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È.. E5,
î‘f’fîï
» R, C, ALLEN ETAL
JET PROPULS ION APPARATUS
Filed April 1, 1942
2,409,177
Patented Üct. i5, 1946
2,409,177
nutren STATI-:s PATENT oFFlcE
2,409,171
p
mr raorULsroN APPARATUS
Rohm c. Auen and .mm r. muslim, wau
watosa, Wis., assignors ' to Allis-Chahners
Manufacturing Company, lißlwaukce, Wis., a
corporation of Delaware
Application April l, 1342,` Serial No. 437,162
9 Claims. (Cl. Gil-35.6)
.
2
’
This invention relates generally to power de
charging the 'internal combustion engine. In fact,
veloping units and more particularly to the man
the addition of an engine driven propeller to such
ner of combining and operating a plurality of
combinations is necessary in order to render them
power developing units for the jet propulsion of
practical even at low speeds, but since the pro
aircraft and other types of vehicles.
peller eiilciency is extremely low at speeds capable
In this connection, dual jet propulsion units
of attainment by jet propulsion, the net result is
embodying gas turbine and internal combustion
a material reduction in propulsive eiliciency which
engine driven compressor combinations have here
renders the combination even more impractical
tofore been proposed and in one such combina
for high speed operation.
tion, a portion of the air delivered by the tur 10 It is therefore the primary object of this in
bme driven compressor is further compressed in
vention to provide an improved jet propulsion
the internal combustion engine driven compressor
unit by combining and operating a plurality of
and this additionally compressed ais:- together
power developing units in a manner affording a
with the exhaust gases from the engine is passed
practical degree of operating eiiiciency. In‘this
through the turbine and then expanded to at 15 connection, it is now established that the thermal
mosphere to provide a propelling jet while an
efficiency of a gas turbine is a function of com
additional propelling jet is provided by expand
pression ratio; that for a turbine inlet tempera
ing the unheated portion of the air delivered by
ture of 1500” F. or more, the compression ratio
the turbine driven compressor directly to atmos
should be at least tento one in order to obtain
phere. In another such combination, the air is 20 maximum thermal eiliciency; that a compressionl
ñrst compressed in the internal combustion en
ratio of ten to one is entirely too high to produce
gine driven compressor and a portion of the air
a high propulsive eñiciency jet by passing heated
is then heated and expanded to atmosphere to
or unheated compressed air directly to atmos
provide a propelling jet while the remainder of
phere through a. passage and nozzle structure
the air, which is to be used in supercharging the 25 having practical dimensions; that, if all of the
engine, is further compressed in a, turbine driven
air compressed to a ratio of ten .to one or more is
compressor operated by exhaust gases from the
passed through the turbine, it is necessary, in
engine and the exhaust from the turbine is ex'
order to prevent the unit from running away, to
panded to atmosphere to provide an additional
reduce the pressure drop in the turbine which
propelling jet. Generally, the entire propelling 30 results
in the pressure of the exhaust gases being
eñect is produced by the reaction eiîect of the
entirely too high to produce a high propulsive
jet or jets although in some instancesthe gas
eñ‘iciency jet for the speeds now deemed practical;
turbine or internal combustion engine is also
and that when employing a gas turbine, com
used to drive a conventional propeller.
bustion chamber and compressor combination as
These known combinations are rendered im 35 a power developing unit, means must be provided
practical for the jet propulsion of vehicles either
(l) by the use of high Velocity, and consequently
' low propulsive eñiciency jets (propulsive emciency
increases as the velocity ratio, i. e., the transla
for eñiciently utilizing the excess power developed
when operating under conditions eñective to pro
duce maximum thermal efficiency.
y
Accordingly, another object of this invention is
tional velocity of the vehicle divided by the ve 40 “to provideV an improved jet propulsion> unit em
locity of the propelling jet, approaches unity) or
bodying a plurality of combinations of gas turbine,
(2) by the weight factor, i. e., the quotient ob
combustion chamber and compressor correlated
tained by dividing the weight of the Vehicle by
in a. novel manner to effect maximum therm
the thrust horsepower developed, becoming ex
‘
cessive when theV capacity of internal combustion 45 and propulsive eiiiciencles.
