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Odd. 1946.
2,
H» D. RUSSELL ETAL
,153
'rnocnssme APPARATUS
Filed Nov. 30, 1943
2 Shasta-Sheet;
INVENTORS
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Patented Oct. 8, 1946
2,409,153
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,153
PROCESSING APPARATUS
Harold D. Russell and John I. Crabtree, Roch
ester, N. Y., assignors to Eastman Kodak Com
pany, Rochester, N. Y., a corporation of New
Jersey
Application November 30,1943, Serial No. 512,348
8 Claims.
1
This invention relates to photography and par
ticularly for a machine for processing photo
graphic light-sensitive material such as ?lm or
paper. One object of our invention is to provide
a portable processing machine in which material
maybe processed without the use of a darkroom.
Another object of our invention is to provide a
machine in which strip material may be processed
by suitable ?uids and a machine in which these
(CI. 95-94)
2
Coming now to the drawings wherein like ref
erence characters denote like parts throughout:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a processing appa
ratus constructed in accordance with and em
bodying a preferred form of our invention;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the apparatus shown
in Fig‘ 1 with the cover removed;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section through the tank
shown in the preceding ?gures, certain parts be
?uids can be retained in such a manner that the 10 ing shown in elevation;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged detail section taken
machine is capable of being inverted without spill
through one of the ?uid treatment compartments;
Fig. 5 is a section taken on line 5——5 of Fig. 1;
and
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary detail showing a modi
the ?uid treating compartments. Still another 15
?ed form of our invention.
object of our invention is to provide a machine
Our invention comprises broadly a processing
which is primarily intended for use in an airplane
apparatus in which strip material is led through
for processing ?lm taken therein and paper.
the apparatus about a number of guide rollers
Other objects will appear from the following
specification, the novel features being particu 20 and to a take-up roll, the guide rollers directing
the film through processing compartments de
larly pointed out in the claims at the end thereof.
signed to carry the required processing solutions
At the present time most of the more compact
into contact with the sensitized surface of the
type of processing machines for ?lm and paper
strip material. By properly selecting the solu
must be used with quantities of processing solu
tion and it is usually necessary to provide a mois 25 tions used the operation of developing and ?xing
or stabilizing can be carried out continuously and
ture-tight cover for a tank holding the solution
a roll of film can be passed through the machine
into which the material to be processed is placed.
and wound up on the take-up roll in a very short
Sometimes such tanks are provided with light
period of time.
tight drains or closures through which different
As indicated in Fig. 1, the machine may consist
solutions may be introduced, but in the machines. 30
of an elongated box-like member I which includes
known to applicants there is almost always pres
side walls 2 and a cover 3. As indicated in Fig. 3,
ent a quantity of solution which. must be prepared
the elongated box I may also include a bottom
and disposed of. This is very undesirable for
wall 4 and upwardly extending walls 5. 6, 1 and 3.
many purposes and particularly where sensitized
35 The walls 5 and 6, together with side walls 2,
material is to be processed in an airplane.
form a supply chamber 9 for a roll of material
In most known types of processing machines the
H), such as ?lm or paper. to be processed. The
developing and ?xing operations have been sep
chamber 9, if desired, may be rendered light tight
arately carried out either in di?erent tanks or by
by a cover H which may be drawn out for the
?owing the di?‘erent solutions into the same tank
and most processingr machines known to appli 40 insertion or removal of a roll of sensitized ma
terial which may be mounted on centering pins
cants are far too bulky to take up conveniently
in an airplane.
[2. only one of which is shown in Fig. 3.
From the supply chamber 9 the strip material
Our improved developing machine, while par
S may be led through an opening M which may be
ticularly adapted for use in airplanes, can of
course be conveniently used anywhere. It is de 45 rendered light tight of felt or plush l5, and into
the developing compartment I3. A pair of guide
signed, not only so that the complete machine
rollers l6 and I‘! are mounted in this chamber to
will be light and compact, but so that a roll of
hold the strip material S ?at against the bot
?lm or paper can be continuously drawn through
tom 4 of the developing compartment and the
the machine and wound up in a developed, ?xed
or stabilized condition as an operator turns a 50 rollers l6 and I‘! are preferably formed of real
or arti?cial sponge rubber. Viscose‘sponge mate
crank on the outside of the machine. The com
rial has been found very satisfactory.
plete operation can be carried out very rapidly
From the development compartment IS the ?lm
with our machine and with certain preferred
may be led into a ?xing compartment l8 over a
solutions the ?lm may be moved 4 to 8 feet per
55 guide roller l9 which may be a rigid or wooden
minute.
ing the solutions. Another object of our inven~
tion is to provide a processing machine in which it
is not necessary to provide a fluid-tight cover for
2,409,153
3
roller if desired. The strip material S then passes
under a pair of guide rolls 23 and 2I, these rolls
being preferably the
as the rolls I6 and IT
in that they are both made of soft. moisture ab
sorbing material such as real or arti?cial sponges.
