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i5» 194@
T. P. QOURCHENE
LASTING
MACHINE
’
'
'
Original Filed Jan. 27, 1945
2946?@94
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2vSheets«-Sheet l
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imßœm?mß
Theodore _P Courchene'
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@Ct 35,1946.
TQP. coURcHENE
-
2,409,194
LASTING MACHINE
Original Filed Jan. 27, 1945
2 Shee’cs-Shee'c- 2
Innen for'
Theodore j.’ Courchene
2,409,194
Patented 0st. 15, 1946
UNITED STATE S PATENT OFFICE
2,409,194
LASTING MACHINE
Theodore P. Courchene, Beverly, Mass., assigner
to United Shoe Machinery Corporation, Flem
ington, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey
Original application January 27, 1945, Serial No.
574,855. Divided and this application July 30,
1945, Serial No. 607,813
8 Claims.
1
This invention relates to lasting machines, >the
present application being a division of a copend
ing application for Letters Patent for improve
ments in Lasting machines, Serial No. 574,855,
filed on January 2'7, 1945. The invention is here
in illustrated as applied to a machine constructed
generally as disclosed in United States Letters
Patent No. 1,843,232, granted on February 2, 1932,
on an application of B. Jorgensen’s, but modiiied
in certain respects as further disclosed especially
in Letters Patent No. 2,026,539, granted on J anu
.
2
-
ferent lasts frequently vary, especially when th
lasts are made of metal, and this has sometimes
delayed the operator in presenting the work since
the inverted position of the last prevents him
from seeing the spindle hole. To eliminate any
such delay and thereby to increase the output of
the machine, the invention provides a construc
tion having no last pin but having means for
otherwise controlling the last with respect to
lengthwise movement. As herein shown, the
heel-end support has a portion devoid of any last
pin for engaging the top face of the heel end of
the last and another portion arranged to engage
ary 7, 1936, and in Letters Patent No. 2,075,852,
granted on April 6, 1937, on other :applications of
the exterior of the last or of the upper thereon
B. Jorgensen’s. Machines of that character are
frequently used, as herein shown, for lasting l5 in a location between the heel-end portion and the
toe-end portion of the last to hold the last against
tennis shoes or the like which are commonly made
lengthwise displacement away from the heel band
on metal lasts and in which the uppers are se
and thus to render the band properly effective -to
cured to insoles by adhesion. It is .to be under
, clamp the upper against the last and to determine
stood, however, that the invention is not limited
the position of the last lengthwise relatively to
to the manufacture of shoes of that kind or, in'
the toe-lasting means.
‘
some aspects, to machine organizations such as
The invention will now be more particularly
disclosed in the above-mentioned Letters Patent.
described with reference to the accompanying
A machine such as that to which the invention
drawings and thereafter pointed out in the
is herein shown as applied is provided with toe
claims.
’
lasting means including a gripper which is closed
In the drawings,
by a treadle on the margin of the toe end of
Fig. l is a view mainly in front elevation of
the upper prior to the starting of the power oper
the greater portion of the machine to which the
ation of the machine and serves thereafter to
invention is herein shown as applied, with the
pull the upper in response to downward move
parts as they appear after the toe gripper has
ment of the last eiîected by pressure applied to
an insole on the last. The last with the upper
and the insole thereon is mounted bottom up
ward on a toe rest and on >a heel-end support
been closed and the heel carriage'released prior
to the star-ting of the machine;
'
I
.
Fig. 2 is a section, on an enlarged scale, on
which are movable downwardly with it; and also
line II-II of Fig. 1;
movable downwardly with the heel-end support '
is a member herein termed a heel carriage which
a portion of the structure shown in Fig. 1; I
the
'
Fig. 3 is an enlarged view in front elevation of
Fig. 4 is a view in front elevation of a portion
is provided with a heel band for clamping the
of the heel-end support, with a part broken away
upper against the last about its heel end and, if
and with one form of last and shoe thereon;
the heel end of the shoe is to be lasted by the
machine, with wipers for wiping the margin of 40 Fig. 5 is a plan view of the heel-end support
shown in Fig. 4; and
"
that end of the upper inwardly over the insole.