engine driven compressor unit is increased suñi
ciently to suitably compress the large mass of
gas which is necessary in order to produce a. high
propulsive eñîciency' jet or jets. The gas turbine
'Still anotherobject of this invention is to pro
vide an-improved ljet `propulsion unit embodying
a lower pressure’ compressing means drivingly
connected with a combustion gas turbine, a high
as used in said known combinations constitutes 50 .pressure compressing means drivingly connected
means for emciently recovering a portion of the
with another combustion gas turbine, means in
energy present in the engine exhaust gases, but it
cluding combustion chambers connecting the in
añords little if any advantage with respect to the
lets of said turbines withV the high pressure com
formation of propulsive jets since all of the power
pressing means, and nozzle means connectedA to
developed by said turbine is required for super 55 receive the exhaust gases from. the turbines and
2,409,177
3
4
the airdischargedfrmnthelowruesure com
pressing means.
The invention accordingly consists of the
various features of construction, combinations of
elements and arrangements of paris as more fully
set forth in the appended claims and in the de
casing an annular compressor inlet passage 42.
The turbine 3 is supported within the rear end
portion of the outer shell’I by means of a cir
tailed description, inwhich the drawing illustratœ
' of a circumferential series of radially extending
struts 44. '111e rear end of the turbine rotor is
cumferentialseriesofradiallyextendingribsor
thelikedesignatedßandtheforwardbearing II
issupportedwithintheinnershellZbymeans
a dual jet propulsion unit embodying tlm invm
tion.
Referringtothedrawlng.itisseenthatthejet
10
supportedbyabearingßwhichisinturnsup
portedwithintheoutershell3bymeansof
a circumferential series of radially extending
struts 46. The rear end of the turbine rotor and
the bearing 45 are enclosed in a hollow conical
propulsion lmit comprises a. first coaxial com
bination
a high
axial oom
pressor |,innerandoutershells2 and3 delin
shaped casing member 41 which may be remov
ably attached to the struts 45 and the rotor cas
ing in order to provide for ready access to the
ing therebetween an annular passage 4 having
disposed therein a
flaring annular
mixing and combusüon tube 5, an annular struc
ture 6 which encloses the discharge end of the
compressor I and the adjacent end of the outer
portions enclosed thereby. The annular mixing
and combustion tube 5 which is supported within
the annular passage by axially spaced circum
shell -3 and forms therewith an annular mani
fold 1 into which the end of the shell 3 projects 20 ferential series of radially extending struts desig
nated 48 and 49, includes a circumferential series
and divides the air isuing from the compressor |
of fuel spraying nozzlœ 5l. If desired, the con
between the
4 and the manifold 1, an
nection between the outer shell 3 and the annular
Aaxialfiowgasturbinelreceivingamixtureoiîair
manifold forming structure i may be reinforced
and combustion gases from the
e 4 and be
u shown by a circumferential series of ribs 5I.
