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Патент USA US2409201

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Oct. 15, 1946.
‘Filed Dec. 28, 1943
9 Sheets-Sheet l
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I James Dun/0,0.
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
James Dunlop, Ridgewood, N. J., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Westinghouse Electric
Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corpora
tion of Pennsylvania - _
Application December 28, 1943, Serial No. 515,992
39 Claims.
(01. 121-41)
My invention relates to elevator control sys
tems. and more particularly to control systems
for elevators in which hydraulic engines are used
for raising and lowering purposes.
One object of my invention is to provide for
so controlling the valve of a hydraulic engine
used for operating anelevator as to- cause the
elevator to accelerate to a desired speed and then
maintain that speed until it nears its stopping
end of its stroke and to provide means for ad
justing the position of the cam in relation to
the extent of opening of the valve means so that
its lift surface may be used substantially to its
full extent to move the valve means in a closing
A still further object is to provide a valve op
erating mechanism for hydraulic engines used
for hoisting extremely heavy bodies which shall
10 give smooth and rapid acceleration in starting,
A further object of the invention is to provide
a constant speed of movement of the body after
a hydraulic engine for operating any suitable ap
acceleration is completed, and a smooth decel
paratus wherein movement of the plunger due
eration at the end of the stroke of the engine
plunger, with a positive stop as the plunger
to admission and exhaust of motive liquid is
controlled byv a valve positioned by a di?feren 15 reaches the end of its stroke.
tial responsive to speed of a motor and to speed
It is also an object of my invention to provide
of the plunger.
a valve control system for hydraulic engines used
.A further object of the invention is to provide
in hoisting large bodies which shall be simple
a hydraulic engine for operating any suitable
and inexpensive to construct, install, operate and
apparatus by movement of a plunger in conse
maintain in operation.
quence of admission and exhaust of motive liquid
For a better understanding of the invention,
controlled by a valve positioned in response to
reference may be had to the accompanying draw
speed of a motor and to speed of the plunger as
ings in which:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic representation in
well as to the position of the latter.
Another object is to provide a valve control 25 end elevation of a deck-edge elevator on the side
of a ship provided with my improved hoisting
for a hydraulic engine used in connection with
an elevator in which the valve will be operated
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic representation, in side
by a motive means running at a predetermined
speed and be controlled by a differential means
elevation, of the elevator illustrated in Fig. 1 as
responsive to the movement of the elevator and 30 seen from the inside of the ship and looking out
board and with the elevator platform at the top
to rotation of the valve by its motive means for
securing a smooth, constant predetermined
deck instead of at the main deck,
Fig. 3 is an enlarged view, in side elevation,
movement of the elevator.
Another object is to provide means operated
of the engine for operating the elevator illustrated
by a hydraulic engine for positively moving its 35 in Figs. 1 and 2 with my improved engine valve
valve to its “stop” position as its plunger ap
and apparatus for operating it,
proaches the end of its stroke regardless of the
‘Fig. 4 is a view of the engine valve taken on
the line IV-IV of Fig. 3 showing the engine valve
operation of the motive means for moving the
in cross-section,
Fig. 5 is a view taken on the line V-—V of Fig.
Another object is to provide a large valve and 40
4, showing the main valve on a by-pass for the
a small valve, and means for moving the small
valve at a speed relative to the speed of the large
valve during a stopping operation which will se
cure a smooth accurate stop.
oil back of the balancing pistons,
Fig. 5A is an enlarged plan view of one of the
ports shown in Figs. 4 and 5,
Another object is to provide a means for bal 45
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on the line
ancing the operation of a ‘large valve and a small‘
VI—VI of Fig. 4 to show the interior arrange
valve in a hydraulic engine with means respon
ment of the valves,
sive to the operation of the engine plunger for
Fig. '7 is a sectional view through the large
overcoming the valve balancing means as the
valve casing taken on the line VII—VII of Fig. 4,
plunger approaches closely the end of its stroke. 50 'Fig. 8 is a view taken on the line VIII—VIII
' . A further object is to provide a valve operat
of Fig. 3, giving an end view of the valve casing
'ing means for a hydraulic engine with a cam
and its location on the engine,
means responsive to the movement of the hy
Fig. 9‘ is atop plan view of the gear reduc
draulic plunger for moving the valve to its stop
ing mechanism associated with the engine valve,
position when the plunger approaches closely the 55 Fig. 10 is an enlarged top view of the hand
control station for the engine Valve, with the top
hinged joint 25 so that it may be raised from its
of its casing removed to show the interior parts
in full lines,
11 is a View, in front elevation of the hand
control station with the side of its casing re
normal horizontal position into a vertical position
on the base when the ship has to Pass through
Fig, 12 is an enlarged top plan view of a por
tion of the valve operating mechanism embody
ing the invention as applied to the engine shown
in Fig. 3,
Fig. 13 is a view, in side elevation, of the valve
operating mechanism illustrated in Fig. 3,
Fig. 14 is an enlarged top plan View of a cam
mechanism movable by the engine plunger at the
end of its stroke for closing its valve,
Fig. 15 is a view, in side elevation, of the cam
mechanism illustrated in Fig. 14,
Fig. 16 is an enlarged cross-section view through
a canal lock or other narrow opening.
The guide rails ii and 12 are mounted in ver
tical position and facing each other on the side
of the ship hull by means of a plurality of hori
zontally disposed brackets 28.
The guide rails are provided with vertical slots
29 in their sides facing each other which are
disposed to receive a plurality of rollers 3i ro
tatably mounted on the base section 20 for the
purpose of guiding the movement of the elevator
platform as it is raised or lowered and for aIso
maintaining the platform in its horizontal posi
tion. A block 32 is securely fastened by Welding
to the lower end of each guide rail to prevent
the elevator from dropping on down through the
the center of a cam locking device on the cam
slots in case of failure of the safeties, cables, etc.
mechanism illustrated in Figs. 14 and 15,
Fig. 171's an enlarged cross-section view through
the center of the differential housing illustrated
in Fig. 3,
Fig. 18 is an enlarged top plan view of the
In normal operation, the platform is suspended
entirely by its hoisting cables.
The hoisting engine i8 operatively connected
coupling between the T lever and the main valve -
Fig. 19 is a view in cross section of the cou»
pling in Fig. 18,
Fig. 20 is a view in side elevation of the lever
arrangement for closing the engine valve,
to the platform to raise and lower the latter.
As shown, the hoisting engine I8 is a hydraulic
engine comprising a cylinder 34 mounted in a
horizontal position on a frame or engine bed 35
and a power plunger 36 disposed in the cylinder.
The outer end of the plunger is provided with
a power head 31 in which a pair of power sheaves
are rotatabiy mounted. The plunger in the
cylinder slides back and forth horizontally and
Fig. 21 is a straight-line diagram of the control
circuit for the valve motors,
Fig. 21A is a key representation, showing the
location of the relays and their contacts in Fig.
the sides of the engine frame 35in position to
extend into grooved guide plates 39 and 39a (Figs.
thus moves the power sheaves back and forth
with it. Guide rails :35 and 43a are mounted on
Fig. 22 is a view in side elevation of a modi?ed
form of my invention as applied to an elevator
3 and 8) on the sides of the plunger head for sup
porting the outer end of the plunger in its hori
in which parts of the engine control are operated
zontal movements. Suitable stopping blocks such
directly by the elevator platform, and
as 4| and 5| (Fig. v2) are provided for stopping
Fig. 23 is a modi?ed form of one of the valve 40 the plunger at the end of its forward stroke and
ports shown in Figs. 4 and 5.
at the end of its rearward stroke.