Fig. 6 is a section on the line VI-VI of Fig. 5,
The heel - carriage is held initially retracted
In view of the disclosures in the above-men
lengthwise of the shoe by a latch which is moved
tioned Letters Patent, only such portions of the
by the operator to release it prior to the star-ting
machine as it is necessary to refer to for an un
of the power operation of the machine, where
derstanding of the invention will be herein par
upon a spring acting on the carriage moves it to a
ticularly described. The machine herein shown
definitely determined position to carry the heel
is constructed for lasting only the toe and heel
band toward the shoe. In response to the move
ends of the shoe, the side-lasting mechanisms
ment of the carriage the heel-end support acts
sometimes included heretofore in machines of the
to move the shoe a short distance in the opposite
illustrative type being omitted.
direction to force it yieldingly against the heel
For supporting the last and shoe the machine
band, the band serving as an abutment for posi
includes, as heretofore, a slide 2 movable down
tioning the last lengthwise relatively -to the toe
wardly against the resistance of a spring 4 by
lasting means by engagement with the heel end
pressure applied on the bottom of the heel end
of the upper.
of the shoe and a toe rest 6 movable downwardly
The above-mentioned heel-end support has
against the resistance of a spring 8 by pressure
been provided heretofore with a last pin arranged
applied on the bottom of the toe end of the shoe.
to enter the usual spindle hole in the heel end
The shoe and its supporting means are thus
of the last when the work is presented to the ma
chine. The locations of the spindle holes in dif (it) moved downwardly in the power operationlof the
2,409,194
3
4
machine by a toe presser-foot I 0 and a heel
presser-foot I2 arranged to engage the toe and
heel ends of the insole respectively. The toe
presser-foot is supported on an arm I4 which by
means of a handle I6 is swung forwardly by the
50 by a short movement of the slide 28 toward the
carriage 46 along the guideways 3D. For con
trolling the slide 28 there is provided another
slide 66 movable in directions lengthwise of the
operator to carry the toe presser-foot to a posi- '
tion over the toe end of the shoe, whereupon the
machine is started and the arm is moved down
wardly to carry the presser-foot into engage
ment with the insole and to impart to the toe end
of the shoe its downward movement. As the toe
presser-foot is thus moved downwardly the heel
presser-foot is swung automatically to a position
over the heel end of the shoe and is moved down
wardly to depress that end of the shoe.
The toe-lasting mechanism includes a toe
band I8 which embraces the upper about the toe
end of the last and wipes the upper heightwise
of the last in response to the downward move
ment of the last, and also includes toe-embrac- ~
shoe along a guideway formed on a bracket 68
which is fast on the slide 2. Rotatably mounted
in the slide 66 is a shaft 10 which carries a bevel
gear l2 in engagement with another bevel gear
‘£4 fast on a shaft 'I6 at right angles to the shaft
'lll and also rotatably mounted in the slide 66.
The shaft 'I6 is provided with screw threads en
gaging cooperating threads in a nut 18 mounted
in a recess in the slide 23. On the shaft 1E! is a
hand wheel 89 for turning it. It will thus be
seen that by turning this hand wheel the slide
28 may be adjusted in directions lengthwise of
the shoe relatively to the slide 66, and that by
the adjusting means the slide 28 and the slide 6G
are held in ñxed relation to each other so as to
be movable as a unit in directions lengthwise of
the shoe.
ing wipers 28 which are thereafter operated to
Pivotally connected at one end to a pin 82 in the
wipe the margin of the toe end of the upper in
slide B6 is a link 84 which is pivotally connected
wardly over the insole into position to adhere to
at its other end to a crank arm 86 (Fig. 1) fast
the insole. Further included in the toe-lasting
mechanism is a toe gripper 22 which grips the
on a shaft 88 mounted to turn in the bracket 58.
marginal portion of the toe end of the upper and
On the hub of lthis crank arm are gear teeth in
applies a pull to the upper in response to the
engagement with a pinion S0 which is fast on a
downward movement of the last. This gripper,
shaft 92 also mounted to turn in the bracket 58.
in accordance generally with the disclosure of
Fast on the shaft 92 is a depending arm 94 the
Letters Patent No. 2,075,852, is closed on the up 30 lower end of which is in the path of the hori
per prior to the starting of the power operation
zontally movable heel carriage 46. Accordingly,
when the carriage is moved outwardly to its
of the machine by a treadle 24 acting thereon
through mechanism including a flexible cable 28.
initial position where it is held by the latch mem
ber 52, as it is automatically near the end of the
As fu-rther described in Letters Patent No.
