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Oct. l5, 1946. v
R. c. ALLEN
GAS TURBINE SYSTEM
Filed April 10, 1942
26
2,409,176
Patenteci Üct. 15, 1946
2,409,176
STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,176
GAS TURBINE SYSTEM
Robert C. Allen, Wauwatosa, Wis., assignor to A1
lis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Mil
waukee, Wis., a corporation of Delaware
Application April 10, 1942, Serial No. 438,367
5 Claims.
(Cl. 60-35.6)
2
This invention relates generally to vehicle pro
pulsion and more particularly to propulsive jet
forming power units for aircraft and other types
of vehicles.
Jet propulsion uni-ts heretofore proposed em
bodying a gas turbine and a compressor driven
thereby are rendered impractical primarily be
vide an improved jet propulsion unit embodying a
propelling jet forming nozzle structure and a gas
turbine compressor combination correlated to
provide a compact light Weight unit which effi
ciently produces a high propulsive effort.
The invention accordingly'consists of the vari
ous features of construction, correlations of ele
cause of their extremely low operating efficien
ments and arrangements of parts as more fully
cies, andit is therefore the main object of this
set forth in the accompanying claims and in the
invention to provide in a propulsive jet forming 10 detailed description, in which:
power unit of this type, an improved correlation
The drawing illustrates a jet propulsion unit
of features affording a practical degree of op
v, embodying the invention.
erating efficiency. In accordance with this in
Referring to the drawing, it is seen that `a pro
vention, a practical degree of operating effi
pulsion jet forming power unit embodying the
ciency is obtained by combining the elements of 15 invention may include an axial compressor I
the unit (1) for operation with the highest per
having a forwardly facing inlet 2, an axial flow
missible turbine inlet temperature and a con
gas turbine 3 axially spaced from and drivingly
formingly high compression ratio, thereby devel
connected with the discharge end of the com
oping a maximum of excess power (i. e., power
pressor I by means of a hollow shaft 4 disposed
in addition to that required by the compressor)
within a tube B connecting the housings of the
under conditions effecting maximum thermal
elìciency and, (2) for eiîiciently utilizing the ex
cess power developed by the turbine to increase
adjacent turbine and compressor rotor bearings
1 and 8, respectively, an inner shell member 9
which surrounds the tube 6, an outer shell mem
the propulsive effort of the propelling jet or jets.
ber II having its rear portion surrounding and
Another object of this invention is to provide 25 forming with the casing of the turbine 3 an annu
an improved jet propulsion unit embodying a
propelling jet forming nozzle structure and a gas
turbine driven compressor combination correlated
lar passage I2 and having its forward portion
surrounding‘and forming with the inner shell
9 of an annular passage i3 which connects the
discharge end of the compressor I with the inlet
jet forming gas yand thereby a high propulsive 30 to the turbine 3 and with the passage l2, and a
effort under conditions effecting maximum ther
rearwardly flaring annular mixing and combus
mal eñiciency.
tion> tube I4 which is supported Within the pas
Still another object of this invention is to pro
sage I3 by means of circumferential series of
vide an improved jet propulsion unit embodying
radially extending struts designated I6 and I‘I
a gas turbine driven compressor combination cor
and which has disposed therein a plurality of
related to operate with maximum thermal eiì
fuel nozzles I8.
ciency, to utilize the excess power developed by
The forward end of the compressor rotor is
the turbine to materially increase the mass of
_supported in a bearing I9 which is in turn sup
jet forming gas, and to divide the large mass of
ported by the forward end of the compressor cas
jet forming gas between the turbine and a sur 40 ing by means of brackets or the like 2l. The
rounding passage eifective to provide concentric
'rear compressor bearing 8 is supported in a simi
propelling jets affording a high propulsive effort.