Although the invention is illustrated in con—
Suitable stops lg (Fig. 1) are mounted on the
nection with a hydraulic engine for operating the
flight deck to stop the platform thereat and by
hoisting cables of large deck-edge elevators such
placing the plunger stops 4| and 51 on the hoist
as are used on airplane carrier ships, it is to be " ing engine at such positions that the engine will
understood that it may be used in controlling the
continue the hoisting pull on the cables after the
valves of hydraulic engines for operating eleva
platform is stopped by the stops l9 until all of
tors of other types or for any other suitable
the stretch in the cables is taken up, the plat
form will be held level with the ?ight deck when
Referring more particularly to the drawings,
stopped thereat regardless of loading. For more
I have illustrated a deck-edge elevator compris»
detailed information on the means for holding the
platform at the flight deck, reference may be
pair an
of elevator
guide rails
II andl0 I’:
on the
had to my copending application
outside of a ship hull l3, in position to be sup
597,132, ?led October 21, 1943, in which such
ported by and to be raised and lowered between
means are described and claimed.
a main deck M and a ?ight deck l5 by a pin»
The plunger is designed for operation by any
rality of hoisting cables l6 and I1 operated by a
suitable hydraulic medium such as oil maintained
hoisting engine [8.
under pressure by any suitable pumping appa
The platform It! comprises a base section 25.
ratus (not shown).
and a hinged or outboard section 2!, the floors 60 A valve block 42 is mounted on the cylinder
of which normally lie in the same plane and
for controlling the operation of the plunger by
provide a large level area upon which airplanes
opening an oil pressure port 43 from a high pres
may be moved and carried from one deck to an
sure tank (not shown) for raising the platform
other. The base section of the platform is con
and by opening an oil exhaust port 4-1 to a low
structed with a suitable flooring 22 laid upon a
pressure tank (not shown). The low pressure
frame 23 made of seamless steel tubing, struc
tank and the high pressure tank are not shown
tural steel sections and steel plate welded to
because they are old and Well known in hydraulic
gether in bridge-like construction to form a rela
engine systems for providing a closed system hav
tiveiy lfght but strong structure. The outboard
ing a low pressure side and a high pressure side.
section of the platform is also constructed with a 70
The hoisting cables it} at the 1eft~hand end of
suitable ?oor 24 laid upon a frame 25 of scam
Lie platform are secured to the base 23 by means
less steel tubing, structural steel and steel plate
of a bracket 415 mounted thereon and pass up
welded together in bridge-like construction in
wardly and over an idler sheave 46 fastened to
the same manner as the base and is mounted
the ship structure underneath the overhanging
upon and connected to the base by a suitable 75 portion of the flight deck, thence reanvardly over
a second idler sheave 41 mounted on the ship
frame inside the hull, thence downwardly and
cannot flow through the latter into or out of
the engine cylinder. The valve has su?icient ax
under a de?ector sheave 48 mounted on the en
ial length to cover the ports 640 as soon as it
gine bed 35, thence around a stationary sheave
49 mounted on the engine bed, thence forward
and around one of the power sheaves 38 mounted
in the power head 31, and thence to a dead-end
approaches closely to its dead-center position so
that it will lap such ports while the vernier or
leveling valve 6! is still slightly open. If the
valve 69 is moved toward the port 44 so as to
hitch 50 mounted on the lower part of the rear
uncover the ports 640, then (Fig. 7) oil ?ows
end of the engine cylinder 34.
through the high pressure port 43, the valve
The hoisting cables ll at the right-hand end 10 chamber section 64a, the valve ports 64c and the
of the elevator are secured to the base 20 by a
cylinder port 62 into the engine cylinder; and, if
bracket 52 mounted thereon and pass upwardly
the valve is moved from its dead center position
and over an idler sheave 53 fastened to the ship
in the other direction toward the port 43, then
structure underneath the overhanging portion of
oil flows out of the engine cylinder through the
the fight deck, thence rearwardly over a second 15 cylinder port 62, the valve ports 64c, the valve
idler sheave 54 mounted on the ship frame inside
chamber section 64b and the low pressure port 44.
the hull, thence downward and under a de?ector
It will also be apparent that with the tapered
sheave 55 mounted on the'engine bed, thence
valve ports, the relative lapping of the valves and
under and over one of the power sheaves 33
the leverage, the opening and closing of the
mounted in the engine plunger head 37, and
engine ports will be progressive for the purposes
thence to a dead-end hitch 56 mounted on the
‘upper part of the rear end of the engine cylinder,
A pair of balancing,r pistons 61 and B8 are also
The valve block 42 is provided with a main
valve 68 and a leveling or vernier valve 6! (Fig.
mounted on the shaft 63 in the outer portions of
the valve chamber and an equalizing passageway
6) for controlling the flow of oil into the engine 25 ‘ll (Fig. 5) connects passages 69 and 10 connected
cylinder through the high pressure port 43 and
with the valve chamber sections back of these
a cylinder port 32 and out of the cylinder through
pistons. The passageway ‘H is also connected
the cylinder port and into the low pressure port 44.
by a passageway 72 with the low pressure or ex
The main valve 80 is preferably cylindrical in
haust port 44. The equalizing passageway and
form and is operated by a shaft 63 which is slid 30 the balancing pistons provide means for mini
ably and rotatably mounted in a valve chamber
mizing the oil leakage from the high pressure side
64 by means of a pair of stuffing box glands 65
of the system. The equalizing passage keeps the
and 65 which close the outer ends of the valve
same pressure on the two ends of the valve to
keep the system in balance statically and permit
The pressure port 43 is connected with the 35 ready movement of the pistons. Movement of
section 64a of the valve chamber 64. The ex
the pistons will cause oil to ?ow through the
haust port 44 is connected to the section 64b of
equalizing passage; and, if the passage is restrict
the valve chamber. The valve chamber is con
ed, a load is placed on the valve drive. This load
nected at its central section with the cylinder
slows down the valve drive motors (to be de
port 62 by a plurality of valve ports 640.
40 scribed later herein). Therefore, a screw thread
The valve ports 640 are provided with tapering
ed valve lid is mounted in the equalizing pas
ends GM to taper off the volume of the oil when
sageway for adjustably restricting the ?ow of oil
the valve is closing, and to prevent excessive leak
through the passageway and thus secure better
age through the port when the valve is closed,
control of the acceleration and retarding action
as a longer lap is provided than in other types.
of the motors.
The form of these valve ports prevents “water
While the shaft 63 may be operatively con
hammer” and vibration, often resulting with the
nected to the main valve in any suitable man
use of other ports in systems similar to this.
ner, preferably, as shown, such shaft carries the
Furthermore the tapered ports will cause the en
main piston valve 60 and the balancing pistons
gine to operate more smoothly than with the
61 and 68 to constitute a piston valve structure
ports usually used. Tapering of the port ends
rotatable in the cylindrical valve chamber.
provides for increase in flow area at an increas
Therefore, the 'term “valve shaft,” as used herein,
ing rate in relation to valve travel as the valve
has the signi?cance of a shaft capable of posi
uncovers its cylinder port, with the result that
tioning a valve of any suitable type whether the
the desired acceleration for starting may be had
latter is unitary with the shaft or operated by
in order that the elevator may be rapidly brought
the latter.
up to the speed determined by that of the mo
The leveling or vernier valve 6! is preferably
tor means. While tapering of the port ends in
made as a piston portion on a leveling or vernier
herently involves a decreasing rate of ?ow area
valve shaft 13 slidably disposed in a vernier valve
decrease in relation to valve travel and would
chamber 14 in the valve block and disposed par
unduly string out deceleration due to movement
allel to the main valve chamber 64. The ends of
of the valve in response to differential action in
the leveling or vernier valve chamber are‘ closed
consequence of stopping the motor, this disadvan
by a pair of stuffing box glands 15 and 1B. The
tage is not only entirely overcome by the stop
high pressure port or space 43 is extended at 43a
ping mechanism moving the valve in a closing
to communicate with a plurality of ports 14a
direction independently of differential action but 65 in the leveling valve chamber 14 and the cylinder
such independence avoids critical control of the
port 62 is extended at passage 62a to communi
motor for stopping with the result that the ele
cate with a small valve port 14b in the central
vator may be rapidly retarded as a stop is ap
portion of the leveling valve chamber. The low
proached without shock or hammering and with 70 pressure port or space 44 is extended at 44a to
smooth operation. Hence, with both acceleration
and deceleration rapidly and smoothly effected,
the elevator may move at maximum speed for
the maximum portion of the travel distance.
communicate with one or more ports ‘[40 in the
leveling valve chamber.