2,026,539, the above-mentioned vertically mov 35 cycle of operations of the machine through con
able shoe support slide 2 carries at its upper end
nections including a chain 96 as heretofore, it acts
a slide 28 (Figs. 1 and 2) mounted for movements
through the arm 94, the pinion 90 and the crank
in directions lengthwise of the shoe along guide
arm 86 .-to move the link 84 toward the left (Fig.
ways 30 on the slide 2. Supported by the slide
1) and thereby to move the slide 55 and the shoe
28 is a vertical shoe-supporting rod 32 having 40 support slide 28 also to the left. In this manner
thereon screw threads engaged by cooperating
the shoe is moved lengthwise in a direction away
threads of a bevel gear 34 rotatably mounted on
from the heel band 58 which is being moved in
the slide 23. The bevel gear 34 is engaged by
the opposite direction away from the shoe by the
another bevel gear 36 fast on a shaft 38 which
heel carriage. Such movement of the link 84
is rotatable in the slide 28 and extends through _.. results in compression of a, spring 98 held between
a slot 40 in the slide 2 to permit the movements
a nut Idil on the link and a plate H12 on the
of the slide 28 lengthwise of the shoe, the shaft
bracket 68. The slide 65 and the connected slide
38 having thereon a hand wheel 42 for turning it
28 are held in the positions :to which they are
to adjust the rod 32 vertically. Fast on the slide
thus moved by the link 84 by means of a latch
§84 pivotally mounted on the bracket 68 and
2 are two horizontal rods 44 on which a heel
carriage 4S is guided for movement lengthwise of
controlled by a spring |85, this latch engaging a
the shoe, this heel carriage serving as a support
plate Hi8 on the slide 66. Accordingly, when the
for hee1~lasting mechanism comprising wipers
48 (Fig. 1) for wiping the margin of' the heel
heel carriage 46 is released by the latch member
52 after the next shoe has been mounted on the
shoe support, the slide 28 is held in its initial
heel band 56 for embracing and clamping the
position by the latch |04 as the heel carriage is
upper about the heel end of the last. To provide
moved toward the shoe by ethe spring 56. When
room for presenting the shoe to the machine the
the carriage has nearly reached the position in
heel carriage 46 is held initially retracted length
which it is stopped by the Washers 64, a screw
wise of the shoe by engagement of a latch mem (ill H8 adjustably mounted in the lower end of the
end of the upper inwardly over the insole and a 5'
ber 52 (Figs. 1 and 3) with a lug 54 on the lower
end of the carriage, and upon its release by the
latch member the carriage is moved toward the
carriage engages a depending arm H2 of the
latch i814 and causes the latch to release the slide
shoe support by a spring 56 which abuts at its
84 to move the shoe suppor-t slide 28 toward the
outer end against a bracket 58 fast on the rods
44. The latch member 52 is carried by a lever
60 which is pivotally mounted at 52 on the bracket
58 and is swung downwardly to release the heel
heel carriage until stopped by the engagement of
carriage by means hereinafter described. The
movement of the carriage toward the shoe is 'I o
limited by its engagement with washers 64 (Fig.
2) mounted on the rods 44 and abutting against
the slide 2. Substantially at the time when the
carriage engages the washers the shoe is moved
lengthwise into engagement with the heel band
66.
The spring 98 then acts through the link
the heel end of the shoe with the heel band 50.
It will thus be seen that the position of each shoe
lengthwise relatively to the toe-lasting means is
determined by the heel band which acts as an
abutment in contact with the heel-end face of the
upper, the heel carriage 46 being always moved
to the position determined by the washers 64.
The lever 5B which carries the latch member 52
is normally held up against the lug 54 on the
heel carriage 46 by a spring H4 connected to a
2,409,194
5
6
rod | I6 which is pivotally connected at its upper
end to the lever. By means associated with the
rod | it and not herein fully disclosed, but de
scribed and claimed in application Serial No.
574,855 of which the present application is a
division, the lever |30 is swung downwardly to re
lease the heel carriage to the action of the spring
5E by further downward movement of the treadle
2d after the toe gripper 22 has been closed on the
upper by the treadle.
