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A. E. ANDERSON 2,409,179 ELECTRON BEAM RELAY Filed Dec. 5, 1941 V / / /\\////// ///// ///// / l3 // 3 Sheets-Shea_t l ////// /// //l ////////1 REfARD/NG FIELD” L’ - F/ G. l I" - m‘?é’ii‘ih 1am INVENTOR BYAEANDERSON ' VWM A TTORNEY A. E. ANDERSON 2,409,179 ELECTRON BEAM RELAY Filed ‘D60. 5, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 rmvsvznss . MAGNETIC r1540 @ FIG. 4 4/ IN VEN T0,‘? v BYAE. ANDERSON ATTURNEV A E A N D E R 50 N 2,42,69,17 ELECTRON BEAM RELAY Filed Dec. 5, 1.941 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 lNl/EN TOR By A. E. ANDERSON ATTORNE V Patented Oct. 15, 1946 2,409,179 I UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,409,179 ELECTRON BEAM RELAY Alva Eugene Anderson, New York, N. Y., assignor to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application December 5, 1941, Serial No. 421,736 2 Claims. (Cl. 315-5) 1 2 This invention relates to ampli?ers, oscil lators, harmonic generators, detectors and the onator depends upon their geometric relation ship or relative position. The coupling is in gen eral varied by any relative motion between the like, especially for operation at ultra-high fre beam and the resonator. By varying the cou quencies, and relates more particularly to de vices involving energy interchanges between a 5 pling at a rate corresponding to the resonant frequency of the resonating chamber, the beam is enabled to energize the electromagnetic ?eld beam of moving charged particles, for example electrons, and hollow bodies resonant to elec in the resonator. In accordance with one em ' bodiment of the invention the desired de?ection An object of the invention is to avoid energy losses caused by the beam striking the walls of 10 of the beam is secured by ?rst impressing a suc tromagnetic waves. cession of velocity variations upon the particles in the beam and then directing the beam at an the resonating chamber. Another object of the invention is to abstract angle into a substantially constant direct cur energy from a velocity varied stream of charged particles without the necessity of ?rst develop ing electron density variations. rent electric ?eld thereby causing the particles 15 to travel in trajectories of different curvatures A feature of the invention is the use of vari able de?ection of an electron beam for the pur pose of systematically altering the magnetic cou pling between the beam considered as a current and the conductive wall of an associated inter effecting a suitable lateral motion of the beam. radial vibration of a rotating beam in the vicin ity of an annular aperture in a toroidal resonator. A still further feature resides in the use of electrodes, in one case resembling in appearance of the system shown in Fig. "l; and operation of the system of Fig. '7. tern having an electric component which varies beam may be given successively varying velocities Various other more or less conventional ar rangements may also be employed to secure the desired de?ection. The invention is described in greater detail hereinafter in reference to a number of embodi nally resonant hollow body. ments illustrated in the accompanying draw Another feature is the variation of such cou-~ ings while the scope of the invention is indicated pling by axial variation of the focal point of a in the appended claims. focussed electron beam. Another feature is the de?ection of an electron 25 In the drawings: Fig. 1 is a diagram useful in explaining certain beam with respect to a normal or initial posi tion of symmetry with reference to the electric embodiments of the invention; Figs. 2 to 7, inclusive, illustrate a variety of ?eld pattern associated with a resonator for the purpose of harmonic wave generation. embodiments of the invention; A further feature is harmonic generation by 30 Fig. 8 is a fragmentary view of a ‘component ' Fig. 9 is a diagram useful in explaining the - In Fig. 1 there is shown an electron gun l0 a pair of toothed gears in juxtaposition, for im 35 arranged to direct a beam of electrons across a gap H in a resonating chamber l2. Directed at parting a radial vibration to a rotating electron an angle to the path of the electron beam there beam. ' is maintained a steady direct current electric The harmonic generating system disclosed field as, for example, by means of a negatively herein employing radial vibration of a rotating beam is claimed in my copending application Se 40 charged plate I3, causing the electron path to follow a substantially parabolic course indicated rial No. 506,928, ?led October 20, 1943, assigned by a dot-dash line l4. A second resonator I5 is to the same assignee as the present application. placed in the path of the electron beam so that In accordance with the invention a beam of a gap l6 therein is traversed by the beam sub moving charged particles is directed into the immediate vicinity of a gap in a hollow resonator, 45 stantially perpendicular to a pair of electrodes l1 and is which constitute the gap. 