The leveling valve Si is closed when it is in it
central position and covering the port 14b, as
’ With the valve 60 lapping‘the ports 640, Oil 75 shown in Fig. 6-, and no oil can then flow‘ through
and connected to the main valve shaft 83 by a
such port into or out of the cylinder. When the
slidable gear reducing mechanism Bl’. The mo
leveling valve GI is moved to the left, it admits
tors should be so constructed that they can be
'oil from the high pressure port 43 through the
stalled and even reversed in motion by a forcible
extension 43a of the latter and the ports 14a and
closing movement of the valve during a valve
141) into the cylinder port leading into the engine
closing action as the plunger reaches the end
cylinder. When the valve BI is moved to the
of either its forward stroke or its rearward stroke.
right, it permits oil to ?ow out of the engine cyl
It will be obvious that one motor instead of two
inder and the cylinder port and through the ports
motors may be used where desirable.
‘Nb and He and the passage Ma into the low
The gear reducing mechanism 81 (Fig. 9) is
pressure port 44.
provided with a casing 88 in which the right-hand
The shaft 63 of the main valve is connected to
end of the valve shaft 63 is rotatably mounted.
the shaft 13 of the leveling valve by a lever or
other mechanism 11 (Figs. 3 and 20) so that
movement of the main valve moves the leveling
valve. The lower end of the lever 11 is fulcrumed
on the engine frame 35 by a link Tia, its central
portion is connected to the shaft 63 by a swivel
coupling 18 and its upper end is connected to the
Inasmuch as the shaft 53 moves longitudinally,
a cap 89 is mounted on one side of the casing
respect to the valves so that the travel of the lev
move axially with the gears still in mesh.
A clutch or power transmitting device 95a
to protect the outer end of the shaft when it
moves beyond the casing wall. The motors 90 and
BI are coupled on a shaft 95 which extends into
the casing 88 and is provided with a pinion 9|
disposed to mesh with a gear wheel 92 ?xed on a
shaft ‘I3 by a link 110. An adjustable joint 11d
(Figs. 3 and 20) is used to connect the link 110 20 gear shaft 93 rotatably mounted in the casing. A
pinion 94 is disposed on the gear shaft in position
to the shaft 13 so that the position of the leveling
to mesh with a gear wheel 95 ‘mounted on the
valve relative to the position of the main valve
valve shaft 63 so that rotation of the motors will
may be readily adjusted.
effect a corresponding reduced rotation of the
The link 11a (Fig. 2-0) is preferably adjustably
valve shaft. The pinion 94 is made much wider
connected at ‘He and 71b to the engine frame 35
than the gear wheel 95 so that the shaft 63 may
and to the lever 11 to vary the lever arms with
eling valve may be adjusted for a given stroke of
the main valve.
(Fig. 9) is disposed between the gear wheel 95
and the shaft 63 and provided with spring con
nectors 95b to permit a limited resilient axial
connected to the shaft 63 by means of a combined
movement between the gear wheel and the shaft
radial and thrust ball bearing 19a (Figs. 18 and
sufficient to absorb shocks between the gear and
19) held by a cap 78b in a body 180 which is
the shaft and also to take care of the rotational
mounted by trunnion pins in the forked right end
of the coupling.
35 movement of the shaft during the ?nal closing
movement of the cam mechanism after the
The main valve 60 is arranged to lap its ports
motors are deenergized and a brake I99 is applied.
640 to a greater extent than the leveling valve 14
Any suitable clutch or resilient power transmit
covers its ports ‘Mb with the result that the ports
ting device which will permit a limited axial
640 are closed with the leveling valve ports 14b
partially open. Due to the tapering of the ends 40 movement of the shaft may be used but I prefer
to use the power transmitting device disclosed
of the main valve ports 640, to the adjustment of
and claimed in my copending application Serial
the main and Vernier valves, and to the shape of
No. 514,519, ?led December 16, 1943.
the actuating cam (hereinafter described), the
The shaft 63 extends through the differential
main and leveling valves are moved in closing
and opening directions to provide a metering or 45 mechanism 83. A portion of the shaft 63 in the
differential is formed as a screw I96 having a.
vernier effect, thereby securing a restricted or
steep pitch to constitute one part of the differ
graduated in?ow or outflow of oil with conse
ential (Fig. 17). The other part of the differen
quent smoothness of action. Further, with the
tial is constituted by a nut member IEII which
valve piston 69 lapping its cylinder port Me, the
engages the screw I99 and which is capable only
Vernier valve partially covers its cylinder port
of rotational movement controlled by the engine
14b so that high pressure is effective to hold the
platform in its “up” position and so that liquid
The threads of the screw and of the nut are
under low pressure acts on the plunger to counter~
coarse and have such helical angles that either
act the effective gravity to a desired extent with
may drive the other by screw-and-nut action.
the platform in its lowermost position.
Hence, if the screw and the nut have differential
The means for operating and controlling the
rotation with the nut restrained against axial
main valve comprises (Fig. 3) a pair of motors
80 and BI responsive to a push button control
movement, the screw-threaded action will give an
system for rotating the valve-positioning shaft 63,
axial movement to the valve-positioning shaft
a gear mechanism 82 operated by the engine 60 for moving the valve means in opening and clos
plunger, a differential mechanism 83 responsive
ing directions.
to operation of the valve-positioning shaft and
With the nut capable only of rotational move
the gear mechanism for automatically controlling
ment and the screw arranged both for movement
movement of the valve to secure the desired ac
rotationally and translatorily in an axial direc
celeration and normal running speed of the ele 65 tion, it will be apparent that these parts are
vator, and cam mechanisms 84 and 85 for effect
capable of functioning as a differential. The
The coupling 18 (Figs. 3, 18 and 19) is pivotally
ing valve-closing movement upon the completion
of a plunger stroke, the cam mechanism 84 being
moved into operating position by the plunger at
the end of its inward stroke, and the cam mech
anism 85 being moved into operating position by
the plunger at the end of its outward stroke.
The motors 80 and 8| may be reversible con
effect of rotary input motion or motions imparted
to the screw and/or nut is to give to the screw a
translatory output motion provided that the screw
and nut rotate differentially, the effect of rotary
input motion given to the screw being to move it
translatorily to move the valve means in an open
ing direction and the effect of rotary input mo
stant speed torque motors of any suitable type
mounted by a base plate 86 on the engine bed 35 75 tion given to the nut being to move the screw
translatorily to move the valve means in a closing
Furthermore, the screw has a thread of such
angle that it is not self-locking but is a free-run
ning screw so that it may have translatory in
shaft 63 or axial movement thereof, depending
upon whether or not the valve shaft is being
rotated at the time and its speed of rotation.
When .the shaft 63 is rotated by the motors 80
and 8| it will move axially if the bevel gear wheel
put motion imparted to it in response to plunger
502 is stationary.
- '
position, in which event it will have a rotational
With this construction, when the plunger and
output motion unless the nut is rotated suf?
the nut IOI are at rest and the motors 80 and 8|»
ciently to avoid the latter. Therefore, it is essen
are operated to open the main valve to its “up”
tial that rotational movement of the shaft 63 for 10 position or to its “down” position, they rotate the
this reason shall not be prevented or resisted un
valve shaft 63 in the nut I0 I. This rotation of the
duly. Hence, the driving motor has a rotor which
shaft and its screw I 06 causes axial movement of
is freely rotatable relative to its stator structure
the shaft and the valve as long as the nut I 0|
so that the rotational effort of the shaft may re
remains stationary; but, as the plunger starts to
tard or reverse the rotor. Also, because of such 15 move, it rotates the nut I 0| on the screw threaded
rotational output motion of the shaft 63, the gear
portion I06 of the shaft 03 and thereby slows
95 is connected thereto by the resilient coupling
down the axial movement of the shaft.
95a providing for a limited relative angular move
As the plunger speeds up, the rotational speeds
ment of the shaft 63 when such gear is held by
of the nut IOI and the shaft 63 approach each
the brake, such coupling being disclosed and 20 other, and, at the desired speed of the plunger,
claimed in my aforesaid application, Serial No.
the speed of the nut and the speed of the shaft
are the same, so that the axial movement of the
shaft ceases and the valve remains stationary in
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that
the screw may have applied thereto either rota
the position to which it has been moved. In other
tional or translatory input motion, that the nut 25 words, the motor tends to open the valve while
has only rotary input motion imparted thereto,
the plunger motion tends to close the valve. Con
and that in all cases output motion of the differ
seduently, the valve will seek a position which
ential is delivered by the screw, such output
will maintain the plunger speed in a direct ratio
motion either being translatory motion of the
with the motor speed while the elevator is run
screw or rotational movement thereof depend
ning between terminals. Further, as the valve
ing, respectively, on rotary input motion and
flow area increases until the platform speed is
translatory input motion being imparted thereto.
