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Get. 15, 39%.
-
.1. A. MORTON
2,499,222
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed July 19, 1941
'
4 Sheets-Sheét 1
FIG. /
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FIG. 2
'
INVENTOR
.1 AMOR TON
8” 1.1M
ATTORNEY
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVIC‘E
Filed July 19, 1941
‘.36
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
‘
HEQ/lélglil l l l?
FIG 3
3/
HF. LOAD
FIG. 4
TING
FREQUENCY
|l|||i|||| [11ml IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIH]
INVENTOR
BY
J A. MOR TON
ATTOQAEV
Get. 35, 1M6.
J. A. MORTON
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed July 19, 1941
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
_Em:
___ ,_ _ m_
mm.
INVEN 7'01?
‘1; AMI? TO/V
BV
A 7' TORNEV
Qt“ 15, 1946»
'
J. A. MORTON
2,409,22
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed July 19, 1941
4 Sheets-'She'et 4
A
FIG. 6
FIG. 7
99
i
INVEN TOR
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
2,409,222
UNITED‘ STATES PATENT OFFICE
' 2,409,222
'
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Jack A. Morton, Upper Montclair, N. J.,_ assignor
to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated,
New York, N. Y.,_a corporation of New York
Application July 19, 1941, Serial No. 403,119‘
'19 Claims. (Cl. 315-5)
1
'
.
v
This invention relates to high frequency elec
tronic devices of the so-called magnetron type.
An object is to secure improved efficiency of
operation and higher energy output from such
devices at very high frequencies.
'
I
Another object is to make less critic'al‘the op
2
anode, between sections of the anode or between
separate electrodes adjacent to the anode. Some
of the electrons enter the high frequency ?eld
at a period of the cycle to absorb energy and be
accelerated so as to strike the anode and be re
moved from the interaction space. Other elec
erating adjustments required.
trons enter the high frequency ?eld at a period
Another object is to pregroup the electrons and
of the cycle to give up energy and be retarded so
avoid losses occasioned by the collection of
that their path avoids the anode and they con
energy-absorbing electrons on. the plates of the 10 tinue along a helical path giving up energy to
the ?eld and the associated high frequency cir
Another object is to provide such a device in
cuit during periods of interaction in successive
which the cathode is removed from the region of
cycles. Due to the preponderance of energy
the high frequency ?eld, thus avoiding electron
giving periods of interaction between electrons
bombardment and the instabilities of so-called
and the high frequency ?eld on account of the
magnetron.
_
.
'
back heating.
Another object is to make the device applicable
to ampli?er as well as oscillator circuits.
Another object is to utilize the magnetron,
with its characteristic of providing repeated in
early elimination of energy-absorbing electrons
the net result is the generation of energy in the
attached high frequency circuit.
The necessity for prompt elimination of the
energy-absorbing electrons so that the effect of
teractions between the electrons and the high
the energy-giving electrons will predominate in
frequency ?eld, as a unilateral ampli?er.
troduces limitations of the conventional type of
Another object is to incorporate with the device
magnetron which are largely overcome by this
e?icient non-radiating circuits.
invention. This is accomplished by introducing
Another object is to provide such a device 25 the electrons in a stream from a source external
readily adaptable to operation at various fre
to the space where interaction takes place be
quencies and easily coupled to external circuits.
tween the electrons and the electric and mag
Another object is to avoid the limitations of
netic ?elds and also by converting most ‘of the
excessively small tube and circuit elements such
electrons into useful, energy-giving electrons by
as are encountered in very high frequency opera 30 grouping them before they enter the interaction
tion of magnetrons of conventional type.
space. By these means less critical adjustment
Another object is to adapt the magnetron to
for operation is required, more e?icient operation
use in a circuit where the generation of a large
is attained, all of the electron emission may be
amount of output power is to be controlled by a
usefully employed and also advantage is had in
small amount of control energy.
The so-called magnetron is a well-known type '
of device for the generation of high frequency
energy. It usually incorporates essentially a
cathode, an anode surrounding the cathode and
that there is no longer a. cathode in the interac
tion space with the attendant di?iculties due to
electron bombardment of it.
The principles of the invention are applicable
to magnetron structures utilizing electrodes con
a static magnetic ?eld parallel to the axes of the 40 nected. to an external circuit or to structures in
cathode and anode. The electron path is de
which the high frequency circuit is a resonant
viated from a, straight line by action of the mag
cavity or a portion of wave guide. It is also ap-.
netic ?eld which is superposed upon the electric
plicable to such devices used as oscillators or in
?eld between the cathode and the positively
ampli?er arrangements.
charged anode. The two ?elds are at substan 45 The various features of the invention will be
tially right angles, though to produce desired
more fully understood from the following de
axial movement of the electrons either the mag
tailed description of the illustrative embodiments
netic ?eld is tilted so that the angle is slightly
shown in the accompanying drawings.