ing drivingly connected with the compressor I by
The forward end of the rotor of compressor
means ofahollowsha'ft! disposedwithinatube
l0 connecting the casings of the adjacent turbine
and compressor rotor supporting bearings desig
nated Il_and I2, respectively, and a rearwardly
directed jet-forming nozzle I3; a second coaxial 30
I4issupportedinabearing52 whichisinturn
supported from the compressor casing by means
gether adjacent the compreœor I4 and defining
of a circumferential series of struts 53. The
bearing 52 and the hub portion of the rotor are
enclosed in a. hollow conical-shaped casing mem
ber 54 which may be removably attached to the
adjacent end of the compressor casing and the
struts 53 in order to provide for ready access to
therebetween an annular passage I3 which is
closed at its forward end and which has sup
the portions enclosed thereby and which forms
with the outer forwardly extending portion of
ported therein, by means of radially extending
struts I5 and 2l, a rearwardly ñaring annular
mixing and combustion tube I3 provided with a
circumferential series of fuel nozzles, an axial
flow gas turbine 2| having its inlet
the compressor casing an annular compressor in
let passage 56. The turbine 2| is supported in
the rear end portion of the shell I1 by means of
combination embodying a low preSure axial com
pressor I4, an inner shell I6 and a surrounding
shell I1 having their forward ends joined to- Y
to the rear end ofthe -~: v: :
ingly connected with the compresor I4 by means
of a hollow shaft 22 disposed within a tube 23
connecting the casings of the adjacent turbine
and compressor rotor supporting bearings desig
nated 24 and 25, respectively, a rearwardly di
rected jet forming nozzle 21 through which the
radiallyextendingribsorthelike 51 andthe for
ward bearing is supported by a circumferential
series of radially extending struts 53 which ex
tend through the inner shell I5 and are secured
to the inner surface of the shell I1~ The rear
end of the turbine rotor is supported by a bear
ing 59 which is in turn supported within the shell
I1 by means of a circumferential series of struts
5I. Therearendsoftheshells I1and23 are
maintained in spaced nozzle forming relation by
turbine 2| exhausts, and an outer open ended
shell 28 which surrounds the shell 21 and forms 50 means of a circumferential sexies of struts 62.
Therearendoftheturbinerotorandthe bear
therewith an annular pesage 25, which reœives
ing 59 are enclosed in a conical-shaped casing
the air discharged from the compresor I4. an
member 53 which may be removably attached to
annular rearwardly directed jet forming nozzle
the turbine casing and the struts 5| in order to
3| which surrozmds the nozzle 21; and a cross
over duct 32 which includes a valve 33, connect 55 provide for ready access to the portions enclosed
ingthemanifold1withtheforwardendofthe thereby and form with the rear end portion of the
shell I1, the annular nozzle 21 through which
passage I3.
Theforwardendoftherotorofcompresorlis
supportedinabearinguwhlchisìnturnsup
ported from compresor oasingby means of a cir
cumferentialseriesofstruts 3i. Tbeforwardend
oftherotorisextendedbeyondthebearing'“
the turbine exhausts.
The unit is started by closing the valve 33, con
necting a starting prime mover to the shaft 33,
and rotating the compressor and turbine and si
multaneously combusting fuel delivered through
and provided withawormgearn which meshes
the nozzles 5l, keeping the valve 33 closed. until
the lmit comprising the compressor I and turbine
withthe worm (notshown) onashaft33dis
3 is self-operating, whereupon the starting motor
posedwithinthegearboxß. Theexposedend
oftheshaftuissplinedasindlcatcdforestab
is disconnected, the valve 33 opened and the unit
comprising the compressor I4 and turbine 2|
lishingad?vingconnectionwithastartingprime
started by introducing fuel through the nozzles
mover (notshown). Thebearlng34,gear31and
25 and gradually increasing the fuel supply until
gearboxßareenclosedinahollowconieal
shaped casingmunberllwhichmayberemov 70 self-operation is obtained. During normal opera
tion, the air discharged from the compressor I,
ably attachedtotheadjacentendoftheoom
pressorœsingandtothestrutsäinanysuit
ablemannerinordertoprovideforreadyaccoss
tolthe enclosedpartsandwhich formswithouter
forwardlyportionsofthecompressor
which is compressed to a suflicient degree to pro
duce maximum thermal eiñciency, is divided by
the forward end portion of the shell 3 into two
'l5 streams, one of which flows through the passage
2,409,177
ä, the turbine 8 and the nozzle I3 and the other
of which flows through the crossover duct 32, the
passage i8, the turbine 2| and the nozzle 2ï. The
air discharged from the compressor I4 is compressed to a much lesser degree than that dis
charged from the compressor i and only sunl
ciently to produce a high propulsive emciency
J'et by passing the air directly to atmosphere
bine, another> jet forming nozzle structure receiv
ing the exhaust gases from said otherr turbine,
and means forming a passage for conducting the
air discharged from said low Vpressure compress
ing means to said other nozzle structure.