Inasmuch as the pinion 04 is much wider than
the gear wheel 95 and has a width equal to the
length of the screw I03 of the differential, the
shaft 63 and the gear wheel 95 are permitted to
move axially a distance equal tothe width of
the gear pinion 94, which distance should be
equal to the distance the shaft must be moved
to open and close the valve ports.
The differential mechanism 83 is disposed in a
gear casing I00 (Fig, 1'?) mounted on the engine.
The nut IOI has an extended hollow shaft or
sleeve portion IOIa and is rotatably mounted in
the casing by a pair of ball bearings I04 and I05
which prevent axial movement thereof but render
it easily rotatable. The means by which the
plunger rotates the nut comprises a bevel gear
I02 ?xed on the nut, a bevel gear I03 disposed
in mesh with the bevel gear I02 and ?xed on the 5 O.
lower end of a vertical shaft I08 rotatably mount
ed in the upper part of the casing by suitable
ball bearings I09 and H0, and a gear wheel III
?xed on the upper end of the shaft in position to
be operated by the gear mechanism 82 operated 55
by the plunger.
The gear mechanism 82 includes a gear wheel
I II which is ?xed on the upper end of the shaft
in predetermined relation to the motor speed,v
it will be apparent that load variations, includ
ing that due to changes in motive oil viscosity,
are cared for by variation in flow area.
The cam mechanism 04 at the left-hand end
of the plunger has a rear cam II1 (Figs. 12, 13,
14, 15) which is pivotally mounted at its left
hand end by pin I I8 on the rear face on the left
hand end of the rack rail (Figs. 3, 12, 13), so
that it will move with the rackrail. An adjust
able' stop bolt H0 in the left-hand end of the
cam is disposed to engage a brarket I20 on'the
rack rail H3 to limit the up movement of the
free end of the cam.
A bolt I2I is mounted on
the left-hand end of the cam and passes through
a bracket I20 on the rack rail for holding a spring
I22 under compression to bias the free end of the
cam upwardly to the limit set by the stop bolt
II 9. The upper face of the cam II‘! is disposed
to engage and raise a roller I23 on the left arm
I24 of a T-lever I25 when the rack rail is moved
by the engine plunger to the right as it ap
proaches the end of its inward stroke.
The T-lever is rotatably mounted in a pair
of bearings I26 and I2‘! on the engine frame and
is also provided with a right-hand arm I28 car
rying a roller I29 disposed to be engaged by a
front cam I30 in the cam mechanism 85 at the
by a gear rack II2 (Figs. 12 and 13). The gear 60 rear end of the plunger. The cam I30 is mounted
rack H2 is ?xed on a rack bar II3 slidably dis
on the right-hand end of the rack rail in the
I08 in position to be engaged by and operated
posed between and support-ed by a plurality of
rollers I I4 in a plurality of brackets I I5 mounted
same manner as the left-end cam II‘! but in
on the valve shaft 63, rotation of the gear wheel
to secure the most desirable slowdown effects as
reverse relation with respect to the latter.
on the engine bed. An arm H6 is mounted on
The shape of the upper face of the cam II‘!
the plunger head with its upper end attached 65 is such that it will gradually raise the roller
to the rack rail so that the plunger will move the
I23 as the plunger approaches the end of its rear
rack rail along with it as it moves back and forth
stroke and thereby rock the T-lever in clock
and thereby vcause rotation of the gear wheel
wise direction. The shape of the cam I30 is such
III, shaft I 08, gear wheel I03 and gear wheel
that it will gradually raise the roller I29 when
70 the engine plunger approaches the end of its
Inasmuch as the gear wheel I02 is ?xed on
forward stroke and thereby rock the T-lever in
the nut I 0! which is restrained from axial move
counterclockwise direction. The shapes of the
ment and which is disposed on the screw I06
cams will usually be slightly different in order
I02 will cause either similar rotation of the Valve 75 the plunger approaches the end of its outward
stroke and as it approaches the end of its inward
stroke. Cam tips I3I and I32 are mounted on
the cams Ill and I30 for ensuring the predeter
mined closing movement of the valve desired at
the end of either plunger stroke. These tips are
preferably removable so that they may be re
placed at any time when worn or when it is de
sired to change the contour of the cams at their
valve closing points. As the cams are biased up
wardly about the pivots IIB by the springs I22,
they are positioned to be acted upon by the fol
lower mechanism, each cam thereby being posi
tioned to suit the extent of valve opening. As
the cams are then looked in adjusted position,
it will be apparent that the surface of each cam
will be effective to its full extent regardless of
variation in lift occasioned by the extent of valve
opening variation with the result that the clos
ing action begins approximately at the same point
cams move the valves at the terminals but the
rack gear II?! on the plunger acting through the
differential moves the main valve and conse~
qucntl'y the leveling valve in an emergency stop
and the farther the creep the greater the motion
to move the valves to their dead center or “no
creep” position. Hence in an emergency stop,
the cylinder port will be completely closed and
no oil will enter or leave the cylinder, thus caus
10 ing the plunger and the platform to remain sta
The stopping cam Ill has been described as
a ?oating cam with a spring I22 for biasing it
upwardly to the limit set by its limit bolt H9,
and in order to make it effectively operate the
arm I24 of the T-lever, its free end must be locked
or bolted to the rack rail at the time it starts its
decelerating and stopping operation. It is fea
sible in many cases to use ordinary bolting means
in the elevator travel under different condi 20 for fastening the cam permanently to the rack
rail, but inasmuch as there are times when the
viscosity of the oil or variations in the loads may
The T-lever I25 is provided with a depending
cause the T-arm I24 to be out of its normal po
arm I33, the lower end of which is pivotally con
sition at the time it meets
cam at the start
nected to the swivel coupling ‘I8 on the left end
in order
of the valve shaft 63.
to render the cam effective at whatever height
Inasmuch as the swivel ‘coupling ‘I8 connects
best suits the position of the arm I2‘! under pre
the T-arm I33, the lever 11 and the shaft 63,
vailing conditions, I have provided a cam lock
any movement of the T-lever by the cams will
MI which is responsive to the position of the
effect axial movement of the shaft 63 and the
plunger for locking the cam I I1 against the rack
shaft ‘I3. Conversely, any axial movement of the
bar in whatever position it may be in at that time
shaft 63 will move the T-lever and the shaft
and holding it there until the valve closing action
is completed.
By reason of the leverage exerted by the lever
The cam lock I4I (Figs. ill, 15, 16) has a locking
11, the shape of the valve-closing cams, the
larger lap of the main valve as compared to the 35 block I42 welded or otherwise secured to the rack
bar II3 and provided with upwardly extending
vemier valve as well as the lapping relation of
teeth disposed in its side to be engaged by coop
the valves, the off position of the valves at the
erating downwardly extending teeth in a latch
end of up travel will not be the same as their
I43 movably mounted by a shaft M4 disposed in
off position at the end of down travel. The
shape of the up cam I30 should be such as to 40 a support member I49 in the cam H1. The shaft
I44 is retained in the cam I H by means of a bolt
operate the T-lever to so move the valves that,
I45 which passes through a cap holder hi6 mount
while the main valve is closed, the leveling or
ed on the outer end of the shaft.