different from a right angle or a supplementary
In the drawings:
axial electric ?eld is provided. In either case
the electrons are constrained to follow a curved
spiral or helical path due to the combined action
of the ?elds. The electrons move also in a high
Fig. 1 illustrates for descriptive purposes a con
ventional type of magnetron;
Fig. 2 shows a magnetron conventional as Fig. 1
in some respects but modi?ed to incorporate fea
frequency ?eld produced by a high frequency cir
tures of the present invention;
cuit connected either between the cathode and 55
Fig. 3 is a modi?cation of Fig. 2 to show high
2,409,222
high frequency wave-length in centimeters cor
responding to the frequency of operation and H
is the magnetic ?eld strength in gausses. Also,
Fig. 4 shows-a high frequency generator using
the anode voltage must be adjusted in relation to
a tube incorporating crossed electric and mag
the above magnetic ?eld strength to establish the
netic ?elds and a coaxial type output circuit,
critical grazing condition for the electrons, that
with modulation by space charge control;
is, such that with no high frequency electric ?eld
Fig. 5 is similar to Fig. 4, ‘but shows an ampli
the electrons following the helical paths will just
?er arrangement with coaxial type input and
avoid striking the anode. With high frequency
output circuits'with pregrouping of electrons at
" 10 energy ?owing in the lecher system connected to
high frequency by space charge control;
the- anode portions :2 and ‘3 a high frequency
Fig. 6 shows as a modi?cation of Fig. 5 an am
?eld is superposed in the space between anode
pli?er arrangement similar to that of "F18. 5 ex
portions and the electrons interact with that ?eld
cept that the pregrouping ofv electrons is accom
also. Electrons entering the interaction space
plished by the method utilizing electron velocity
15 during one phase of the high frequency ?eld will
variation and drift space; and
be accelerated and constrained to pass to the
Fig. 7 shows a magnetron arrangement accord
anode and ‘be collected while those entering that
ing to the invention in which'interleaved split
space during the opposite phase will‘ be retarded
plates are employed, these being tuned by a
and constrained to avoid collection at the anode
closed resonant output cavity attached thereto.
and follow paths similar to I3. Since the re
Fig. 1 shows a conventional type of magnetron
tarded electrons give up energy to the high fre
and circuit. The magnetron is of the so-called
quency ?eld during each traversal of it and as
split plate type in which the plate or anode sur
they'make more traversals of the ?eld than do
rounding the ?lamentary cathode I is split into
frequency excitation from an external source
such as in ampli?er operation;
the energy-absorbing electrons which are soon
two sections 2 and 3 which are maintained at
the same direct potential, but on account of being 25 collected at the anode the net result is a transfer
of energy from the moving electrons to the high
connected to opposite sides of the high frequency
frequency ?eld and a consequent sustaining of
circuit composed of the lecher system 9, I0 and
II, differ in phase of high frequency potential
by 180 degrees. The cathode I and anode 2, 3
. the high frequency energy in the lecher system
9, I0, II.
Fig. 2 shows a magnetron similar to that of Fig.
l but modi?ed to incorporate features of the pres
ent invention. The ?gures are made similar to
indicate clearly the added features. In Fig. 2 the
enclosing envelope 4 includes an electron gun
source 6 through the choke inductance 8 and the
apart from the electrodes 2, 3 and the interaction
lecher system 9, I0 and II which is connected
space therebetween. The source of electrons I
to the‘ anode portions 2 and 3 and constitutes the
is now the cathode of the electron gun, and well
high frequency circuit. A static magnetic ?eld
removed from the interaction space. It is heated
with lines of force parallel to the axis of the
indirectly from potential source ‘I. Electrons
cathode and anode is ‘produced in the space be
tween the cathode and‘ anode by the solenoid 40 from the cathode I are accelerated to the right
through the grids 23 and 24 and toward collector
winding 5. This devicev operates in the well
20 by the accelerating electrode 2|, 22, This ac
known manner as has already been described
celerating electrode is preferably, though not es
brie?y. Electrons from the cathode I are drawn
sentially, of the composite type as shown. The
toward the anode 2, 3 by the electric ?eld .due to
are enclosed in an evacuated space by the en
30
velope 4. The cathode I is heated by potential
source 1 and the anode 2, 3'is polarized positively
with respect to the cathode by the potential
'
the anode being polarized positively with respect 45 composite electrode encircles the electron path
and is made up of two interleaved portions of
to the cathode. The magnetic ?eld due to coil 5,
conducting material whichv are insulated from
each other and charged to different potentials.
instead of following straight paths to the anode
The surface areas of the two portions of mate
they follow curved paths similar to those indi
cated by the dotted lines I2 and I3. If a path, 50 rial exposed to the electron stream vary along the
direction of the electron path, the exposed areas
such as I2, is followed the electron is immediately
of the two portions preponderating in opposite
collected by one of the anode portions 2 or 3.