From the ?xing compartment I3 the film is led
over a rigid roller 22 beneath a rubber squeegee
23 and is wound on a take-up shaft 2i‘- in a com
partment 25 which may. if desired, be openat
the end as shown in Fig. 3.
In each of the compartments I3.and .18 there
are similar sponge applicators 25 which include a
large block of sponge material 21. ‘This sponge
block carries a ?ber plate 28 and a'topplate 29
4
counterclockwise direction to assist movement of
the ?lm and to prevent small quantities of the
treatment solutions from being carried up and
out of their respective compartments. It will
be noticed from Fig. 4 that the sponge rollers
have their shafts positioned so that they are
somewhat, compressed against the bottom wall 4
of the processing apparatus. The reason for this
is that this compression squeezes out the treat
10‘ ment fluid from the rollers and tends to wipe the
il?lm‘ without permitting the treatment solution
to move out of the chamber. In fact, any small
'jquantity oftreatment fluid between the two sets
. of rollers I6 and IT or 20 to H is con?ned to the
space between .the rollers because these rollers
are not only compressed against the bottom 4
of the apparatus but each roller. as indicated in
,lifig- 5,.is also mounted to form a substantially
moisture-tight connection with the side walls 2
of the machine in the following manner. The
side walls 2 arerecessed and are provided with
‘cups 69 which may be of stainless steel or other
metal not affected by the processing solutions.
Since the rollers tightly ?t these cups and press
toward the bottom 4 of the compartment, little if
to which the sponge 21 is attached and a cam or
eccentric is provided for moving each sponge. In
the developing chamber I3 the'camw'ill‘is'v carried
by a shaft 3|, this shaft supporting a sprocket
32 which may be driven by a sprocket chain 33.
In the ?xing compartment the cam or eccentric
. 34 is. carried by a shaft 35 which supports a
sprocket 35 also driven by the chain 33. This
chain passes over a sprocket. 31 carried‘by a shaft
38 which turns the guide roller 23 in a clockwise
direction.
any moisture can leak out of the processing com
Thus the roller, Ziland the eccentrics or cams
partment‘ from between a pair of guide rollers
30 and 34v will all be turned together. 'E‘ach ap
such as I6 and IT.
plicating sponge 21 is moved in the same man
The sprocket 46 ‘is carried by the shaft 45
ner as follows. Each time the eccentric 30
. turns, the sponge block '25.is moved against the "30 which; in' turn, is keyed to the shaft 33 so that
the sprocket 3': carried thereby is turned with
direction of movement of the ?lm and the‘ sponge
.block-may be raised and lowered duringthis
the sprocket‘ 46. "Thus motion may be trans
mitted to the chain 33 from the chain 4'! so that
movement as indicated in Fig. 4 through the con
tact of the cam 33 with the ?ber block 28 and the
?ange 29. The sponge block, since it rests on the
strip material s, is normally carried along by the
the operator can move the ?lm through the ma
chine by turning the single handle 43.
'
'If desired the cover 3 may‘ be hingedly at
stripmaterial so that the ?ber block '28 will
tached at 62 to one of the side walls 2 and we
always remain in contact with the surface of the
prefer to provide latches 63 operable by handles
cam. As the ?lm is moved through each of the
fluid treatment chambers thesponge is stroked
backwardly and forwardly over the film so as to
apply an even layer of solution to the sensitized
surface of the strip material. Since it is neces
sary to move the strip material through the ma
chine the drive shown in Fig. 1 is employed, As
indicated by this ?gure, there is a handle 43 on
the end of a crank 4| which may be turned by
an operator to turn the shaft 42. A gear 43 on
64 to engage lugs 65 carried by the cover to hold
‘the cover in place.
With our apparatus, as above described, the
operation of developing a‘?lm or a strip of paper
' is extremely simple.
