the carbon dioxide iiask and the exercise head
contactsA 9 and I9 back to. that portion of the
and the carbon dioxide thereupon expels the bal
torpedo not filled with ballast fluid. It is thus
apparent that the gas pressure within housing 15 last fluid through valve 50 from the exercise head.
The timing of the controller is such that when
2l will be substantially atmospheric or the pres
the blow-off operation has been completed, con
sure maintained in the portion of the torpedo
tacts 4l and r‘43 are bridged by the controller seg
other than the exercise head.
ment, whereupon a circuit is established from
After the torpedo is fired and the torpedo moves
through the water on its own power, the speed 20 junction 3i), through conductor 46, the actuating
coil 47 of the stop relay 36, contacts 43, «El and
of the water acting on the scoop l0 will rotate
39 to junction S3. The operation of my system
the scoop IG in a clockwise direction about its
of control just described is the normal one.
pívot suiiiciently to release the latch member l2,
However, in the event of any emergency re
which thereupon rotates in a clockwise direction.
The forward or left-hand of the scoop is lifted 25 quiring that the ballast iiuid be removed from
the exercise head before the end of a run as, for
suf?ciently to release the upper end of the latch
instance, if the torpedo begins to sink or for
so that it now projects into the cutout portion 25
any reason has stopped moving through the wa
ofthe scoop. The scoop thereafter is thus free
ter, or both, my speed and pressure responsive
to rotate about its pivot, such rotation being, of
course, effected by the relative forces of the bi 30 relay closes the contacts 9 and i9, whereupon a
circuit is established from junction 30, through
asing spring and the force of the water flowing
the firing cap 4d, contacts 9 and i9 to junction
against the scoop. Since the link connected to
38. It is thus apparent that my special speed
the scoop is pivotally connected to the bottom
and depth relay provides for ease in recovery
closure of the Sylphon bellows, it will be noted
that the contact 9 is acted upon both by the 35 of the torpedo in the event the normal blow-oli
devices `do not function.
pressure of the iiuid outside of the exercise head
While ‘I have described and shown but one
and by the flow of the fluid with reference to the
embodiment of my speed and depth relay, in
torpedo. If the torpedo sinks below a certain
combination with a system of control, I am
depth, the pressure of the iiuid will bring con
tacts 9 and I9 into engagement. On the other 40 aware that others particularly after having had
the `beneiît of the teachings of my invention,
hand, if the torpedo stops for any reason, the
may probably readily devise devices -for similar
action of the scoop tending to move contact 9
purposes. I do not, therefore, wish to be limited
upwardly ceases and contacts 9 and IS are also
to the particular showing made but wish to be
engaged. It is, therefore, apparent that con
limited only by the scope of the claims herein
tacts 9 and IB are brought into engagement when
after appended.
either the torpedo is operating at too great a
I claim as my invention:
ì depth or is not moving through the water, or
v l. For the control of the exercise head of a
both.Y
torpedo vwhich is filled with a ballast liquid, as
To better understand my speed and depth relay
water, to balance the torpedo and to give it a
in Vrelation to its function of the torpedo head,
predetermined negative ,buoyancy and which ex
reference may be had to Fig. l, which shows so
ercise head is associated with a source of gas
much of the electrical control as is necessary to
under relatively high pressure for expelling the
know in-conjunction with certain of the opera
ballast liquid from the torpedo exercise head, in
tions of the head herein discussed. The torpedo
combination, a source of electric energy, electri
includes a number of elements other than those
cally actuated buoyancy control Vmeans for `con
shown in Fig. 1, but so far as my present inven
necting, the gas pressure ‘of the source of rela
tion is concerned, it suffices to show only so much
tively high'pressure, to the'V interior of the exer
ofthe electrical control and switches as enter
cise head ’to cause >the „expulsion 0i' lthe ballast
into, the function of my present contribution to
the art.
After the torpedo is fired, the gyro transfer
switch 32 through suitable intermediary mech
anism becomes closed. Closure of the gyro trans
fer switch establishes a circuit from junction 30
of the battery, through the over-speed switch 3l,
the gyro transfer switch 32, actuating coil 33 of
the motor starting switch 34, contacts 35 of the
stop relay 3€.to the junction 38 of the battery B.
Operation'of the motor starting switch closes
the contacts 39, whereupon the propulsion mo
tor M is energized and the torpedo is thereafter
propelled onits own power. A suitable controller
C’i‘s, 'through a reduction gear 40, connected to
the propulsion shaft of the motor and thus con
60
liquid .from the exercise head, electrically actu
ated timing means set in operation by the ñr
ing of the torpedo for causing the operation of
the buoyancy control means a predetermined
time after firing of the torpedo, switching means
65 for causing' the operation of said buoyancy con
trol means independent of the timing means,
and means responsive to both the pressure 'of the
water outside of the torpedo and the speed of the
torpedo with 'reference to the water outside of
70 the torpedo for `causing the operation of said
switching means.