'By exci the region adjacent to the gap being character tation of the resonator l2 the electrons of the ized by a standing electromagnetic wave pat as they pass ‘through the gap II. The faster of the magnetic coupling established between the 50 electrons will then penetrate further into the materially from point to point. The magnitude beam considered as a current and the conductors retarding ?eld and so follow paths such as one constituting the boundary of the resonator is a function of the geometry of the system. In other words, the magnitude of the energy inter change effective between the beam and the res 55 represented by the dot-dash line IS. The slower electrons will follow paths such as one repre sented at 20. The geometry of the system is evi dently such that velocity variation of the beam 3 2,409,179 4 results in a movement of the beam with respect to the resonator l5 as indicated by the di?erent positions of the curves l4, l9 and 20 spread out transversely of the gap l6. Assuming some initial electromagnetic dis turbance in the resonator l5, such as will gener ally occur spontaneously, any non-uniformity in the slower electrons being de?ected to a greater extent than the faster ones, as explained in con nection with Fig. l. The de?ected beam in pass ing through the gap in the resonator 26 is variably coupled with the conductive boundary of the resonator 26, causing an alternating electromag netic wave to be set up and resonated in the cavity the intensity of the electric ?eld between various points along the gap I6 will give rise to a varia tion in the amount of energy transferred to the of the resonator 26 from which energy may be Ill field per electron, depending upon the position of the electron path transversely of the gap I6. Variations in the energy transferred to the res onator will result in ?uctuations in the charges present upon the electrodes I1 and I8. ' If the ?uctuations occur at the resonant frequency of the resonator it is evident that energy will be ab stracted from the electron beam to maintain the electromagnetic oscillations in the resonator. From another viewpoint the magnetic coupling between the electron beam considered as a cur rent and the conductors forming the walls of the resonator, depends upon the geometry of the ar rangement and, in particular, depends upon the taken off through the coupling 28. Fig. 3 shows an arrangement generally similar to that of Fig. 2. However, instead of the electron gun 2|, producing a single pencil or beam of elec trons, a gun” is provided having an annular cathode producing a tubular beam of electrons indicated in section by dot-dash lines 34 and 35. Input and output resonators, 36 and 31, respec tively, are provided each having an annular gap through which the electron beam passes. Be tween the resonators 36 and 31 is mounted a hol low cylindrical electrode 38 to which a de?ecting potential may be applied. The application of the de?ecting potential in the arrangement of Fig. 3 causes the tubular beam to increase or decrease in radius thereby moving radially with respect to position in the gap l6 which the electron beam the annular gap in the resonator 31. A collector occupies at a given‘ time. In general, any gap be electrode 39 is provided, which may advanta tween electrodes will entail some non-uniformity geously include an annular groove into which the of the electric ?eld and hence by moving an elec tubular beam may enter, the sides of the groove tron beam about in the vicinity of a gap in a res serving to intercept and absorb secondary elec onator it is usually possible to vary the magnetic 30 trons produced by the impact of the beam against coupling ‘and hence to establish alternating elec the electrode. A source 60 of control potentials tromotive forces in the conductors of the reso may be inserted in the connections to the de?ect nator. ing electrode 38 for superimposing a modulation Fig. 2 shows a practical embodiment of an ar or control eifect. For example, the source 60 may supply audio or video signals which will modulate a carrier wave generated in the resonator 31. electron gun 2| is mounted within one end por Or, the source 60 may supply an automatic vol tion of an evacuated envelope 22, Within the ume control potential derived in well-known opposite end portion of the envelope is provided manner, for example from the output of the res a collector electrode 23. Between the gun 2 l' and onator 31. collector 23 are arranged in succession an input The system of Fig. 3 may be operated to gen cavity resonator 24, an electrode 25 for providing erate, the carrier wave either by means of the a de?ecting potential and an output cavity res variable electron coupling principle as in the sys onator 26. If desired, the arrangement may be tem of Fig. 2, or by virtue of electron bunching accommodated to a straight-walled cylindrical 45 occurring while the electron stream traverses the envelope by setting the electron gun 2| and col space enclosed by the electrode 38. In either lector 23 at an angle to the axis of the envelope case, the coupling may be varied by means of as shown, and providing apertured electrodes in source 60. Adjustment of a suitable initial bias the resonating cavities 24 and 26 in alignment potential, either positive or negative, may be ef with the direct and re?ected