Vernier valve will leave a little of the leveling
The latch block I43 is biased away from the
port exposed when the plunger is forced against
its up stopping blocks 4| and thereby keep the 48 lock block I42 by a spring I47 mounted on the
shaft I44 between a shoulder I48 on the seating
plunger forced against them with full pressure
member I43 and the inner edges of the cap I46.
on up motion due to the leakage through the
A biasing spring I56 is also disposed around the
exposed portion of the up leveling valve permit
bolt I45 between the inner portion of the shaft
ting pressure from the pressure side of the sys
50 Hill and the inner portion of the cap 246. The
tem to build up.
use of the two springs provides a resiliently con
On the other hand, on down motion the weight
trolled means for biasing the locking latch away
of the platform is kept from causing too rapid
from the locking block and for permitting a soft
speed of the plunger for the down direction by
and easy engagement therewith. A pair of guide
balancing part of the weight by the pressure in
I5I and I52 are mounted on the cam II?
the low pressure side of the system, as the cylin 55
at each side of the locking latch I43 for the pur
der is exhausted to the low pressure tank. At
pose of maintaining the latch in vertical position.
the lower level, the cam closes the ports in the
Any suitable means may be provided for caus
main valve and in the leveling valve until the
ing operation of the locking latch such
a sta
reduced rate of the exhausting oil slows down
the platform. Finally the plunger strikes its 60 tionary cam I54 mounted ‘on a part I55 of the
engine frame in position to engage a roller I56
rear stop, but the shape of the down cam H1
in a lever i5? for locking the look as the
is such that it does not cause the leveling valve
plunger approaches the end of its rearward stroke.
to fully close the leveling valve port but leaves
The base end of the lever IE1 is mounted on a
a little of it exposed so that the remaining
pressure in the cylinder causes the oil to leak 65 base support I53 attached to the racl: rail. H3
and its other end is disposed in engagement with
out until the pressure in the cylinder equals the
the outer end of the cap I45 on the cam locking
pressure of the low pressure side of the system.
device. As shown in Figs. 4 and B, when the
Consequently, a considerable part of the plat
plunger approaches closely the end of its rear
form weight and load is absorbed in pressing the
70 stroke, it will move the lever I51 and its roller
plunger against its rear stop.
I56 into engagement with the cam I54, thereby
If an emergency stop is made between the
forcing the lever I5"! against the outer end of
landings, the main valve and the leveling valve
the locking latch to move it against the locking
will be moved to their dead center position to
and thereby lock the cam II'I against any
prevent creepage of the plunger to either terminal
under leakage through the leveling port, The 75 further downward movement, so that the cam
2,409, 1 98'
I I1 will present a firmly supported face to the
roller I23 and thus operate the T-arm I24 to
accurately slow down the plunger and shut .the
larly, the initial limit switch IRD, the ‘follow-up
limit switch 2RD and the ?nal limit switch 3RD
for the down direction are mounted on the en
valve completely at the end of the rear stroke of
gine frame 35 in position to be engaged by the
the plunger. A similar lock operated in a similar
cam I8I as the engine plunger nears the end of
manner by the cam IBM; is also provided for the
its rearward stroke.
front cam I30.
In order to prevent operation of the valve mo
Inasmuch as the valve shaft 63 extends from
tor control system until the other apparatus asso
the valve block through the differential mecha
ciated with the elevator is in condition for move
nism and the gear reducing mechanism, it is 10 ment of the elevator platform, the circuit lead
constructed in sections connected by a plurality
ing to the control contactors is provided with ya
of universal joints I53 to relieve any strain which
pair of pump interlocks PI and P2, a hand-drive
may be incurred by the length of the shaft or
interlock I85, a broken-rope interlock BR, a
misalinement of any parts with which it is asso
platform interlock PF and a pair of stowing
guide interlocks SI and $2. One of the pump
The control system diagrammatically illus
trated in Fig. 20 for controlling the valve motors
to cause automatic operation of the elevator, in
cludes the following relays and contactors:
SIIU, Up direction relay,
80D, Down direction relay.
U, Up direction contactor.
D, Down direction contactor.
6, Contactor for motor 8I.
SR, Running relay.
TR, Contactor for shorting resistance in primary
motor 80.
IRU, Initial limit switch up direction.
ZRU, Follow up limit switch up direction.
Final limit switch up direction.
IRD, Initial limit switch down direction.
2RD, Follow up limit switch down direction.
3RD, Final limit switch down direction.
80, Starting and running motor (drives valve
ilI, Running motor (direct coupled to motor 80).
interlocks and all the other interlocks must be
in closed position before the control system can
be operated to energize the valve motors to move
the elevator.
At times it may be desirable to operate the en
gine valve by manual means instead of by the
motors and their push button control system.
Therefore I have provided a hand drive I59 (Figs.
10 and 11) which may be used instead of the mo
tors and their push button control.
The motor drive is used for automatically op
erating the valve by up and down push buttons
during normal operation and the hand drive is
used for operating the valves by hand when the
30 elevator is being stored or inched into any posi
tion or in case of failure of the motors or the
power to which the motors are connected. The
hand drive is much slower in operation than the
motor drive and is seldom used, but either drive
may be used as a motive means for operating
the valve shaft 63.~
The hand drive I59 (Figs. 3, 9, 10 and 11) is
An “up” push button U13 and a “down” push
mounted in a casing or station I50a, embodying
button DB are provided for energizing the direc
hand~operated mechanism for operating a shaft
tion relays to cause operation of the elevator in 40 I60, the lower end of which is connected by a
the up or the down direction, and an emergency
pair of beveled gears ISI and I 62 to the gear pin
stop button SB is provided for deenergizing them
to stop the platform at any time. These push but
ion 94 in the gear reducing mechanism 81 for
driving the gear wheel 95 to rotate the main
tons should be located at some convenient station
valve shaft 53.
for operation by an attendant.
The upper end of the operating shaft ISO is ro
The “up” push button controls an up direction
tatably mounted in the casing I 59a and a beveled
relay SIIU and the “down” push button controls
gear IE3 is mounted on its inner end in position
a down direction relay 801) which, in turn, con
trol an up direction contactor U and a down di
to be engaged by cooperating beveled gear I64 '
slidably ?xed on a gear shaft I65 rotatably and
rection contactor D for connecting the valve 50 slidably ‘mounted in the central portion of the
motor 80 to three alternating current supply
conductors I, II and III and for preparing the‘
circuit of the valve motor 8! for operation.
The running relay SR is connected across two
of the conductors for the motor 80 so that it
casing I59a by shaft supports I659, and IBM). A
hand wheel I65 is mounted on the outer end of
the shaft I65 for use in rotating it. In order to
provide for easy rotation of the hand wheel and
the shaft, a crank arm I61, having a handle I68,
is mounted on the hand wheel by a hinge joint
I69 in position to rotate the hand wheel and shaft
when it is moved to its outermost position. A
will be energized when the motor is energized. 55
It is provided for the purpose of preparing the
circuits of the contactor 6 and the contactor TR
for operation.
manually releasable spring operated snap latch
The contactor 6 is responsive to operation of
I19 holds the crank arm in its outer position
eitherone of the direction relays and the running
when it is ready for operation by hand. A de
relay and is provided for energizing the motor
tent III is provided for releasably retaining the
8| after the motor 80 is energized. The shunt-'7
handle in its inoperative position.
ing contactor TB, is responsive to energization of
A cover I12, connected to the casing I59a by a
either one of the direction relays and the run
hinged joint connection I 13, is provided for cover
ning relay and is provided for short-circuiting 65 ing the hand Wheel and its crank arm when they
a plurality of resistors rI , T2 and T3 in the circuit
are not in use and for preventing energization
of the motor 80.
of the motors while the hand drive is in use. A
The initial limit switch IRU, the follow-up lim
latch I 14 is mounted in the casing I59a for latch
it switch ZRU and the ?nal limit switch 3RU for
70 ing the cover I12 in its closed position. This
the up direction are electrically connected in the
control circuit and mounted on the engine frame
35 (Fig. 13) in position to be operated by a cam
latch may be released when it is desired to open
the cover, by operating a handle I15 which rotates
a cam I16 to free the latch.