lar manner by brackets 22. The forward end
4Still another object of this invention is to pro
of the compressor rotor is provided with a shaft
vide in a jet propulsion unit an improved cor
portion which extends beyond the bearing I9
relation of features comprising ñuid compress 45 and carries a gear 23 meshed with a worm (not
ing means, a gas turbine drivingly connected
shown) on‘the transversely extending shaft 24
with the fluid compressing means, means forming
mounted for rotation in the gear box 26. 'I'he
a passage connecting the discharge of the fluid
exposed end of the shaft 24 is splined as indi
compressing means with the inlet to the turbine,
cated for connection with a starting prime mover
means for highly heating the ñuid fiowing 50 (not shown) . The forward end of the compressor
through the passage, propelling jet forming nozzle
rotor, gear 23, gear box 2B, and the exposed end
means, and means severally connecting the ex
of shaft 24 are enclosed in a casing member 21
haust of the turbine and the passage with the
which may be removably secured to the forward
nozzle means.
end of the compressor rotor and the struts 28
A further object of this invention is to pro 55 in order to afford ready access to the parts en
in a novel manner to produce a large mass of
2,409,176
3
closed therein.
The forward end of the com
4
ing the unit and the nozzle structure can be read
pressor casing and the member 2l coact and form
ily cooled to withstand the higher temperature
therebetween the annular inlet 2 for the com
pressor I.
thus produced, since it has no moving parts.
When considering the compressor, combustion
The forward bearing 1 of the turbine 3 is sup
ported within thc inner shell 9 by means of brack
chamber and gas turbine combination as an cx
ets or the like 29 which are formed integral with
or secured to the forward end of the turbine eas
ing.
The rear end of the turbine rotor is sup
ported by a bearing 3I which is inturn supported
in a similar manner to the bearing 'I by means
of brackets 32. The inner rear end of the tur
bine rotor and the bearing 3| are enclosed in a
casing member 33 which may be removably se
cured to the turbine casing and the struts 34 in
order to afford ready access to the parts enclosed
therein. The casing member 33 coacts with the
outer rear portion of the turbine casing and
forms therewith an annular nozzle portion 36
through which the turbine exhausts and which
is surrounded by the annular converging nozzle
portion 31 formed between the rear end portion
of the outer shell II and the outer rear end por
tion of the turbine casing. The rear end of the
outer shell extends beyond the rear end of the
ccss power developing unit, it must be borne in
mind that within practical temperature limits
the higher the turbine inlet temperature the
higher the thermal efhciency and that the high
er the turbine inlet temperature the higher the
compression ratio for maximum thermal elll
eiency. Consequently, it should be obvious that
in order to obtain maximum thermal efficiency
for such a combination, it is necessary to oper
ate under conditions effecting the highest per
missible turbine inlet temperature and a con- v
formingly high compression ratio, thereby devel
oping a maximum of excess power, and that in
order to obtain a high propulsive effort, it is nec
essary to efficiently utilize the excess power de
veloped by the turbine to increase the propulsive
effort of the propelling jet or jets. This result
is accomplished in the unit shown and described
`for purposes of illustration by employing a com
pressor designed to utilize all of the excess power
developed by the turbine in compressing addi
turbine 3 and forms with the casing member 33
tional air and by employing a dividing means
a rearwardly directed nozzle 38 into which the
nozzle portions 36 and 31 discharge. The outer
operative to conduct all of the additional air; i. e.,
air in excess of that required for operating the
front end of the turbine casing is braced within
the outer shell II by means of a circumferential 30 turbine under conditions effecting maximum
thermal efficiency, directly to the jet forming noz
series of struts 39 and is extended forwardly a
zle portion 38, thereby materially increasing (l)
material distance to provide in effect an annular,
dividing means 40 acting to apportion the fluid
the mass of compressed, and in this case highly
flowing rearward through the passage I3 between
heated, air available for the production of a pro
pulsive jet or jets, and (2) the propulsive effort.
the inlet to the turbine 3 and the passage I2.