however, acts on the moving electrons so that
directions so that a uniform electrostatic ?eld is
If a path, such as I3, is followed the electron
produced in a direction depending upon the rela
does not reach the anode immediately and after
making one or more loops may return to the vi 55 tive polarities of the two portions. The portions
2i and 22 are connected to the polarizing poten
cinity of the cathode. Whether, without high fre
quency voltage on the plate segments, the path
tial sources 6 and 25 so that 2| is the more posi
tive causing the accelerating ?eld to be directed
followed is similar to I2 or to I3 depends upon
the relative adjustments of the anode polarizing
from cathode I toward collector 20. The poten
‘potential and the magnetic ?eld due to the coil 5. 60 tial source 25 is provided in conjunction with
In a perfectly symmetrical arrangement’as shown
source 6 so that‘ electrode portion 22 may be po
larized either positively or negatively with respect
in Fig. 1 the electron paths will lie in planes per
to the cathode I for the purpose of focusing the
pendicular to the axis of the'tube. If the static
magnetic ?eld due to coil 5 is tilted to be at an
electron stream. The electrodes 2 and 3 are
angle to the axis of the cathode and anode or 65 polarized positively with respect to the cathode
if the electrons are given a longitudinal compo
by means of source 6, the connection being made
through choke inductance 8, the lecher system
nent of direction, the paths will become helical
and progress along the axis as indicated at I3
crossbar II and the lecher wires 9 and Ill. The
high positive potential of electrodes 2 and 3
in Fig. 1. As is well known, the magnetic ?eld
must be adjusted to an intensity such that the 70 causes the electron stream to diverge after pass
ing the grids 23 and 24 so that the electrons enter
precessional frequency of the electrons along the
helical paths corresponds to the frequency of
the interaction space between 2 and 3 directed at '
an angle to the axial magnetic ?eld produced by
operation, i. e., the product AH should be a con
coil 5. This positive diverging potential of 2 and
stant, approximately 13,009 when using the two
segment plates as shown in Fig. l, where A is the 76 3 and the axial magnetic ?eld are adjusted so
' 2,409,222
5
that the electrons travel helical paths of a preces-=
sional frequency equal to the resonant frequency
of the external high frequency circuit, which in
Fig. 2 is the tuned lecher system 9, l0 and II.
Obviously, the phase lens may be'energized
from an external source of high frequency rather
than from the lecher system associated with the
tube, thus providing an ampli?er system. Such
The grids 23 and 24 constitute a phase lens which
an arrangement is shown in Fig. 3. Pregrouping
is energized from the lecher system, and a suit
of electrons is obtained just as in Fig. 2 and the
able drift space is allowed between the phase lens
operation is generally similar with the exception
and the ?eld space between electrodes 2 and 3 to
that adjustments must be made to avoid the pro
allow grouping or bunching of the electrons to
duction of oscillations through plate sorting due
occur,
10 to the collection of a portion of the electrons by
In operation, the electron stream from the cath
the'plate segments 2, 3, when there is no high fre
ode I, the path of a portion of which is indicated
quency input. An external high frequency source
by the dotted line 28, is accelerated by the com
35 is shown connected to the input lecher system
posite electrode 2|, 22, passes through the phase
through the movable members 36 and 31 and the
lens 23, 24, is then made divergent by the high 15 output load, indicated as a resistance 38, is shown
positivepotential on electrodes 2 and 3 and then
connected to the output lecher system through
passes through the ?eld, or interaction, space be
the movable members 39 and 40.
tween electrodes 2 and 3 where the axial magnetic
Fig. 4 illustrates an embodiment of the inven
?eld causes the electrons to follow helical paths.
tion utilizing a coaxial type of output circuit com
The electrons are ?nally collected at the posi 20 prising portions of the electron tube. In this
tively charged collecting electrode 20. In passing
?gure, | is an electron emitting cathode indi
between the grids 23 and 24 of the phase lens,
rectly heated from source 1. ' The cathode is
the electrons are subjected to a high frequency
connected to and supported by the ring 50 which
?eld since these grids are connected to the high
is sealed into the envelope 4. 48 is a control elec
frequency circuit. The electrons are accelerated 25 trode which may be of any suitable form, such as
or retarded depending upon the polarity of the
an opening in the sealed-in ring 5|, as shown, or
high frequency ?eld at the time of traversal so
a grid-like structure supported by the ring 5|.
that velocity variations then exist in the electron
4'! is a longitudinally accelerating electrode which
stream. During traversal of the distance between
may be of any suitable form, such as an opening
grid 24 and the interaction space between elec 30 in the sealed-in ring 45, as shown, or a grid-like
trodes 2 and 3, the electrons which have been
structure supported by the ring 45. 42 is a, ra
accelerated tend to overtake those which have
dially accelerating anode which is connected to
been retarded so that by the time the interaction
and supported by the sealed-in ring 52. The
space is reached the electrons of the stream are
anode 42 also forms the continuation inside the '
in groups. In other words, the velocity variations 35 envelope 4 of the outer conductor 44 of the ex
in the electron stream have been converted into
ternal coaxial output circuit which is also con
charge density variations, Each group of elec
nected to the ring 52. 4| is a diverging rod, so
trons enters the high frequency ?eld in the inter
called because it is maintained at a lower poten
action space in the proper phase to contribute
tial than the anode and causes the electrons in
energy to the ?eld and remains in that phase re 40 the stream to diverge radially toward the anode
lation to the ?eld as it follows the helical path,
42. It is supported by and connected to the
giving energy to the ?eld each turn of the helix
sealed-in disc 53 which also forms the continua
just as do the useful electrons following path I 3
tion inside the envelope of the inner conductor
in Fig. 1. However, unlike the condition in Fig.