A roll or spool of the strip
material may be mounted on centering pins I2
45 in compartment 9 and the cover I I may be slid on
to make a light-tight connection after the end
of the ?lm has been thrust through the opening
I4 ‘and threaded about the various rollers, being
this shaft turns the gear 44 on shaft 45 so as
?nally attached to the take-up shaft‘ 24. It is
customary to provide either a separate leader
to turn the sprocket 46' in a clockwisedirection. ‘
This causes a chain 41 to move as indicated by
strip or a'leader for aerial‘?lm which is merely
the arrows in Fig. 1 so as to turn sprocket 48
a continuation of the sensitized strip and which
in a counterclockwise direction. Sprocket 48 is
may be dyed or otherwise rendered light tight.
carried by a shaft 49 which turns the sponge
Therefore, that portion of ?lm or paper which
threaded through the machine need not be pro
roller 2| in a counterclockwise direction. The
shaft 49 likewise carries a gear 5!] for turning
tected from light'during threading. The cover 3
the large gear 5! so that its shaft 52 may turn
.is then latched in place and the operator turns
the take-up shaft 24 on which the strip material
the handle 49 at the required speed. A pawl ‘I0
is wound after processing. The chain 41 passes
pivoted to the side wall at ‘H prevents movement
beneath an idler 53 and over a second idler 54
of ‘the handle in the wrong direction. The han
and also turns a sprocket 55 carried by a shaft
dle is turned and the ?lm moves slowly'lthrough
56. Shaft 55 turns the sponge roller IS in a
the apparatus which has been previously condi
clockwise direction.
tioned for processing by dipping the sponge of the
Chain 41 also passes over a sprocket 51 on
shaft 58, shaft 58 turning the sponge guide roller
I‘! in a counterclockwise direction.
It will be noticed from the above description
that the sponge rollers I5 and 20 positioned as
the ?lm enters the processing compartments turn
in a direction opposite to that of the movement
of the ?lm. The reason for this is that these
rollers may carry» a very small quantity of the
treatment ?uids into smooth and even contact
with the sensitized surface of the incoming ?lm.
The sponge rollers I’! and 2I both turn in a 75
"developing compartment ‘ I3 in the desired devel
oping solution and by dipping the sponge of the
?xing compartment I8 in the desired ?xing or
stabilizing solution. While both these sponges
‘are substantially'?lled with solution, the solu
‘tion does not flow in‘any’quantity from the
sponges as they are oscillated back and forth
against the moving strip material so that each
sponge applies an even layer of its solution to the
sensitized surface of the strip material in a suf
?cient quantity to process the material but not
in a sufficient quantity to permit a pool‘of so
2,409,158
6
lution which, for obvious reasons, is very unde
toward the bottom wall, power means for turn
sirable for use in an airplane. The, processed
?lm may be completely wound up on the take-up
shaft 24 and may then either be used in a, damp
condition at once or it may be passed through
a suitable drier and stored for future use.
It will be noticed that any small quantities
of solution which may tend to leave the develop
ment compartment l3 will be sopped up by the
ing the rollers in opposite directions whereby that
portion of the rollers pressing toward the bottom
wall may turn in a direction away from the'cen
ter of the compartment thereby tending to re
tain ?uid therein, a sponge, a carrier for the
spongemovably mounted in the compartment,
power means for moving the sponge and its car
rier whereby said sponge may apply a‘quantity
sponge roller I‘! and the same is true in the fix_ 10 of fluid to a film lying on the bottom of said
ing compartment 18 where the strip material must
pass partially around the compressed sponge»
compartment and pressed flat thereagainst by
said rollers, said rollers and sponge tending to
roller 2!. However, any minute amounts of
retain ?uid between the rollers.
solution may be ?nally squeegeed oil the surface
3. A fluid treating compartment for a machine
of the strip material by means of the rubber 15 for processing strip material comprising bottom,
squeegee 23 which normally presses toward the
side and end walls, one of said end walls constitut
solid guide roller 22.
ing a ?rst end wall and the other of the end walls
While we have described a preferred embodi
constituting a second end wall, a pair of resilient
merit of our invention it is obvious that changes
rollers, one mounted adjacent the first end wall
will readily occur to one skilled in the art. In 20 and the other mounted adjacent the second end
Fig. 6 we have shown a modified means of oscil
wall, both of said rollers pressing toward the bot
lating the sponge block 25, and in this instance
tom wall, a sponge movably mounted between
the sponge block may be positively moved in both
the rollers, power-operated means for moving the
directions. Here the sponge block I28 may be
rollers and sponge for causing the sponge to apply
provided with a sponge I21, A lug I28 may be 25 a quantity of solution to a ?lm stretched between
pivotally attached at 129 to a link I30 which in
said rollers and against the bottom of the com
turn may be pivotally attached to an eccentric
partment to con?ne solution to the compartment
pin I 3| carried by a disk I32 which may be at
and apply the solution evenly to the ?lm.