The invention is applicable to all forms of jet
Stated differently, the outer shell II coacts (1) .
propelling power units embodying said combina
with the inner shell 9 to form therebetween a
tions and it should therefore be understood that
high temperature motive fluid passage I3 con
it is not intended to limit the invention to the
nected with the discharge of the compressor I,
and (2) with the turbine casing to form there 40 exact manner of combining and operating the
elements of the unit `as herein shown and de
with a surrounding passage I2 which connects
scribed, as various modifications within the scope
the passage I3 with the nozzle portion 31, thereby
of the appended claims may occur to persons
providing in effect means severally connecting the
skilled in the art.
nozzle 31 (also nozzle portion 38) and the tur
It is claimed and desired to secure by Letters
bine inlet with the high temperature motive fluid 45
Patent:
passage. In other words, the inner and outer
1. A jet propulsion unit comprising fluid com~
shells coact with each other and with the corn
pressing means having a forwardly facing inlet, a
pressor and turbine and form (l) a fluid heating
gas turbine axially spaced from and drivingly
passage means fthe passage I3 which includes the
mixing and combustion tube I4) connecting the 50 connected with the discharge end of said fluid
compressing means, an axially extending con
discharge of the compressor with the turbine in
duitV means interposed between and connecting
let. and f2) means comprising the passage I2,
the discharge end of said compressing means with
nozzle portion 31 and the nozzle portion 36 sev
the inlet to said turbine, means for highly heat
erally connecting the exhaust of the turbine and
ing the fluid flowing through said conduit means,
the heated passage with the nozzle portion 38.
propelling jet forming nozzle means, and means
In operation, the air discharged from the com
severally connecting the exhaust of said turbine
pressor I enters the passage I3 in which it is
and the passage formed by said conduit means
highly heated, preferably by the combustion of
with said nozzle means.
fuel therein as indicated, and the resulting mix
2. A jet propulsion unit comprising fluid com
ture of combustion gases and excess air is appor
pressing means having a forwardly facing inlet,
tioned between the turbine inlet and the passage
a gas turbine axially spaced from and drivingly
I2. The passage I2 terminates in a converging
connected with the discharge end of said fluid
nozzle portion 31 designed to maintain the de
compressing means, means forming an axially
sired pressure at the turbine inlet. 'VI‘he turbine
extending combustion chamber interposed be
exhausts through the annular nozzle portion 36
tween and connecting the discharge end of said
and the fluid in the passage I2 flows through
compressing means with the inlet to said turbine.
the surrounding nozzle 31 and is combined with
propelling jet forming nozzle means, and means
the exhaust from the turbine 3 in the continuing
severally connecting the exhaust of said turbine
nozzle portion 38. If a greater propulsive effect
is desired, the velocity' of the gas in the nozzle ” and said combustion chamber with said nozzle
means.
portion 38 can be readily increased by employ
3. A jet propulsion unit comprising fluid com
ing one or more auxiliary fuel burning nozzles 4I
pressing means having a forwardly facing inlet.
as indicated, since the gases contain sufficient
a gas turbine axially spaced from and drivingly
excess air to support combustion. The use of
connected with the discharge end of said fluid
auxiliary fuel nozzles is desirable for accelerat
2,409,176
5
compressing means, means forming a coaxial
passage connecting the discharge of said iluid
compressing means with the inletl to said turbine,
means for highly heating the fluid ñowing through
said passage, propelling jet forming nozzle means,
and means severally connecting the exhaust of
said turbine and said passage with said nozzle
means.
connecting the exhaust of said turbine and the
turbine inlet end of said passage with said nozzle
means.
'
5. A jet propulsion unit comprising an axial
compressor having a forwardly facing inlet, an
axial flow l‘gas turbine axially spaced from and
drivingly connected with the discharge end of
said compressor coaxial, rearwardly directed pro
peiling jet forming nozzle means connected with
4. A jet propulsion unit comprising fluid com
pressing means having a forwardly facing inlet, 10 the exhaust of said turbine, means'forming a co
axial annular combustìon chamber connected
a gas turbine axially spaced from and drivingly
with the discharge of said compressor, and means
connected with the discharge end of said iiuid
forming inner and outer coaxial annular pas
compressing means, means forming a coaxial
sages severally connecting the inlet to said. turbine
passage connecting the discharge of said fluid
and said nozzle f means with said combustion
compressing means with the inlet to said turbine,
chamber.
combustion apparatus in said passage. propelling
ROBERT C. ALLEN.
jet forming nozzle means, and means severally
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