43 of the external output circuit which is also
1, the electrons are collected at collector 20 and it 45 connected to the ring 53. The sleeve 46 attached
is not necessary to collect at electrodes 2 and 3
to the sealed-in ring supporting the electrode 41
energy-absorbing electrons such as follow the
overlaps the end portion of member 42 and forms
path I2 in Fig. 1. In the grouping process, per
therewith a by-pass condenser intended to place
formed by the phase lens 23, 24 in conjunction
electrode 4'! and the end of member 42 at the
with thedrift space following, electrons which 50 same high frequency potential and aid in prevent
would otherwise reach the interaction space at
ing radiation from the end of 42. The members
periods of the cycle such as to absorb energy from
4| and 42 which constitute portions of the co
the high frequency ?eld are moved in position
axial output circuit are also the electrodes which
along the path of the stream so as to be with the
serve to produce the high frequency electric ?eld
electrons reaching there at the proper periods to 65 in the interaction space between 4| and 42. The
deliver energy to the ?eld. Thus, in eifect, most
spaced sliders 54 and 55 with the capacitance be
of the electrons in the stream are made useful,
tween them close the coaxial resonant output cir
energy-giving electrons and it is not necessary
cuit for high frequencies at a suitable position
to adjust critically so as to collect energy-absorb
along conductors 43 and 44, insulation for biasing
ing electrons early in the interaction space and 60 potentials being provided by the space separat
depend upon such collection to provide the sort,
ing action to give a preponderance of positive
ing the sliders 54 and 55. The tube, especially the
portion to the right of electrode 41, is subjected
energy transfer from the electron stream to the
to a uniform longitudinal magnetic ?eld of an
high frequency circuit. Other means of pre
intensity such that the precessional frequency of
grouping to provide a preponderance of energy 65 the electrons equals the frequency of operation,
giving electrons among those entering the inter
action space will be described later.
this magnetic ?eld being produced by the elec'
. Advantages of the arrangement of Fig. 2, there
fore, are that the cathode is removed from the
Electrons emitted by the cathode I are ac
celerated and the emission is controlled in in
?eld of interaction, thus avoiding electron bom
bardment and other di?iculties of electronic con
gestion and that more e?'icient operation is had
on account of the transformation into energy
tromagnet 5.
tensity by the control electrode 48. Electrode 41
injects the electrons into the space between 4|
and 42 in the output circuit at a longitudinal ve
locity small compared to the radial velocity pro
giving electrons of otherwise energy-absorbing
duced by the anode 42. The radial accelerating
electrons.
75 anode 42 is operated at a su?iciently high positive
2,409,229
‘ ‘8
potential to establish the critical grazing condi
tion for the electrons whereas the diverging rod
4| is operated at a very low potential in order to
insure that the electron trajectories become
helices parallel to the axis of the tube as soon as 5
possible. Electrons which enter the output cham
ber, between rod 4| and anode 42, in such a. phase
that their velocities have radial components in
the direction of an induced electric ?eld inten
induced except when an input ‘signal is applied.
Furthermore, increased ‘ef?ciency may be ex
pected with class B or 0 operation on account of
sharper grouping or the electrons;
In order to eliminate the input loading caused
by the electrons in the input gap between the
cathode I and the grid 48, the length of the gap
and the biasing voltage should be made such that
the electron transit time across the gap is a period
sity will be accelerated and, consequently, will 10 within the range between the period of a whole
number of cycles of the operating frequency and
strike the outer anode 42 and be removed. 0n the
the period of that number increased by ‘one-halt
other hand, electrons entering the output cham
cycle.
. her in a phase such that their radial velocity is
It is obvious that some of the output power
directed oppositely to an induced ?eld intensity
may be coupled back to the input circuit to pro
will continue to transfer energy to the induced
duce'self-excitation. To illustrate this, a coaxial
?eld until they are collected by the rod 4| or
line comprising outer conductor ‘I I and inner con
the sealed-in disc 53. In such a mode of opera
ductor ‘I2 is shown coupling the input and output
tion, the density variation grid 48'has the func
circuits, the connections to these circuits being
tion only of controlling the amplitude of oscilla
tion statically or according to the modulating sig 20 the same as those of the two lines 58, 59 and 89,
‘I0 previously described. The outer conductor of
nal represented as coming from the source 49. If
the line has an insulating section 13 and is pro
no longitudinal sorting occurs the maximum
vided with ?anges on each side of the insulating
e?iclency could become only 50 per cent since
ring 13 ‘to provide a path for high frequencies
half of the electrons are of unfavorable phase and
are wasted. A load for the high frequency output 2:3 through the capacitance between the two ?anges
while insulating from each other the direct cur
such as indicated by the resistance 60 may be I
rent biasing voltages on the coaxial members Bi
coupled to‘ the coaxial output system as illus
and 66. The amount of energy transferred is
trated in Fig. 4 or in any other suitable manner.
controlled‘ by adjustment of the degree of cou
In Fig. 4 the central conductor 59 of the coaxial
line 58, 59, connecting to the output load 60, pro- _ pling as was described in connection with the
input and output lines 58, 59 and 69, '10 and the
jects into the interconductor space between mem~
phase of the energy introduced into the input
bers 43 and 44. 6| represents a longitudinal slot
circuit is determined by the length of the con
in member 44 whereby the projecting portion of
necting line. ‘The phase may be made such as
59 may be positioned from the end of the coaxial
to add to the input- energy and provide regenera
output circuit closed by sliders 54 and 55 as de
sired to adjust coupling impedances.