I8I attached to the engine plunger as the engine
The cover I12 is pivotally connected by a link
moves to the end of its forward stroke. Simi 75
I11 to a lever I18 fulcrumed on a projection I19
on the right side’ of the casing (Fig. 11). The
of which are connected across two of the supply
conductors for the valve motor 86 so that ener—
free forked end of the lever I18 is disposed in a
gization of the valve motor 88 will energize the
spool, I83 fixed on the rear end or" the shaft I55
coil ill‘! for pulling the wedge 269 downwardly
so that an opening movement of the door will
into its brake releasing position and thus permit
operate the lever 11s to move the shaft I65 to
the shaft I50 to rotate with the valve shaft when
the left and thereby mesh the gear wheel I54 with
it is being operated by the valve motors instead
the gear wheel I63 to provide for rotation of the
of by the hand drive.
operating shaft I60 when the crank arm I6? is
As shown, the brake IE3 is released whenever
rotated. This movement of the gear shaft I65
moves the hand wheel I65 and its operating 10 the valve motors are energized to operate the
valve shaft and is applied to its brake drum
crank arm I6‘! outwardly so that they may be
whenever the valve motors are deenergized, to
easily operated. A spring IE2 is mounted on the
prevent the valve shaft from being rotated by
shaft I65 between the spool um and a collar 583
the tendency of the valve motors to coast after
to soften the engagement of the gear IG-il with
being deenergized.
the gear I63 when they are moved into engage
t is necessary also to release the brake I90
ment with each other.
when the valve shaft is being operated by the
The shaft IE5 is provided with a spool-like porn
hand drive. This is accomplished by providing
tion I84 near its central portion disposed to re
a lever arm 2H1 on the bell crank
to extend
ceive the forked end of a lever lilt- for operating
an interlock switch I85 mounted on the inner 20 into a lost motion connection 2I5 with the link
I'I'I leading from the cover to the gear shifting
side of the casing I59a. When the gear shaft
lever H8. The lost motion connection Ell? is so
I65 is moved to the left to engage the gear I64
disposed on the link I‘I‘I that the bell crank lever
with the gear I63 for hand operation, it moves
be moved to brake releasing position by
the lever I85 to open the switch I35 in the con
the electromagnet 2H) without moving,r the link
trol circuit for the valve motors 8G and (SI (Fig.
20). When the gear I64 is disengaged from the
ill, but if the door or cover I'IZ is opened, its
opening movement will push the link I'I'I to the
right and thereby move the bell crank arm BM in
anticlockwise direction (Fig. 11) to pull down
wardly on the arm 296 and thereby pull the wedge
between the outer ends of the brake arms ml
and IJE to spread them apart and thereby release
the brake.
By the foregoing construction, it will be evident
that the brake I9!) will be applied to the shaft
to prevent rotation of the valve shaft 63
only when the hand drive cover I72 is closed,
gear I63, the movement causes the shaft to move
the lever I85 to close the switch 1.36 so that the
valve motors may be safely operated to move the
main valve when the hand drive is not in use.
An electromechanical brake I9!) is provided for
absorbing the stored energy of the valve motors
80 and BI when they are deenergized. If no
brakes were used, the coast of the motors in slow
Ing down would unnecessarily drag out the re
tardation of the platform. The brake I58 com
prises a pair of brake ams l9! and I92 pivotally
mounted on projections I93 on the inner side of
the casing ISt'a to extend around and embrace
to prevent operation of the hand mechanism,
and the valve motors are in dcenergized condition,
that is, whenever the cover is opened, the brake
is released mechanically; and, with the cover
closed, the brake is released when the motors are
a brake drum Hi4 formed on the skirt of the gear
wheel I63. The brake arms are biased into en
gagement with the brake drum by a pair of brake
springs I95 and I95 which are held in compres
sion against the outer ends of the brake arms by
a bolt I91. The bolt I91 passes through the brake
to hold the springs against them by a pair
of washers I98 and I99. Thus the brake levers,
under the force of the brake springs, will apply
sufficient force to the brake drum to lock rota
tion of the operating shaft I60, but a resilient
connection provided by springs 85b (Fig. 9) in the
clutch 35a permits a small additional rotation of
shaft 53. My aforementioned copending applica
tion Serial No. 514,519, discloses such a construc
tion more fully.
The means for releasing the brake comprises
a wedge 2G0 disposed to enter between the outer
ends of the brake arms and force them apart.
The outer ends of the brake arms are provided
Assumed operation of the apparatus
Assuming that the elevator platform It is at
the main deck I4 and ready for movement up
to the flight deck I5, that the hand drive cover
H2 is closed so that the system is subject to
operation by motor control, that the interlocks
including the pump interlocks PI and P2 are
closed, and that it is desired to move the plat
form upwardly to the ?ight deck, the attendant
presses the up push button UB at the control
The closed button UB energizes the up direc
tion relay Bill] by the circuit LI, PI, I85, BR, PF,
S22, SI, SB, UB, SUU, BQDI, BR‘U, L3, to cause
energization of the valve motors. The energized
relay EiGU closes its contacts till)’ i, BOUT» and BOUII
with rol'ers MI to reduce the friction between a
and opens its back contact 363112. The closed con
the wedging faces of the wedge and the ends of
tacts 3;.U3 provide a self holding circuit for the
the brake levers as the wedge is forced between
relay. The closed contacts 81lU4 prepare a cir
thorn to separate them. The wedge is adjustably
cuit for the contactor B and the shorting relay
mounted by a bolt 263 on an operating shaft 294,
the upper end of which is slidably disposed in a 65 TR. The closed contacts BEUl energize the up
direction relay by the circuit, L2, L--4, TR4,
guide projection 285 on the inner top surface of
still, U, iidDI, QRU, L3. The energized relay U
the housing I59a. The lower end of the wedge
closes its contacts UI, U2, U3 and U4. The closed
shaft 264 is pivotally connected to one end of a
contacts U11 provide a self holding circuit for the
bell crank lever ZilB, mounted by a pivot pin 20'!
contactc-r U. The closed contacts UI, U2 and U3
on the side of the casing ISM. The other end
connect the motor 80 to the supply conductors I,
of the bell crank lever is pivotally connected by
II and III and thereby energize that motor
link 2938 to the armature 209 of an electro
through its resistors TI, T2 and 1'3 to start oper
magnet 2H! mounted on the interior of the cas
ation for opening the engine valves.
ing [59a by a plurality of bolts 2| I. The electro
magnet is provided with a coil 2I2, the terminals 75 The energization of the circuits to the motor
80 energizes the running relay SR which closes
its contacts SRI and SR2, thereby energizing
the motor contactor 6 and the shorting relay
TR by the circuit, L2, I RU, 80U4, SR2, 6 and TR
in parallel, L3.
The energized relay 6 closes its contacts 6—~I,
6—2, 6-3 and opens its contacts 6-4. The closed
contacts 6—-I, 6—2 and 6—3 connect the motor
8| for operation and inasmuch as it is mounted
on the same shaft as the motor 80, it adds its
power to that of the motor 80 for rotating the
shaft 63-. The open contacts 6-4 open the
starting circuit for the relay U, but that relay
Should the motors 00 and BI open the valve too
far, the platform and plunger overspeed thus
rotating the nut IOI ahead of the screw to par
tially close the valve for slowing down the plat
form and the plunger. As soon as the screw I06
and the nut IOI reach the same speed, the plat~
form has a uniform speed which is a function of
the motor speed. Should there be any tendency
to slight hunting, the opposing in?uences affect
ing the extent of valve opening rapidly come into
balanced relation such that the valve is positioned
for a plunger speed turning the nut IOI at the
same rotational speed as the screw I06 is rotated
remains energized because it is connected to the
by the motor or motors.
conductor L+I through the contacts 2RU and 15
As the elevator approaches to within approxi
The energized relay TR closes its contacts TRI,
mately forty inches of the flight deck, the slow-_
down cam I30 engages the roller I29 to close the
valves, the cam I8I opens the initial up limit‘
closed contacts TRI, TR2 and TR3 short out. the
switch IRU and the cam I540. is engaged by the
resistors rI , T2 and r3 thus increasing the strength 20 cam lock mechanism I4Ia associated with the
of the motor 80. The opening of the contacts TRlI
cam I30 and forces it into locking engagement
in the already open starting circuit of the con~
to lock the cam I30 in the position best suited to
tactor U has no effect.
the operation of the T-lever considering the load
The energization of the motor 80 also energizes
ing on the elevator and the viscosity of the oil
the coil 2 I 2 (Fig. 20) of the electromagnetic brake
for operating the engine and results produced
(Figs. 10 and 11) and thus raises its armature
thereby on the position of the T-lever as the
209 which pulls upward on the link 208 to oper
cam I30 engages it.
ate the lever 206 and thereby pull the wedge 200
The opening of the initial up limit switch IRU
downwardly between the outer ends of the brake
deenergizes the motor contactor 6 and the short
levers I9I and I92. The downward movement of 30 ing relay TR. The deenergized contactor 6 opens
the wedge 200 releases the brake arms from the
its contacts 6—I, 6-—2 and 6—-3 and thereby de
TR2 and TR3 and opens its contacts TR4.