`2. For the control of the exercise head of a
torpedo which is filled with a ballast liquid, as
water, 'to balance the torpedo and to give it a
75 predetermined negative buoyancy and which ex
¿license
'S
ing a connection, a fuse, and electric means foi’
ercise head is associated with a source of gas un
ñring the fuse, for .connecting the gas pressure
of thevsou'rce of relatively high pressure to the
der relatively high pressure for expelling the bal
last liquid from the torpedo exercise head, in
interior` of the exercise head tocause the expul
sion of the ballast liquid from the exercise head,
electricallyactuated timing means set ~in opera
tion` by the firing of the torpedo for causing the
tively high pressure to the interior of the exer
energization of said electric means for firing the
cise head to cause the expulsion of the ballast
fuse,which fuse, when caused to explode„opens
liquid from the exercise head, electrically actu
ated timing means set in operation by the fir 10 said connection of the gas under pressure to the
interior of the exercise head to thus cause the
in_g of the torpedo for causing the operation of
expulsion ofV the ballast liquid from the exercise
the buoyancy control means a predetermined time
head, and means responsive to the speed of the
after ñring of the torpedo, switching means -for.
torpedo with reference to the water forv causingr
causing the operation of said buoyancy control
means independent of the timing means, and 15 the energization of said electric means for ñring
the fuse. ,
i
.
means responsive to the pressure of the water
6. For the control of the exercise head of- a
outside of the torpedo for causing the operation
torpedo which is filled with a ballast liquid, as
of said switching means.
l
water, to balance vthe torpedo and to give it a
~ 3. For the control of ther exercise head of a
torpedo which is iìlled with a ballast liquid, as 20 predetermined negative buoyancy and which ex,
ercise head is associated with a source of gas
water, to balance the torpedo and 'to give it a
underlrelatively high pressure for expellingcthe
combination, a source of electric energy, electri
cally actuated buoyancy control means for con
necting the gas pressure of the source of rela
predetermined negative buoyance and which ex
ballast liquid from the torpedo exercise head, in
ercise head is associated with a sourceY of eas
under relatively high pressure for expelling the
ballast liquid from the torpedo exercise head, in »f
combination, buoyancy control means for con
necting the gas pressure of the source of rela
tively high pressure to the interior of the exer
cise head to cause the expulsion of the ballast
liquid from the head, said buoyancy control means .
including a conduit connection, electric means
combination, a source of electric energy, electri
cally actuated buoyancy control means for con
necting the gas pressure of the source of rela
tively high pressure to the interior of the exercise
head to cause the expulsion of the ballast liquid
from the exercisehead, saidbuoyancy control
means including a connection, a fuse, and elec
tric means connectible to said source for iiring
the fuse„electrically actuated timing means set
in
operation by the firing of the torpedo for caus
ing means for connecting the electric means to
ing the energization of said electric meansfor
a suitable source of electric energy, timing means
set- in operation by the ñring of the torpedo' for 35 firing the fuse, which fuse, when caused to ex,->
plode, opens said connection of the gas under
causing the operation of the switching means a
pressure to the interior of the exercise head to
predetermined time after firing of the torpedo,
thus cause the expulsion of the ballast liquid from
pressure responsive means for causing the op
the exercise head, means responsive both tothe
eration of said switching means independent of
the timing means, and means responsive to the 40 speed of the torpedo With reference to thewater
and the pressure outside of the torpedo to cause
speed of the torpedo> with reference to the Wa- the energization of said electricgmeansfor firing
ter for causing the operation of said switching
for opening said conduit connection, and switch
the fuse.
f
.
7. For the control of the exercise head of a
torpedo which is filled with a ballast liquid, as 45 torpedo which is ñlled with a ballast liquid, as
water, to balance the torpedo and to give it a
water, to balance the torpedo and to give it a
means.
’
l
4. For the control of the exercise head of a
predetermined negative buoyancy and which ex
predetermined negative buoyancy and which ex
ercise head is associated with a source of gas un
ercise head is associated with a source of gas
a fuse and electric means for igniting the fuse,
for connecting the gas pressure of the source of
control means for connecting the gas pressure
of the source of relatively high pressure of the
interior of the exercise head to cause the expul
under relatively high pressure for expellingthe
der relatively high pressure for expelling the bal
last liquid from the torpedo exercise head, in 50 ballast liquid therefrom, in combination, a source
of electric energy, electrically actuated buoyancy
combination, buoyancy control means, including
relatively high pressure to the interior of the
exercise head to cause the expulsion of the bal
last liquid from the exercise head, timing means
set in operation by the firing of the torpedo for
causing the energization of said electric means
for ñring the fuse, which fuse, when caused to
explode, opens a connection of the gas under pres
sure to the interior of the exercise head to thus
55
sion of the ballast liquid from said head, said
buoyancy control means including a connection,
a fuse, and electric means for ñring the fuse,
electrically actuated timing means set in opera
tion by the ñring of the torpedo for causing the
operation of the buoyancy control means a pre
determined time after the iiring of the torpedo,
biased movably mounted means for causing the
cause the expulsion of the ballast liquid from
energization of said electric means when moved to
the head, and means responsive to the pressure
a given position, pressure responsive means for
of the water outside of the torpedo for also caus
ing the energization of said electric means for 65 causing the biased movably mounted means to
-move toward said given position proportional to
firing the fuse.