tion or it may bereversed to stabilizerthe gain <
Fig. 5 illustrates a tube and circuits very similar
and reduce distortion. The regenerative action
to those of Fig. 4 but arranged to function as a
may be made such as to produce self-oscillation
in which case the circuit becomes that of a high
unilateral ampli?er. A tuned coaxial input cir
cuit, similar to the output circuit of Fig. 4, com 40 vfrequency generator and the external input cir
cuit of the ampli?er arrangement may be elimi
prising outer conductor 66, the end closure made
nated. High e?iciency operation may be obtained
up of sliders 61 and 68 and inner conductor 65 is
through the use of regeneration to enhance the
connected between the control electrode 48 and
electron grouping and so place as many as pos
the cathode l by the sealed-in rings 50 and 5|.
The control electrode 48 and its annular support 45 sible of the electrons into favorable phase posi
tions before they enter the interaction space in
ing ring 5| close and prevent radiation from the
the output circuit.
tube end of the coaxial circuit. This input circuit
The tube and circuit of Fig. 5 may be modi?ed
is energized by the high frequency to be ampli?ed
so that the grouping of electrons into favorable
which is represented in the ?gure as coming from
source 14 and coupled through the coaxial line ~
69, 10, the longitudinal slot 62 permitting the
desired positioning of the projecting end of 10
along the coaxial input structure. Other features
of the tube and circuit, with the exception of the
feedback coaxial line ‘ll, 12 are thesame as in
Fig. 4.
phase positions before entering the output circuit
is accomplished by the velocity variation control
method somewhat as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The
modi?cation required for this is only in the input
portion of the circuit and the essentials are'indi
cated in Fig. 6 which is‘ a modi?cation of the por
tion of Fig. 5 to the left of the line AA. The por
tion to the right of the line AA, not repeated in
Fig. 6 is the same as that to the right of line AA
cathode I is density modulated by the high fre
in Fig. 5. In other words, the tube and circuit
quency input voltage impressed between the elec
trode 48 and the cathode I. That is, the charge 60 to the right of the electrode 41 (or line AA) is the
same for both Fig.6 and Fig. 5. The input por
density of the electron stream is varied in accord
tion of the tube is quite different because in the
ance with the high frequency input voltage.
velocity variation method of operation the elec
Hence more electrons enter the output interaction
trons must enter the input gap, or interaction
space, to the right of electrode 41 and between
members 4| and 42, in one phase than in‘ the 65 space, with a ?nite velocity and a drift space must
be provided between the input and the output
opposite resulting in a net induced high frequency
interaction spaces or other grouping means must
?eld. When no input signal is applied, oscillation
caused by plate or anode sorting of electrons, the _ be employed. In Fig. 6 the input gap, or inter
action space, is between the electrodes 83 and 84
type of electron grouping utilized in the Fig. 4
arrangement, is prevented by operating the anode 70 which may be openings in the conducting annular
rings 85 and 8B sealed into the tube envelope 4.
42 at a potential low enough to avoid the critical
These electrodes are energized by the high fre
grazing condition by a wide margin. Also, the
quency energy to be ampli?ed which is for con
electrode 48 may be biased negatively with respect
venience indicated as coming from source 14 into
to the cathode such that so-called class B or C
operation is had and so insure that no output is 75 the resonant cavity bounded by the closure mem
In operation, the electron stream from the _
2,409,222
‘
10
9
her 80, the coaxial conductors 65 and 66, the
rings ‘85 and 86, and the electrodes 83 and 84.
A high frequency ?eld, therefore, exists between
ode l and control electrode 48 but have sufficient
capacitance between them to provide a low im
pedance path for high frequency current, thus
effectively closing the cavity at that point. The
the electrodes 83 and 84 whenever the input cav
ity is energized. Obviously, these grids may be
energized to produce the high frequency ?eld be
output resonant cavity is bounded by the con
ducting member 91, the sealed-in rings 92 and 93
and the interleaved sets of segments 94 and 95.
In the ?gure, 94 and 95 each have two diametri
tween them in any suitable manner. Any type
of resonant cavity, a coaxial system as illustrated,
a lecher system or other means may be employed
cally opposite segments. Obviously other num
.for the purpose.
10 bers of segments'may be used. It will be seen
A cathode I and a composite accelerating
that the interleaved sets of segments 94 and 95
electrode 2|, 22 as described in connection with
surround a tubular interaction space such as is
' Fig. 2 produce the stream of electrons which is .
surrounded by the plates 2_ and 3 in Figs. 1, 2
projected across the input gap between electrodes
and 3. They serve as electrodes to produce high
83 and 84, through the drift space between elec 15 frequency ?elds within the interaction space. A
trodes 84 and 41 and thence into the output
static magnetic ?eld with lines of force parallel
interaction space between members 4| and 42.
to the axis of the device is produced in the inter
A typical path of a portion of the electron stream
action space by the electromagnet 5 or other suit
is indicated by the dotted line 88. After passing
able means. The segments of 94 and 95 are
the grid electrode 41, the electron stream is 20 maintained at a. potential positive with respect
made divergent by the high positive potential of
to the cathode by potential source 98, the collec
anode 42 and the low potential on the diverging
tor 96 is maintained at a lower potential positive
rod 4|, and under the in?uence of the axial mag
with respect to the cathode by means of poten—
netic ?eld produced by the electromagnet 5 the
tial source 99 and thecontrol electrode 48 may
electrons are caused to follow helical paths such 25 be maintained at a potential either positive or
' that the precessional frequency is the same as the
negative with respect‘ to the cathode by the tap
frequency of operation. In a manner similar to
connection to potential source 98.