The previously mentioned threaded rod 32
on the plate |24 in the position determined by
two pins M4 extending from the block into holes
|45- (Fig. 5) in the plate. To provide room for
which serves as part of the means for supporting
the heel-end portion of the last and shoe has
formed on its upper end, as heretofore, a head
||8 (Figs. 4 and 5) having therein a guideway
|255 extending laterally of the shoe and curved
about an axis extending lengthwise of the shoe
in the vicinity of the bottom of its heel end, as
more fully disclose-j in Letters Patent No. 2,026,
539, and mounted in this guideway for movement 20
in one direction or the other laterally of the shoe
to permit the bottoms of the toe ends of right and
left Shoes to be properly `positioned relatively to
the toe-lasting means is a block |22. This block
the block |42 the plate |30 has in one end a
curved recess |48 (Fig. 5). The block |42 may
be detached when desired merely by lifting it olf
the plate |24. It will be understood that when
the block |42 .is used the upwardly extending por
tion |32 of the plate |36 performs the same func
tion as when the block is not in use. It will fur
ther be understood that while this upwardly ex
tending portion of the plate |353 will usually en
gage the upper, it may engage the last itself un
der some conditions.
As explained in Letters Patent No. 2,026,539,
the purpose of movement of the block |22 along
the curved guideway |20, when the block has
been provided as heretofore with a last pin, has
been to permit the bloot; and the pin to assume
positions in accordance with the lateral inclina
tions of the heel ends of right and left lasts when
the lasts are tipped so that the bottom of their
toe ends are positioned in proper relation to the
plane of the toe wipers. In the construction here
in shown, notwithstanding the omission of the
last pin, provision for such movement of the
block |22 is retained, so that the block and the
has been provided heretofore with a last pin
arranged to extend into the spindle hole in the
heel end of the last. To save time in presenting a
plates |24 and |33 supported thereon similarly
shoe `to the machine, in view of the fact that such
may assume different positions for right and left
spindle holes are often not uniformly positioned
in different lasts, there is provided for purposes 30 lasts when the lasts are of a style .such as to re
quire it. Since each last extends into the recess
of this invention, instead of such a last pin, a
|34 in the upstanding portion |32 of the plate
plate |24 secured by a rivet |26 on the top of
|38, the block and the plates may be readily
the block |22 in a position further determined by
moved in one direction or the other along the
a dowel pin |28. Mounted for adjusting move
guideway |23 by the engagement of the shoe or
ments along the plate |24 is another plate |39 ar
last with the upstanding portion |32 as the work
ranged, as shown in Fig. 4, for supporting engage
is presented to the machine. To limit adjust
ment with the top face of the heel end of the
ably their movements in opposite directions, there
last and having at one end an upwardly extending
are provided stops |50 corresponding to similar
portion |32 provided with a recess |34 having
stops shown in the last-mentioned Letters Pat
an inclined wall curved laterally of the shoe for
ent, these stops in the construction herein shown
engagement with the exterior of the last or of the
being arranged to engage the sides of the plate
upper thereon in a location between the :toe-endA
|3û. The stops are movable as heretofore along
portion and the heel-end portion of the last.
a guideway on the head H8 of the rod 32 and
The plate |35) is held in different adjusted posi
tions, as may be required by shoes of different î are adjusted equal distances toward or from each
other by a rod |52 provided with right and left
sizes, by a bar |36 (Fig. 6) and a screw |38 ex
threads and having a knob |54 thereon for turn
tending fthrough the bar and threaded in the
ing it. It will be understood that, if desired, the
plate |24. The bar has at its opposite ends up
stops |59 may be so adjusted as to maintain the
raised portions engaging the opposite side por
tions of the plate |30 underneath, and when the 50 block |22 and the parts thereon in a central po
sition.
screw |38 is tightened it acts through the bar to
In the use of the machine, in so far as it is- of
clamp the plate |30 against flanges lli@ on the
interest with reference to the present invention,
sides of the plate |25. It will thus be seen that
the operator taires a shoe which, as herein shown,
in presenting a shoe to the machine »the operator
will usually have been already side lasted from its
merely places the top of the heel end of the last
toe-end portion to its heel-end portion and
on the plate | 3d in the position illustrated in Fig.