the pressure of the water outside the torpedo,
5. For the control of the exercise head of a
speed responsive means also acting on said mov
torpedo which is ñlled with a ballast liquid, as
ably mounted means to cause the movement, of
water, to balance the torpedo and to give it a
said movably mounted means, away from said
predetermined negative buoyancy and which ex
given position proportional to the speed of the
ercise head is associated with a source of gas
torpedo
with reference to the Water.
under relatively high pressure for expelling the
8. With the exercise head of a torpedo which
ballast liquid from the torpedo exercise head, in
is filled with a ballast liquid, as water, to balance
combination, a source of electric energy, electri
the torpedo and to give it a predetermined nega
cally actuated buoyancy control means, includ
7
tive buoyancy 'and which exercise head is asso
water outside of the torpedo, said Sfylphon bel
ciated with a source of gas under relatively high>
pressure having a connection to the interior of
lows having an element movable with changes
of pressure of the water, a coupling between the
said head which connection, when opened causes
the expulsion of the ballast liquid therefrom and
scoop and the element to also cause movement of
the `filling of the said head with the gas from the
source of gas to give the torpedo a positive buoy
ancy, the combination of, means for opening the
connection .between the source of gas under pres
sure and the interior of the exercise head, said 10
water with reference to the torpedo, and means
acted upon by apredetermined movement of the
element for causing the opening of the connection
between the source of gas under pressure and
means including a pivotally mounted scoop nor
the element proportional to the Speed of the
the interior _of the exercise head.
l0. With the exercise head of a torpedo which
is ñlled with a ballast liquid, as water, to bal
face of the exercise head, latching means nor
-ance the torpedo and to give it a predetermined
mally holding the scoop- outwardly from the ex
negative buoyancy and which head is associated
ercise head so as to be acted upon by thespeed
with a source of gas under relatively high pres
of the water with reference to the torpedo, said
sure having a connection to the interior of the
latching means being also responsive to the speed
exercise head which connection, when opened,
of the water to release said scoop, a Sylphon bel
causes. the expulsion of the ballast liquid and the
lows acted upon by the pressure of the water out
filling of Vthe exercise head with the gas from
side of the torpedo, said Sylphon bellows hav 20 the source of gas to give the torpedo a positive
ing an element movable with changes of pres
buoyancy, the combination of, control means for
sure of the water, a coupling between the scoop
opening the connection between the source of gas
and the element to also cause movement of the
under pressure and the interior of the exercise
element proportional to the speed of the water
head, said means including a pivotally mounted
with reference to the torpedo, and means acted 25 scoop normally biased to be flush with the con
upon by >a, predetermined movement of the ele
tour surface of the exercise head, latching means
ment for causing the opening of the connection
normally holding the scoop outwardly from the
between the source of gas under pressure and
exercise head so as to be acted upon by the speed
the interior of the exercise head.
of the water with reference to the torpedo, said
9. With the exercise head of a torpedo which 30 latchingA means being also responsive to the
is ñlled with a ballast liquid, as water, to bal
speed of the water to release said scoop, a Syl
ance the torpedo and to give it a predetermined
phon bellows acted upon by the pressure of the
negative buoyancy and which head is associated
Water outsideV of the torpedo, said Sylphon bel
withv a source of gas under relatively high pres
lows having an element movable with changes
sure having a connection to the interior of the 35 of pressure of the water, la coupling between the
head which connection, when opened, causes the
scoop and the element to also cause movement
expulsion of the ballast liquid in the exercise
of the element proportional to the speed of the
head and the ñlling of the head with the gas
water with reference to the torpedo, means acted
from the source of gas to give the torpedo a posi
upon by a predetermined movement of the ele
tive buoyancy, the combination of, control means 40 ment for causing the opening of the connection
for opening the connection between the source
between the source »of gas under pressure and
of gas under pressure and the interior of the ex
the interior of the exercise head, and means for
ercise head, said means including a pivotally
adjusting the predetermined movement of said
mounted scoop normally biased to be flush with
element to thus calibrate or adjust, the control
the contour >surface of the exercise head, a Syl
means.
phon bellows acted upon by the pressure of the
MERRILL G. LEONARD.
mally biased to be flush with the contour sur
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