Electrons
that explained in connection with the operation
leaving the cathode I under the control .of elec
of Fig. 2, the velocities of the electrons are varied
,trode 48 pass into the interaction space sur-,
as the electron stream passes through the input 30 rounded by the segments of 94 and 95 under the
gap between the electrodes 83 and 84 which con
in?uence of the positive potential on those seg
stitute what has been previously termed a phase
ments. The electrons here encounter the static
lens. The electrons are accelerated or retarded
magnetic ?eld as well as the high frequency ?eld
in passing from electrode 83 to electrode 84', de—'
occasioned by .high frequency energy in the out
pending upon the polarity of the high frequency
put circuit. The electrons enter the interaction
?eld therebetween at the time of traversal. Then
space with components of velocity in radial
in passing throughthe drift space from electrode
directions so that they are constrainedby the
84 to electrode 4‘! the faster, accelerated, elec
staticv magnetic ?eld to follow helical paths
trons tend to overtake the slower ones so that
through the interaction space‘and thence to the
the electrons become arranged into groups and 40 collector 96.
'
'
~
'
the electron stream becomes density modulated
The inputcircuit is energized by high frequency
in accordance with the high frequency input
energy which may come from an external source
before it enters the output interaction space be
such ‘as is represented by source 14 which is
tween members 4| and 42. Thus, just as in the ' coupled to the input circuit through the coaxial
operation of the Fig. 5 arrangement, more elec 45 line 69, 10. The electron stream is density modu
trons enter the output interaction space, beyond
lated by the high frequency input voltage im
electrode 41 and between members 4| and 42, in
pressed between the control electrode 48 and the
one phase than in the opposite, resulting in a
cathode I, Thus the electrons enter the inter
net induced high frequency ?eld. Also, when
no input signal is applied, oscillation caused by
plate sorting is prevented by operating the anode
42 at a potential low enough to avoid the critical
grazing condition by a wide margin. The high
frequency input source is coupled to the input
action space in groups more or less distinctly sep
arated, depending'upon the mode of operation
as discussed in connection with the operation of
Fig. 5. Since, due to the grouping, more electrons
enter the interaction space in one phase of the
resonant system the same as shown in Fig. 5 55
and the feedback coaxial line ll, 12 functions
just as the similar line in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 illustrates an arrangement similar to
‘that of Fig. 5 in that it utilizes closed resonant
cavity input and output circuits and space charge 60
control of the electron stream. It differs from
Fig. 5 principally in that an interleaved four
segment plate is used, no diverging rod such
as 4| in Fig. 5 is employed and the electrons are
collected by a collector in the end of the tube 65
opposite the cathode after having passed through
the interaction space.
The input resonant cavity is bounded by the
conducting members 90 and 9|, and the sealed-in
rings 50 and 5| with which are associated the 70
cathode l and space charge control electrode 48,
respectively. The ?anges I00 and “II, which are
parts of members 90 and 9|, respectively, are
spaced from each other to insulate the direct
current biasing potential applied between cath
high frequency cycle than in the opposite phase, a
net induced high frequency ?eld results and high
frequency energy is delivered to the output circuit
in accordance with the high frequency energy im
pressed upon the input circuit. After the elec
trons have passed through the interaction space
interacting with the high frequency field at each
turn of the helical path and at each space be
tween the interleaved plates they are collected by
the collector 96 whether they have given energy
to or absorbed energy from the output circuit,
the gain of energy by the output circuitdepend
ing upon the preponderance of energy-giving elec
trons which in turn is dependent upon the extent
of electron grouping in the input circuit. Pre
grouping of the electrons may be such that no
electrons need strike the segments of 94 and 95
and all may be collected at low voltage by the
collector 96. Since this collector may be made
large and capable of dissipating a large amount
of power the device is inherently capable of gen-
75 erating a correspondingly large amount of high
2,409,222
11
frequency power, thus overcoming aserious limi
tation of conventional magnetron structures. An
12
' general direction of which an electron stream is
directed and along which within the tube are
advantage of the four-segment plate, illustrated
located in substantial axial alignment and axially
in Fig. 7, is that a less intense magnetic ?eld is
required than with a two-segment plate as illus
trated in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. In connection with
Fig. 1 it was stated that the product AH for that
spaced one from another, a cathode, at least one
electron control electrode, and a system of high
frequency output electrodes arranged to impress
a high frequency electric ?eld upon a space sym
metrically surrounding a. portion of said axis,
means including the said system of high fre
For a four-segment plate AH need be only half
that, or approximately 6,500. A larger number of 10 quency output electrodes for producing a high
frequency electric ?eld in the said space sym
segments may be used if desired. In general, for
metrically surrounding the axis, means for main
an n segment plate AH should approximate
taining a static magnetic ?eld in at least a por
13,000
tion of the space occupied by the said high fre
21/2
15 quency electric ?eld such that the lines of force
of the static magnetic ?eld are substantially
Also the arrangement of Fig. '1 like that of
Fig. 5 has the advantages of non-radiating input
parallel to the said axis and perpendicular to the
electric lines of force of the high frequency ?eld,
and output circuits.