mounts it on the toe rest â and the heel-end sup
4, and that when the slide 28 and the parts there
port. If the shoe is one of the Oxford type, as
on are moved by the spring 98 toward the heel
shown in Fig. l, the block |ê2 will have been
carriage
as hereinbefore described, the shoe
is moved lengthwise toward the heel band 5|! and 60 mounted on the plate |24 for engagement with
the top face of the heel end of the last. ûther
is pressed against it by the upstanding portion’
wise the top of the heel end 0f the last is en
|32 of the plate |39 which thereafter prevents
gaged by the plate i3d as shown in Fig. 4. In
its displacement away from the heel band. Ac
cordingly, notwithstanding the absence of any
last pin, the heel band is rendered eifective to
determine the position of 'the last lengthwise
relatively to the toe-lasting means and to apply
the required clamping pressure to the heel end
of the upper in the lasting operation.
If the machine is used to last a shoe of the
Oxford type mounted on a last of less height at
its heel-end portion than that shown in Fig. 4,
there is preferably utilized a block |42 (Fig. 1)
for engaging and supporting the top face of the
thus presenting the work the operator positions
it with a portion of the last, and usually also of
the upper, in the recess |34 of the upstanding
portion |32 of the plate vISI! and by moving the
heel end of the shoe laterally in one direction or
the other, depending upon whether the shoe is a
v right or a left shoe, shifts the block |22 and the
parts thereon to a position determined by en
gagement of one or the other of the stops iâii with
the plate |3û. In presenting the work the op
erator also positions the margin of the toe end
heel end of the last, this block being supported 75 >of the upper outspread in the toe gripper 22.
t
7
8
Afterî the ’workfhasthus been Lproperly; presented
'engagement' withfthel exterior..~ of -í theI last or’zof
¿.thelupper thereon.
4.: In :a Vlasting machine,> the combination with
`bydepres’sioniof the treadle 24 and. by furtherìde
'.lasting means including a yheel band for embrac
pression of the treadle thereafter swings the latch
memberÍ 52 (Fig. l) downwardlyto. release the 5 ing and clamping »an upper about the heel end
'of' a -last,.of a heel-end support: for the last, and
heel carriage 46, whereupon the heelv carriage is
“meansÍior effecting relativef'movementot said
moved by the-spring '5E' to the. position deter-
2 the loperatorcloses the toegripp'er. on. the upper
>mined by its engagement with the washers 64
(Fig.^2), thus> carrying thelheei band 50‘toward
theshoe. Near the'endbf this movement ofthe
-.heel> carriage the latch‘ IM is operated to- release
the :slide 28 to the action’of the sp1‘ing98‘-which
moves the slide and the parts .thereon-to carry the
shoe toward the heel band andthus to‘ cause the
l heel-bandproperly to engage the'heel end. of the
iishoe. ' Such movementr'is imparted to the shoe by
Vthefengagementof vthe upstanding portion S32
.heel‘ band and ’heel-end" support to- engage’ the
heel band‘with ‘the upper, said heel-endv support
having means for engaging’ithe top face' of the
heel endV of the last and also >means for prevent
’ing'lengthwise'displacement-oi the last> away from
:said `heel band solely by~engagement with the
exterior 0f the last or ofthe yupper thereon.
1 5.,.’In a lasting zmachine, the. combination `with
v'lasting means including‘a ‘heel band for embrac
:ingfand vclamping. an upper aboutthe heel, end
,oía last,l of. a heel-end support for the last, .and
‘ofthe plate. |39 with the llast or with the upper
Vmeans'ior effecting relative movementl of said
thereon, Athe operator atv this` time still >holding
'theshoe down on the heel-end supportV with his 20 'heel band and .heel-end' support to engage the
rheel‘band‘fwith the'zupper, said heel-end support
hand. vThe operator then startsV .the power op
-having'means devoid'of any last »pin for engaging
erationrof themachine by swinging. the'arm I4
thertop face îof theheel end of .the last and-` also
forwardly, and the >machine lasts the'stoeY and
1 means’for engagingjthaexterior-cf the last or: of
'heel ends ofthe shoe in `amanner which need
Aînotbe described herein in view of the disclosures
¿of `the ~previously mentioned Letters Patent. It
the .upper thereonsini` alocation `between the -heel
end. portion/and- the'. toe-end Iportion ‘ofy the >last
lwill-’be understood that afterdepression of the
to hold Vthe llast - against 'lengthwise displacement
@away from'said heel band.