4. A j et propulsion unit comprising a high pres
sure compressing means, a gas turbine axially
spaced from and drivingly connected with said
through a passage and nozzle structure having
high pressure compressing means, passage form- _
practical dimensions, such for example, as the 10 ing means disposed between and connecting the
passage 29 and nozzle 3i. All of the air dis
discharge of said high pressure compressing
charged from the compressor IQ hows through
means with the inlet to said turbine, said passage
the passage 29 and nozzle 3| and produces a high
forming means including a combustion chamber.
propulsive efficiency jet. The compressor l has
a jet forming nozzle structure receiving the ex
suilicient capacity to meet the requirements of 15 haust gases from said turbine, a low pressure com
the turbines 8 and 2l and to eñiciently utilize all
pressing means, another gas turbine drivingly
of the excess power developed by the turbine 8
connected with said low pressure compressing
and the compressor I4 has suñ‘lcient capacity to
means, means >including another combustion
eiiiciently utilize all of the power developed by the
chamber connecting the discharge of said high
turbine 2l. The manner of combining and oper 20 pressure compressing means with the inlet to
ating a plurality of combustion turbine units in
said other turbine, another jet forming nozzle
accordance' with this invention provides means
structure receiving the exhaust gases from said
for eilìciently utilizing the excess power developed
other turbine, and means forming a passage for
by the turbines and in addition enables each
conducting the air discharged from said low pres~
plant to be operated at all times under conditions 25 sure compressing means to said other nozzle
producing maximum thermal and propulsive eni
structure.
ciencies.
,
5. A jet propulsion unit comprising a high pres
The invention is applicable generally to the jet
sure compressing means, a gas turbine axially
propulsion of vehicles embodying a plurality of
spaced from and drivingly connected with said
combustion turbine power developing units, and 30 high pressure compressing means, passage form
it should therefore be understood that it is not
ing means defining a combustion chamber dis
desired to limit the invention to the exact de
posed between and connecting the discharge of
tails of operation and construction herein shown
said high pressure compressing means with the
and described as various modifications within the
scope of the appended claims may occur to per 35 inlet to said turbine, a jet forming nozzle struc
ture receiving the exhaust gases from said tur
sons skilled in the art.
bine, a low pressure compressing means, another
It is claimed and desired to secure by Letters
gas turbine axially spaced from and drivingly
Patent:
A
connected
with said low pressure compressing
1. A jet propulsion unit comprising a high
pressure compressing means, a gas turbine driv 40 means, additional passage forming means, in
cluding another combustion chamber disposed be
ingly connected with said high pressure com
tween
said low pressure compressing means and
pressing means, a low pressure compressing
said other turbine, connecting the discharge of
means, another gas turbine drivingly connected
said high pressure compressing means with the
with said low pressure compressing means, means
inlet to said other turbine, another jet forming
including combustion chambers connecting the 45 nozzle structure receiving the exhaust gases from
discharge of said high pressure compressing
said other turbine, and means forming a passage
means with the inlets of said turbines, and jet
for conducting the air discharged from said low
forming nozzle means receiving the exhaust gases
pressure compressing means to said other nozzle
from said turbines and the air discharged from
structure.
_
said low pressure compressing means.