Fig. '7 illustrates primarily an ampli?er ar
means for projecting a stream of electrons into
rangement with input and output circuits en
the space occupied jointly by the two said ?elds
with a component of direction perpendicular to
tirely separated and, as such, shows a form of
unilateral ampli?er of the magnetron type. 0b
the lines of force of the static magnetic ?eld, and
viously, the input and output coaxial lines, 69, ‘I0
means including the electron control electrode
for varying the charge density of the electron
and 58, 59, respectively, may be connected to
gether through a suitable length of line for the
stream at the said high frequency before its en
purpose of producing self-oscillations so that the
trance into the space occupied by the combined
arrangement will function as an oscillation gen
said ?elds.
3. A system according to claim 2 above char
erator. Also, a feedback line may be added to
interconnect the input and output cavities as il
acterized in that the means for varying the
lustrated in Fig. 5 for the purpose of providing 30 charge density of the electron stream comprises
regeneration or to stabilize the gain and reduce
electrodes associated with the electron path which
may be connected to a high frequency electrical
distortion.
Various embodiments of the invention illus
circuit to produce, when the circuit is energized,
trating devices of the magnetron type utilizing
a high frequency ?eld throughout a portion of ’
non-radiating circuits, means for e?iciently in 35 the electron path whereby electrons passing
troducing and controlling the electron stream and
therethrough are accelerated positively or nega
means for modulating the electron stream at
tively depending upon the phase of the ?eld en
high frequency before it reaches the output por
countered.
tion of the circuit have been shown and the utility
4. In combination, an electrically resonant
of such devices as unilateral ampli?ers as well 40 chamber with which when energized there is as
as oscillators has been indicated. It is not in
sociated a high frequency electromagnetic ?eld,
tended that the scope of the. invention is limited
'means for maintaining superposed upon the high
to these particular embodiments but only as de
frequency ?eld a static magnetic ?eld of which
?ned by the appended claims.
the lines of force are substantially perpendicular
What is claimed is:
45 to the electric lines of force of the high frequency
1. A high frequency system comprising an elec
?eld, means including a cathode external to the
tron tube having a longitudinal axis along the
chamber for projecting a stream of electrons into
general direction of which an electron stream is
be space occupied by the combined said ?elds,
directed and along which within the tube are
."id means for varying the charge density of the
located in substantial axial alignment and axially 0 electron stream before it enters the said ?eld
spaced one from another, a. cathode, at least One
occupied space whereby it is enabled to deliver
electron control electrode, and a system of high
energy to the said high frequency ?eld at the
frequency output electrodes which are portions
frequency of the charge variation.
of an electrically resonant chamber and are ar
5. A high frequency electronic device compris
ranged to impress a high frequency electric ?eld
ing an electrically resonant chamber capable of
upon a space symmetrically surrounding a portion
being energized to produce within itself a high
of said axis, means including the said system of
frequency electric ?eld, means for producing a
high frequency output electrodes for producing
static magnetic ?eld superposed upon at least a
a high frequency electric ?eld in the said space
portion of the said high frequency ?eld such that
symmetrically surrounding the axis, means for
the lines of force of the static magnetic ?eld are
maintaining a static magnetic ?eld in at least a
substantially perpendicular to the lines of force
portion of the space occupied by the said high
of the high frequency electric ?eld, and electron
frequency electric ?eld such that the lines of
discharge tube means including a cathode ex
force of the static magnetic ?eld are substantially
ternal to the resonant chamber for projecting
parallel to the said axis and perpendicular to
electrons into the space occupied by the said
the electric lines of force of the high frequency
superposed magnetic and electric ?elds, such that
?eld, means for projecting a stream of electrons
the electrons have components of direction par
into the space occupied jointly by the two said
allel to the lines of force of the high frequency
?elds with a component of direction perpendicu
electric
?eld, whereby high frequency energy is
lar to the lines of force of the static magnetic
generated within the chamber.
?eld, and means including the electron control
6. A high frequency electronic device compris
electrode for varying the charge density of the
ing an electrically resonant chamber capable of
electron stream before its entrance into the space
being energized to produce within itself a high
occupied by the combined said ?elds.
frequency electric ?eld, means for producing a
2. A high frequency system comprising an elec
tron tube having a longitudinal axis along the 76, static magnetic ?eld superposed upon at least a
two-segment structure should approximate 13,000.