portions of the elec 50 fected by means of a potentiometer arrangement rangement operable upon the principle which has been explained with reference to Fig. 1. An tron beam, respectively. Coupling devices 21 and 28 may be employed as input and output connec tions respectively and may be connected together if desired to provide feedback when the device is 6i, to de?ect the electron stream initially either outwardly or inwardly to any desired extent. Various speci?c arrangements for de?ecting the electron beam will occur to those skilled in to be employed either as an oscillator or as a re 55 the art, two examples being shown in Figs. 4 and generative ampli?er. The resonators 24 and 26 5, respectively. Fig. 4 illustrates the use of a and the collector 23 may be provided with elec transverse magnetic ?eld for de?ecting an elec tron accelerating potentials from a battery 29. tron beam. The ?eld may be maintained by‘ The cathode of the electron gun 2| may be heated magnetic coils 40 and 4| suitably energized and by energy from a battery 30 and the de?ecting 60 mounted outside the envelope enclosing the elec potential for the electrode 25 may be provided tron beam. Fig. 5 shows the use of electrostatic by a battery 3|. Other suitable sources of poten de?ection plates 42 and 43 mounted inside the tials may of course be substituted for any of the envelope and effective to deflect an electron batteries illustrated herein. beam passing therebetween. While in the ar In the operation of the arrangement of Fig. 2 rangement of Fig. 4 the de?ection of the beam is as an ampli?er, the resonators 24 and 26 may be to be made variable as in the preceding arrange tuned to the desired operating frequency to res ments by velocity variation effected by a reso onate with a wave to be ampli?ed, the latter being nator, in the arrangement of Fig. 5 the beam may impressed upon the interior of the resonator. 24 be variably de?ected by impressing alternating through the coupling 21. A standing electromag electromagnetic waves upon the plates 42, 43 , netic ?eld set up inside the resonator 24 is effec tive at the gap to impress electron velocity varia tions upon the electron beam passing through the gap from the electron gun 2|. In the neighbor either with or without an accompanying direct current biasing potential. hood of the electrode 25 the electron beam is. bent. beam arranged to have a focal point at the gap I In the arrangement of Fig. 6 an electron gun 44 is employed of a type producing a. convergent 2,409,179 a collector BI is arranged ,for intercepting the beam after it passes the aperture 49. In the operation of the arrangement of Fig. 45 of an input resonator 48. A magnetic coil 41 is provided to produce an axial magnetic field whereby the electron rays diverging after passing the gap 45 may be brought together at a second 7, the electron beam sweeps out a circular con focal point 48, for example. The focal point 48 may be, for example, somewhat beyond the gap ical surface except for the modifying in?uence of the electrodes 44, 45. These electrodes have 49 in an output resonator 50. In the operation of the system of Fig. 6, veloc ity variations impressed upon the electron beam regularly spaced projections alternately arranged, as for example in the form shown in detail in a at the gap 45 cause a variable de?ection of the teeth in Fig. 8 is merely illustrative of various suitable forms that may be used, the effect being fragmentary view in Fig. 8. The shaping of the individual electrons in the axial magnetic ?eld, thereby serving to shift the focal point from 48 to de?ect the beam radially inwardly and out wardly alternately, causing the beam to de to other positions such as the one indicated at scribe a surface of wave-like outline as shown by 5|, for example. Velocity variation of the elec tron beam thus causes the focal point to execute 16 the line 52 in the sectional diagram Fig. 9. There axial excursions, thereby continually varying the the undisturbed path of the beam is indicated relative position of the electron beam and the by a circle 53. The effect of the electrodes 44 and 45 is to cause the beam to alternately ap proach and recede from the aperture 49 at a conductors of the resonating chamber 50. The shifting of the focal point of the beam consti tutes an alternative method of varying the cou 20 rate determined by the input frequency of the pling between the electron beam and the resonant source 40 and the number of teeth in the elec system thereby energizing the resonating cham trode 44 or 45. The effect of the relative move- . ment between the electron beam and the boun daries of the resonator 48 as in the other appli preceding ?gures. 