50
6. A jet propulsion unit comprising a high pres
2. A jet propulsion unit comprising a high pres
sure compressing means, a gas turbine axially
sure compressing means, a gas turbine drivingly
spaced from and drivingly connected with said
connected with said high pressure compressing
high pressure compressing means, passage form
means, a low pressure compressing means, an
ing means defining an annular combustion cham
other gas turb‘ine drivingly connected with said 55 ber disposed in coaxial relation between and con
low pressure compressing means, means including
necting the discharge of said high pressure com..
combustion chambers connecting the discharge
pressing means with the inlet to said turbine, a
of said high pressure compressing means with the
coaxial jet forming nozzle structure receiving the
inlets of said turbines, a jet forming nozzle struc
exhaust gases from said turbine, a low pressure
ture receiving the exhaust gases from said tur 60 compressing means, another gas turbine axially
bine, another jet forming nozzle structure receiv
spaced from and drivingly connected with said
ing the exhaust gases from said other turbine,
low pressure compressing means, additional pas
and means forming a passage for conducting the
sage forming means, including another` annular
air discharged from said low pressure compress
combustion chamber disposed in coaxial relation
ing means to one of said nozzle structures.
65 between said low pressure compressing means and
3. A jet propulsion unit comprising a high pres
said other turbine, connecting the discharge of
sure compressing means, a gas turbine drivingly
said high pressure compressing means with the
connected with said high pressure compressing
inlet to said other turbine, another coaxialjet
means, a low pressure compressing means, an
forming nozzle structure receiving the exhaust
other gas turbine drivingly connected with said 70 gases from said other turbine, and means form
low pressure compressing means, means including
ing a passage surrounding said other combustion
combustion chambers connecting the discharge
chamber and turbine for conducting the air dis
of said high pressure compressing means with the
charged from said low pressure compressing
inlets of said turbines, a jet forming nozzle struc
means to said other nozzle structure.
i
ture receiving the exhaust gases from said tur 75 7. A jet propulsion unit comprising a high pres
2,409,177
8
connecting the discharge of said high pressure
combination of low pressure compressing means,
another combustion chamber, another gas tur
bine receiving exhaust gases from said other
combustion chamber and being drivîngly con
nected with said low pressure compressing means,
and another :let forming nozzle structure receiv..
compressor with the inlet to said turbine, a co
ing exhaust gases from said other turbine, pas
axial jet forming nozzle structure receiving the
exhaust gases from said turbine, a low pressure
axial compressor, another gas turbine axially
spaced from and drivingly connected with said
sage means connecting said other combustion
sure axial compressor, an axial ilow gas turbine
axially spaced from and drivlngly connected with
said high pressure compressing means, passage
forming means denning an annular combustion
chamber disposed in coaxial relation between and
chamber to receive air discharged from said high
pressure compressing means; and means forming
a passage for conducting the air discharged from
said low pressure compressing means to said other
low pressure compressor. additional passage form
nozzle structure.
ing means, including another annular combus
9. A Jet propulsion unit comprising a. first co
tion chamber disposed in coaxial relation be
tween said low pressure compressor and said 15 axial combìnation of high pressure' compressing
means, a combustion chamber receiving air from
other turbine, connecting the discharge of said
said compressing means, a gas turbine receiving
high pressure compressor with the inlet to said
gases from said combustion chamber and being
other turbine, another coaxial Jet forming noz
drivingly connected with said compressing means;
zle structure receiving the exhaust gases from
said other turbine, and means forming a passage 20 a second coaxial combination of low pressure com
surrounding said other combustion chamber and
turbine for conducting the air discharged from
said 'low pressure compressor to said other nozzle
structure.
'
`
pressing means, another combustion chamber,
another gas turbine receiving exhaust gases from
said other combustion chamber and being driv~
ingly connected with said low pressure compress
8. A jet propulsion unit comprising a first co 25 ing means, passage means connecting said other
combustion chamber to receive air discharged
axial combination of high pressure compressing
from said high pressure compressing means; and
means, a combustion chamber receiving air from
jet forming nozzle means receiving the exhaust
said compressing means, a gas turbine receiving
gases from said turbines and the air discharged
gases from said combustion chamber and .being
drivingly connected with said compressing means, 30 from said 10W pressure compressing means.
ROBERT C. ALLEN.
' and a jet forming nozzle structure receiving ex
JOHN T. RE'I'I‘ALIATA.
haust gases from said turbine; a second coaxial
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