A-treadle 24' for the purposes above described the
I 5. .In> a lasting'machinaí‘the combination'with
‘operator releases' it tolpermit vit to be returned
'to itsinitial position,` the- toe gripper being held ‘i ' lasting means vincluding aheel band for.'embrac. ing‘andïclamping, an»upper aboutl the heel end
closed on' the uppersby means> disclosed in Letters
of ai last, of. a heel-end support «for the last, and
Patent No. ¿2,075,852. Upon the release ' of the
`:means >forieffecting relativemovement 'of said
ltreadle-the- connections. for controlling the heel
.heel band-‘and `heel-end support to engage the
carriage assume therpositions inl'which they are
shownrin- Fig. 1, so thatlupon‘return of the heel ' heel. band VwithA the upper, 'said .heel-end support
carriage and the slide 28vto their initial positions
>near the end-òf the: cycle of operations they will
be held bythe latches 52 and ißt," respectively.
Having describedïthe invention, what I claim
vas newlanddesire tovsecure by Letters'Patent of
` the United'States'is:
l. In a lastingmachine, the combination with
`toe-lasting means, 'ofy an- abutment for.' engaging
the heel. end of an upper on a last vto position
ythe last lengthwise relatively to said toe-lasting
'means, a toe rest for supporting the last at the
top of the forepart, `and a heel-end support for
, having- a portion devoid‘ofany last pin for. en
gaging the top face of the heel end ofv the last
and
having 1 also Íanother
portion
extending
heightwise‘of the last from said first-named por
tion and recessed- to receive andengage the eX
`terior Aof the. last or Yof- the l'upper thereon in a
'location-nearerthe toe end of the last than said
top .face‘and'thereby` to hold the last against
lengthwise displacement@ away from said -heel
band.
7. 'In a lasting machine; an abutment arranged
to be positionedopposite the heel-end face of a
» the last, saidïhe‘el-end‘support having means for
last to press against the heel end. of an upper on
ykpreventing lengthwise'displacement ofthe last
-the last, a Vheel-end support for the last,:-said
heel-end; support lhaving means devoid of any
.last'pìn for engagingthe top~face of the heelend
.of the last and also-*means 'for engaging the'ex
away from saidabutment. solelyby engagement
with the exterior of the last or of the upper
thereon.
2. In a' 1asting machine,- the combination with
vtoe-lasting means, of 'an abutment' for. engaging
.teriorof thezlast or.of the upper thereon in a
4locationrbetween the heel-end Iportion and the
the heel end of` an upper on a last to position the. ' ' toe-end'portion-of the last to hold the last‘length
last >lengthwise Arelatively to said toe-lasting
means, _a toe rest for supporting the last at the
top ofthe forepart, anda heel-end support for
the last, said heel-end support being'devoid of
`wise against the pressure applied by said' abut
ment,l and` spring> means for-effecting relative
movement of said heel-end supportV and» abutment
:to cause' the abutment' to 4apply its- pressure to
'
any last pin but .having means for preventing 60 the upper.
18. In ailasting machine, an abutment arranged
llengthwise displacement of the last away from
-to'be positionedopposite the heel-end faceA of a
said abutment by engagement with the exterior
of- therlast or. of the upper thereon ,in- a location
between the heel-endlportion and the ktoe-end
. last to> press against the heel end of an upper on
' thalast, and a heel-‘end supportffor the last hav
iingidetachable'means devoidiofany last pin for
¿engaging the topi face of the heel end of the last
'Land other`means alsoffdevoidìoiany last pin for
engaging the top‘faceofA the'heel end of a last
of a diiîerent style=wh‘en said ñrst~namedmeans
last lengthwise relatively to ysaid toe-lasting
, means, a> toe rest for supporting ‘the last at the 70 is'detached, said heel-end support-being further
provided with means for-engaging Ithei exterior
top oi the forepart, and a heel-end support for
portion of the last.
'
r3. In a lasting machine, the combination with
toe-lasting means,v of an abutment for engaging
the heel end of an upper on a last topositicn the
the last,'said.hee1-end support being movable
0f any last or of the upper thereon toïhold the
relatively to the toe rest to carry the last length
wise toward said abutmentl and Vhaving means
,last lengthwise against' the pressure applied- by
i for pressing thelast in >thatzdirection solely by
, said abutment.
' .THEODORE P.A .COURCI-IENEl
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