brake drum and leaves the operating shaft I60
energizes the valve motor 8|. The deenergized
relay TR opens its contacts TRI, TR2 and TR3,
anism 8'! for rotation.
thereby reinserting the resistors rI, T2 and T3 in
The energized motors 80 and BI rotate their - the circuit of the valve motor 80. The deenergi
shaft 96 (Fig. 9) and thereby operate the gears
'zation of the motor 0| and the decreased energi
9I, 92, 94 and 95 to rotate the valve shaft 63.
zation of the motor 80 provide for reduced torque
Inasmuch as the plunger is standing at the end
exerted on the valve shaft 63.
of its rearward stroke, the gear rack II2, ‘the
As the plunger continues toward the end of
gear wheel III, and the nut member IOI of the 40 its forward stroke the cam I30 raises the arm
differential are stationary. As the motors rotate
I28 of the T-lever and thereby forces its arm
the valve shaft 63 for up direction operation, its
I33 to the right (Fig. 13) thus moving the cou
screw-threaded portion I06 (Fig. 17) rotates in
pling ‘I8 and hence the valve shaft. 63 to the
the nut IOI which pulls the shaft axially to the
right and with it the leveling valve shaft ‘I3.
left, thus moving the main piston valve 60 from
The closing movement of the main valve decreases
its central position in the valve chamber (Figs. 5
the passage for the oil into the engine cylinder
and 6) toward the exhaust port 44 (Fig. '7) thus
and thereby decelerates the plunger.
opening the valve ports 64c and permitting oil
When the platform is approximately thirty
to ?ow through the high pressure port 43, the
inches from the flight deck the plunger cam I8I
valve chamber section 64a, the ports 64c and the 50 opens the follow-up limit switch 2RU but no ac~
cylinder port 62 into the engine cylinder 34.
tion follows this because this is a safety switch
The movement of the main valve 60 operates
designed to cause an emergency stop if the up
the lever ‘I1 to open the leveling valve in accord
limit switch IRU fails to disconnect the motor
ance with the opening movement of the main
8| and decrease the power of the motor 80.
As the elevator platform arrives at a position
As the oil enters the cylinder from the pres
within one-half inch of the ?ight deck the cam
sure side of the system, the plunger starts on its
I 8I opens the ?nal up limit switch 3RU which
forward stroke and, in doing so, moves the rack
deenergizes the up direction contactor U which
gear I I2 and thereby rotates the gear I I I mount
opens its contacts UI, U2 and U3 and thereby
ed on the shaft I08, which, in turn, rotates the 60 deenergizes the valve motor 00 while it is oper
gear wheels I03 and I02 and the nut MI. The
ating at reduced torque so that it applies no fur
rotation of the nut on the screw threaded por
ther rotative power to the valve shaft 63. Fur
tion I06 of the valve shaft is in the same direc
thermore, the deenergization of the motor 80 de
tion as the rotation of the valve shaft; and,
energizes the brake coil 2I2, which thereupon
therefore, due to the differential action of the 65 releases the wedge 200 from between the brake
screw and nut, the valve shaft starts to slow up
arms and permits the application of the brake
its axial movement when rotation of the nut
by the brake springs.
Returning now to the operation of the cam
As the plunger speeds up thus increasing the
I30 as it is pulled under the roller I29, the move
speed of the upward movement of the elevator 70 ment of the cam continued to raise the arm I28
platform, the speeds of rotation of the nut IOI
and thereby caused the depending arm I 33 to
and the valve shaft screw I06 approach each
push the coupling ‘I8 and with it the valve shaft
other. At the rate of platform speed for which
63 and the valve ‘I3 to gradually decelerate the
the apparatus is designed, the speed of the
plunger to stop at the end of its forward stroke
plunger and the valve shaft will be equal.
75 when the elevator is at the ?ight deck. As this
free to rotate, thereby freeing the gearing mech
2,409, 1 9s
decelerating action continues and T-lever moves
the valve shaft 63 until the main valve gradually
closes its valve ports 64c and thus stops the further flow of oil from the high pressure port 43
through the main valve ports. At the same time,
the movement of the valve shaft 33 causes the
lever 11 to move the leveling valve 6! toward its
closed position. However, the shape of the cam
I3!) is such that in its “off” position for up travel,
it moves the valve shaft 53 far enough to cause
the valve Gil to cover its ports 640 but not quite
far enough to cause the leveling valve to close
its ports Nb, and the oil continues to seep through
it. Hence, with the platform H) engaging the
flight deck stops 19, the plunger is moved to en
gage the stop 41 under full pressure, due to the
leakage through the exposed portion of the leveling
valve permitting pressure to build up in the en
gine cylinder. Thus it is assured that the cables
will be tensioned to exert upward force of the
platform against its stops to the desired extent.
It should also be noted that the lever 11 pro
vides such relative movement ranges of the main
and leveling valves and that the relative laps of
the latter are such that the leveling valve closes
slowly and trails the main valve and thereby pro
vides a Vernier-like action for securing a par
port 43 and thereby open the ports 640, thus
permitting the oil in the cylinder to flow out
through the cylinder port 62, the ports 64c and
the chamber section are into the low pressure
port 44 under the pressure exerted upon the
plunger by the weight of the elevator platform.
The opening movement of the valve for down
operation will continue while the plunger starts
moving and operating the rack rail H2, thus ro
tating the gear Hi to cause rotation of the nut
IQ] for down direction operation. As the plung
er gains in speed, the speed of rotation of the
nut lfil increases until it is the same as the
speed of rotation of the valve shaft and the fur
ther opening movement of the valve shaft 83.
As before, should there be any tendency to slight
hunting, the opposing influences affecting the ex
tent cf valve opening rapidly come into balanced
relation such that the valve is positioned for a
plunger speed turning the nut i?l at the same
rotational speed as the screw ice is rotated by
the motors.
As the elevator descends to within forty inches
of the main deck, the cam i8! opens the ?rst
down limit switch 1RD and as the cam I I1 comes
under the roller £23 0f the T-lever, it starts to
raise that lever to close the valve for the down
ticularly ?ne degree of deceleration at the end
of the up stroke.
Assuming now that the elevator platform is at
the flight deck and that the attendant presses
the down button DB for causing the elevator
platform to return to the main deck, operation
of the button DB energizes the down direction
stop. Furthermore, the movement of the plunger
carries the cam lever i5’! underneath the ?xed
cam I521, thus causing operation of the lever I51
to move the locking latch I43 inwardly to lock
the cam l i? in the position in which the position
relay 80D by the circuit L2, DB, 86D, 80U2, 3RD,
been described in connection with the cam I30.
The energized relay 39D opens its contacts
BODI and closes its contacts BODZ, 8ilD3 and MBA.
The closing of the contacts 80D3 completes a
self holding circuit for the relay 831). The clos
ing of the contacts 83D4 prepares one part of the
circuit for the relays B and TR. The closing of
the contacts 86D2 energizes the down direction
contactor D by the circuit L2, 5——4, TRG, 80D2,
D, 80U2, 3RD, L3. rf‘he energized contactor D
closes its contacts DI , D2, D3 and D4.
The closed
contacts D4 complete a self holding circuit for
the relay D. The closed contacts DI, D2 and D3
energize the valve motor 80 through its resis
tors RI , R2 and R3.
As before, energization of the motor 80 ener
gizes the brake coil 21;! to release the brake 199
in the hand drive station. The energization of
the motor 80 also energizes the running relay SR,
which closes its contacts SR: and SR2, thereby
energizing the contactor B and the shorting relay
TR by the circuit L2, BED-'1, SR1, 1RD, 6 and TB
in parallel, L3. The energized contactor 6 closes
of the T-lever has forced it as they engage, the
operation and reasons therefor having already
Therefore, regardless of the exact position of the
arm I24 immediately after it is contacted by the
cam Hi, the cam will be locked in that position
so that its free end will not move any lower but
will remain where it is and its upper surface will
serve to raise the T-arm lever 124 at the desired
rate for closing engine valves as the plunger
moves into its rearward position with the eleva
tor reaching the main deck.