25 cations of the invention is to generate in the resonator an alternating electro-magnetic ?eld. An “in phase” variation in which an increase of In this case, it is evident that the frequency of electron velocity in accompanied by an increase the ?eld will be a multiple of the frequency of in output current is obtained by adjusting the the source 40, the number of the multiple being beam‘ to focus initially at a point beyond the determined by the number of teeth in either gap 49, such as point 48. Conversely, an “out electrode 44 or 45. In other words; the input ‘ of phase” variation in which an increase of elec frequency is multiplied by one half the number tron velocity is accompanied by a decrease in of teeth in either of the two electrodes. output current is obtained by locating the initial In any of the systems illustrated the effects due focal point ahead of the gap 49, at a point such to beam de?ection may be accompanied by the as 5|. ordinary electron grouping action resulting from In any of the arrangements of Figs. 1 to 6, in faster moving electrons overtaking slower ones elusive, it will be noted that if the normal posi in the space between the velocity varying elec tion of the beam is located at an axis of sym trodes and the output resonator. Simple theory metry of the electric field pattern at the gap, as for example, at the center of the gap in a sym 40 indicates that the two effects, electron grouping and variable coupling, will combine in quadrature metrical system, there will be two cyclic changes relation at the output. They are therefore not of coupling accompanying each cycle of the de in opposition and may be advantageously com ?eeting potential. The output wave will in that bined. If desired, the electron grouping effect case have a wave form rich in harmonics, par may be minimized by using short electron paths ticularly the second harmonic, and will be de or increased initial electron speeds. The modu ?cient in the fundamental frequency component. lation and control features described in connec Hence in such an adjustment any of the arrange tion with Fig. 3 may be applied to any of the ments functions as a frequency multiplier. To de?ecting mechanisms and used as adjuncts secure a fundamental component in the output ber 54 in accordance with the same general meth od that has been explained in connection with the wave it is only necessary to shift the normal, or 50 either to an electron grouping or beam de?ecting system. zero position of the beam to a position unsym As the operation by means of variable coupling obtained by beam de?ection is not dependent metrical with reference to the space pattern of the electric ?eld. " upon any electron grouping action to generate Fig. 7 shows another adaptation of the inven tion particularly designed for harmonic genera 55 large induced electromotive forces in the output system but relies upon the extent and rapidity of tion but not depending upon locating the normal de?ection of the beam, the output with a given position of the beam symmetrically with respect beam current may be increased by increasing the to the electric field pattern. A source 40 of amplitude of the impressed velocity variation. waves the frequency of which is to be multiplied, Large output currents maybe generated using a is connected through a quarter phase network 4| 60 large induced electromotive force in conjunction to the respective pairs of de?ecting plates of a 'with a resonator of low effective resistance. For conventional beam rotating arrangement 42 op this purpose an internally‘ resonant hollow con erating upon the electron beam from an electron gun 43 to cause the beam to sweep over a conical 65 surface passing between two annular electrodes 44 and 45. The electrodes 44, 45 are polarized at unequal potentials by means of batteries 46 and 41, respectively. Beyond the electrodes 44, 45 and adjacent to the path of the electron beam 70 is mounted a- toroidal resonating chamber 48 having an annular slot or aperture 49 surround ing and adjacent to the path of the rotating ductive body is well adapted. What is claimed is: 1. Means for producing and maintaining a beam of moving electrically charged particles, an internally resonant hollow conductive body having an aperture in the path of said beam, means for bringing said beam to a substantial focus at a point near said aperture and means to vary the position of said focal point with ref erence to said aperture while maintaining the beam. An output coupling arrangement 50 is beam current substantially steady, said aperture provided in conjunction with the resonator 48 and 75 being sufficiently large compared with the trans 2,400,179 ~ verse dimensions of the beam to freely pass sub stantially the whole beam throughout the normal range of variation of the position‘ of said focal point. ' means actuated by said waves to vary the position _ of said focal point along said axis with reference to said aperture while maintaining the beam cur- " rent substantially constant in magnitude, said‘ ' 2. Means for producing and maintaining an 8 hollow body being resonant to said waves and electron beam moving along a substantially rec tilinear axis, an internally resonant hollow con ductive body having an aperture in the path of said aperture being sumciently large compared with the transverse dimensions of the beam to freely pass substantially the whole beam through out the normal range of variation of the position said beam, means for bringing said beam to a substantial focus at a point on said axis near said 10 of said focal point. aperture. a source of waves to be repeated, and ALVA EUGENE ANDERSON.