tached to a shaft I33. This shaft, like shaft M
4. In a machine for processing photographic
for instance, may be driven by the sprocket 32. 30 strip material the combination with a housing,
of Fig. 3. With this method of oscillating the
of a supply compartment, 8. development com
sponge block, it may be made to oscillate at any
partment, a ?xing compartment and a take-up
desired speed with respect to the speed of movecompartment arranged therein in end to end po
ment of the film since it does not rely on the ?lm
sition, a plurality of guide rollers for directing
the strip material through the compartments in
for moving it in one direction. A sponge 13 may
be provided in chamber 25 to catch possible drops
cluding pairs of resilient guide rollers in each
end of the development and ?xing compartments
of treatment solution.
Our processing apparatus, as can be seen from
and mounted adjacent the bottom of said corn
the above description, may be extremely compact
partments, a sponge block adapted to carry treat
and su?iciently light weight to be readily port 40 ment ?uids mounted in each of the developing
able so that an operator can rapidly process ?lm
and ?xing compartments, a drive means for mov
in an airplane. It is of course obvious that such
ing the pairs of guide rolls in the bottoms of the
developing and ?xing compartment, and means
processing apparatus may be equally useful for
also operable by the drive means for moving said
processing ?lms and papers wherever it is desir
able to have a compact, light and portable ma 45 sponge blocks when said guide rollers are moved
to stroke a treatment fluid carried by said sponges
chine suitable for use for daylight work.
evenly upon a strip of photographic material ly
We claim:
ing beneath the pairs of guide rollers and sponge
1. A ?uid treating compartment for a machine
blocks.
for processing strip material comprising bottom,
50
5. A combination according to claim 4, but
side and end walls, one of said end walls con
wherein the rollers of each pair of rollers in the
stituting a ?rst end wall and the other of the end
developing and ?xing compartments are rotated
walls constituting a second end wall, a pair of
in opposite directions away from the sponge block
resilient rollers, one mounted adjacent the first
lying between said rollers.
end wall and the other mounted adjacent the
6. A combination according to claim 4, but
second end wall, both of said rollers pressing to 55
ward the bottom wall, power means for turning
wherein the resilient rollers of each pair of rollers
the roller adjacent the ?rst end wall in a counter~
in the developing and ?xing chamber have sub
stantially ?uid tight engagement with the walls
clockwise direction and for turning the roller
adjacent the second end wall in a clockwise direc
of the developing and ?xing chambers to retain
tion, a sponge means movably mounted between .60 ?uid treatment solutions between said rollers
the rollers and driven by said power means for
therein.
turning the rollers for carrying aquantity of fluid
7. A combination according to claim 4, but
into contact with a strip of ?lm stretched between
wherein the resilient incoming roller of each pair
the rollers, said ?uid being con?ned to the ?lm
of rollers in the developing and ?xing chambers
between the rollers by the pressure of the re 65 is turned in a direction opposite to that in which
silient rollers against said ?lm and towards the
the strip material is moved to evenly spread
bottom of the treating compartment.
treatment ?uid leaking from the said sponge
2. A fluid treating compartment for a machine
block thereon before said strip material is en
for processing strip material comprising bot~
gaged by the sponge block.
tom, side and end walls, one of said end walls 70
8. A fluid treating compartment for a machine
constituting a ?rst end wall and the other of
for processing strip material passed through the
the end walls constituting a second end wall, a
compartment in one direction, said compartment
pair of resilient rollers, one mounted adjacent the
comprising bottom, side and a ?rst and second
?rst end wall and the other mounted adjacent
end wall, pairs of rollers spaced at the ends of
the second end wall, both of said rollers pressing 75 the bottom walls, one adjacent the ?rst end wall
12,409,153
8
H and the other adjacent the second end wall; strip
“?ned betweenethe rollers, the rollers both being
‘resilient andimountedlin the. compartment with
their ends compressed againstthe side Walls and
compressed against the. bottom wall or strip ma
, roller adjacentthe secondend Wall and over the 5 terial lying thereon to substantially prevent leak
age of the fluid from the?uid treating compart
second end wall, a movably mounted ?uid apply
ing device mounted-‘in the compartment and be
ment.
material entering the compartment over‘the ?rst
end wall and under the roller adjacent thereto
and passing from the compartment under the
. tween the rollers, power means for operating the
1 rollers and the movably mounted ?uid applying
zdevice whereby ‘the applied fluid'may' be con- 10
HAROLD D. RUSSELL.
JOHN I. CRABTREE.
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