When the cam lSl opened the limit switch IRD
that limit switch deenergized the motor contactor
6 to deenergize the valve motor 8|. The opened
switch iRD also deenergized the shorting relay
TR which opened its contacts TRI, TR2 and TBS
50 and thereby reinserted the resistors Ti, 1'! and 13
in the circuit of the motor 80 so that the power
of the motor 8d on the valve shaft 63 is decreased
to a small amount.
As the plunger continues to the end of its rear
;" ward stroke it successively opens the limit switch
2RD and 3RD to deenergize the control contactor
and the valve motors in the same manner as pre
viously explained at the end of the forward stroke
of the plunger.
its contacts 6-~l, 6-4 and 6-3 and thereby en
As the plunger nears the end of its rearward
ergizes the valve motor ‘8| to assist the valve mo (it)
stroke the shape of the cam Ill so operates the
tor 80 in rotating the valve shaft for down op
T-lever that it forces the valve shaft 63 to the
eration. The energized shorting relay TR closes
point where the main valve closes the valve port
its contacts TRI, TRZ and rPR3 and thereby short
540 and at the same time the valve shaft 63 causes
circuits the resistors ri, 9'2 and T3 in the circuit
of the motor 80 to thereby bring the motor speed 65 the lever ll to move the leveling valve toward its
closed position, but, because of the shape of the
up to its maximum value in rotating the shaft 53.
cam I I1, it does not force the valve levers to quite
The energized motors 33 and 8! now rotate the
close the leveling valve. Depending on the shape
valve shaft 63 in a reverse direction through the
of the cam, the motor shaft may slow down, may
medium of the reducing gearing mechanism Bl
dead, or may even be reversed during this
(previously described); and, inasmuch as the
plunger is standing still at the end of its forward
The gradual closing Of the ports 640 by the main
stroke, the nut IUI of the differential is standing
and the port 14b by the leveling valve re—
still. Therefore rotation of the valve shaft 63 in
duces the rate of exhausting the oil and thus
the differential moves the shaft to the right and
thereby causes the valve 60 to move toward the 75 slows down the platform. Finally the plunger
strikes its rearward stop block 5| (Fig. 2) but the
the brake wedge 283 in between the outer ends of
leveling valve does not fully close with the result
the brake arms I9I and I92, This operation of
that liquid leaks out of the cylinder until the pres
the brake wedge frees the brake arms from the
sure equals that of the low pressure side of the
brake drum I94 so that the gear I63 and the
system. Consequently, a considerable part of the
shaft I69 may be operated by rotation of the
platform weight and load will press the plunger
crank arm I61. Thus, it will be apparent that
against its rearward stop and thus hold the plat
the opening of the hand-drive cover I12 not only
form ?rmly at the main deck.
opens the interlock in the electric control system
The foregoing operations describe how the
but also releases the brake I99 from holding the
pressing of an up push button will cause the hy 10 shaft I60 and, consequently, the valve shaft 63
draulic engine to mOVe the elevator from the main
against rotation.
deck to the plate deck and, also, how the press
It will be assumed now that the attendant
ing of the down push button will cause the hy
grasps the crank handle I 68 and rotates the
draulic engine to move the elevator from the
crank arm I61 in the correct direction for mov
flight deck down to the main deck and stop it
ing the elevator in the direction he wishes it to
move. This rotation of the crank shaft rotates
In case of an emergency while the motor con
the shaft I65 and with it the gear I64 in mesh
trol system is being used for operating the eleva
with the gear I63, and thereby rotates the oper
tor, the elevator may be stopped by pressing the
ating shaft I66 so that the gear wheel I6I on the
emergency stop button SB. Assuming that this
lower end of the shaft in mesh with the gear I62
button is pressed for an emergency stop, it de
on the shaft 93 rotates the pinion 94, the gear
energizes the circuit for the direction contactors
wheel 95, and with it the shaft 63. The rotation
regardless of the direction of operation. The de
of the shaft 63 in the differential 83 will cause it
energization of either direction contactor U or D
to move axially in accordance with the direction
deenergizes the valve motors 66 and 8| and also
in which the elevator is to be moved in the same
the brake I99, so that rotation of the valve shaft
manner as when the valve shaft 63 was operated
63 by the motors is stopped. Meanwhile, the
by the electric motors 80 and BI.
plunger in the cylinder continues its movement
Inasmuch as the rotation of the valve shaft
for a short distance and this movement operates
63 and the differential is the cause of moving it
the gear rack II2 to rotate the gear III on the 30 axially, it will be apparent that the crank arm
shaft I98 (Fig. 17) which in turn operates the
I61 must be turned constantly to keep the ele
gear wheels I63 and I92 to rotate the nut IOI
vator in movement. Of course the differential
on the screw I06.
will be moved to some extent by the operation of
Inasmuch as the shaft 63 is prevented from ro
the rack gear II2 on the plunger but not enough
tation, the rotation of the nut “II will move the
to noticeably affect the axial movement of the
shaft 63 axially until it causes the main valve 69
gear shaft 63. Inasmuch as the gear shaft 63
to close its ports 640. The main valve 66 will
must be rotated by the hand device in order to
close before the leveling valve 6I closes and oil
move it axially, this adds a safety element for
will continue to seep through the port 1422 until
hand operation, because stopping the hand rota
the operation of the differential by the plunger
tion of the hand drive crank will immediately
moves the valve 66 and the valve 6| to their dead
stop the elevator. The hand operation drive may
center position. In this position, the ports 14b
drive the elevator as fast as the motor control
and 640 will be completely closed and no oil can
drive does, but experience shows it is difficult to
flow into or out of the engine cylinder 34. Hence,
continue this speed. A slower turning of the hand
with the valves on dead center, the plunger will - wheel will yield say half speed. A very slow turn
stop moving and thereby bring the elevator plat
ing will provide an “inching” speed for ?ne ad
form to a stop.
justment, and for “inching” purposes during a
It will be assumed now that the attendant de
stowing or other operation of the elevator plat
sires to move the elevator by the hand control
form. The hand drive may be used at any time
I59 instead of by the push-button control. In 50 for normal operating purposes, if the motors fail
order to accomplish this, the attendant turns the
or the electric power is shut off so that the electric
handle I15 on the hand control and opens the
drive cannot be used.
cover I12. The opening of the cover I12 pushes
In the modi?ed form of my invention illustrated
the link I11 to the right (Figs. 10 and 11) there
in Fig. 22, I have illustrated a modi?cation of my
by operating the lever I18 to push the slida-ble 55 invention in which the valve shaft 63a as oper
rotatable shaft I65 to the left. This movement
ated to control an inlet port 432) and an outlet
of the shaft I65 meshes the gear wheel I64 with
port 442) for controlling a hydraulic engine (not
the gear wheel I63, moves the switch arm I85
shown) such as the engine I8 for operating an
to the left to open the interlocking switch I86
elevator platform lila‘ by a plurality of hoisting
in the push-button control system, and moves the
cables I60. and Ma.
hand wheel I66 with its crank I68 into open posi
The valve shaft is controlled by a constant
tion on the side of the hand control casing.
speed electric motor 80a, a differential mechanism
The attendant then moves the crank arm I61
83a and a pair of stop cams HM and I39a. The
to its open position where the snap latch I18 en
motor is connected to the shaft by a gear reducing
gages the hand wheel I66 and holds the crank 65 mechanism 81a and a ?exible coupling 95d. The
arm in cranking position. The opening of the
diiferential comprises a nut IOIc disposed on a
switch I86 opens the control circuit (Fig. 20) so
screw portion l?6a of the shaft and operated by
that the push-button control system cannot be
a gear rack II2a attached to the elevator plat
used while the hand drive is in operation.
form. Suitable collars I04a and I05a are mounted
The opening movement of the cover I12 in
at the ends of the nut I6 Ic to prevent axial move
moving the link I11 also causes that link to en 70 ment thereof. The cams Illa and I30a are
gage the lost motion connection 2I5 on the arm
mounted on a shaft 2I1 attached to the elevator
. 2 I4 of the crank lever 296 and thereby move that
lever in counterclockwise direction which pulls
When the platform is to be moved, the motor
- downwardly on the shaft 204 and thereby moves 75 80a is energized to rotate the shaft 53a in the nut
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