2,409,222
'
'
l3
portion of the said high ‘frequency ?eld such that
the lines of force of the static magnetic ?eld are
traversing the said space becomes charge-density
modulated at a frequency to which thehigh fre- ,
substantially perpendicular to the lines of force
of the high frequency electric ?eld, and electron
frequency is generated in the high frequency sys-.
discharge tube means including a cathode exter
tem.
quency system is resonant whereby energy at that
‘
Y
7
nal to the resonant chamber for projecting elec
10. A high frequency electronic device,v com
trons into the space occupied by the said super
prising an electron discharge tube having an
posed magnetic and electric ?elds, such that the
evacuated envelope which includes at least a por
electrons have components of direction parallel
tion of a resonant coaxial high frequency system
to the lines of force of the high frequency elec 10 capable of being energized to produce within it
tric ?eld, whereby high frequency energy is gen
self a radial high frequencyelectric ?eld,gmeans
erated within the chamber, the said electron tube
for maintaining an axial, static, magnetic ?eld
means including means for varying the charge
between the inner and outer conductors in a, por
density of the stream of electrons before the elec
' tion of the high frequency system included in the
trons enter the resonant chamber at a frequency 15 electron tube envelope, an electron emitting cath
below that to which the chamber is resonant,
ode, means for introducing electrons into the
whereby the intensity of the generated high fre
space between the inner and outer coaxial con
quency energy is modulated in accordance with
ductors of the high frequency system occupied
the variations of the charge density of the stream
by the said electric and magnetic ?elds such that
of electrons.
20 the electrons have radial components of direction, '7. In combination, an electrically resonant
and means for varying the charge density of the
chamber capable of being energized to produce
stream of electrons before it enters the said space
within itself a high frequency electric ?eld, means
for producing a static magnetic ?eld superposed
upon at least a portion of the said high frequency
?eld, such that the lines of force of the static
magnetic ?eld are substantially perpendicular to
‘the lines of force of the high frequency ?eld,
at a high frequency whereby energy at that fre
quency is generated in the high frequency sys
tem.
.
11. A high frequency electronic device, com
prising an electron discharge tube having an
evacuated envelope including at least a portion
electron tube means including a cathode external
of a resonant coaxial high frequency system ca
to the resonant chamber for projecting a stream 30 pable of being energized to produce within itself
of electrons into the space occupied ‘by the said
a radial high frequency electric ?eld, means for
superposed magnetic and electric ?elds, such that
maintaining an axial, static, magnetic ?eld be
the electrons have components of direction per
tween the inner and outer conductors in a portion
pendicular to the lines of force of the static mag
of the high frequency system included in the elec
netic ?eld, the said electron tube means includ- .
ing means for modulating the electron stream
prior to its entrance into the said space occupied
by the superposed magnetic and electric ?elds,
at frequencies within the range to which the said
tron tube envelope, an electron emitting cathode,
means, including electric potential means, for in
troducing electrons into the space between the
coaxial conductors of the high frequency system
occupied by the said electric and magnetic ?elds
I resonant chamber is resonant whereby energy at 40 such that the electrons have radial components
frequencies corresponding to the modulating fre
of direction, means for varying the charge density
quency is generated within the chamber.
of the stream of electrons before it enters the said
space at a- high frequency whereby energy at
that frequency is generated in the high frequency
system, the electric potential means and the in
tensity of the static magnetic ?eld being so ad
justed that no high frequency energy is generated
in the high frequency system when the said
means for varying the charge density of the
stream of electrons is inactive.
12. A device according to claim 11 wherein the
means for varying the charge density of the
stream of electrons comprises means for varying
8. A high frequency electronic device, compris
ing an electron discharge tube with an evacuated
envelope which includes at least a portion of a
resonant coaxial high frequency system capable
of being energized to produce within itself a
radial high frequency electric ?eld, means for
maintaining an axial, static. magnetic ?eld be
tween the inner and outer conductors in a por
tion of the high frequency system included in the
electron tube envelope, an electron emitting cath
ode. and means for introducing electrons into the
space between the inner and outer coaxial con
the space charge of the stream of electrons.
'
ductors of the high frequency system such that .,
13. A device according to claim 11 wherein the
the electrons have radial components of direction.
means for varying the charge density of the
9. A high frequency electronic device, compris
stream of electrons comprises means for varying
ing an electron discharge tube having an evacu
the velocities of the electrons.
ated envelope which includes at least a portion of
14. An electronic device comprising, hollow
a resonant coaxial high frequency system capable
of being energized to produce between its inner
and outer conductors a radial high frequency
(it)
electrically resonant input and output systems
which are closed to substantially con?ne high fre
quency electromagnetic ?elds within, means for
electric ?eld, means for maintaining an axial,
energizing the input system to produce a desired
static, magnetic ?eld between the said inner and
high frequency ?eld therein, means for maintain
outer conductors in a portion of the high fre 65 ing a static magnetic ?eld having lines of force
quency system included in the electron tube en
superposed upon and substantially perpendicular
velope, an electron emitting cathode, and means,
to lines of force of the high frequency electric
including electric potential means, for intro
?eld associated with the output system when it is
ducing electrons into the space between the inner
energized, electron tube means for projecting a
and outer conductors of the high frequency sys 70 stream of electrons, ?rst, through the high’fre
tem occupied by the said electric and magnetic
quency ?eld of the input system whereby the
?elds such that the electrons have radial com
charge density of the electron stream is varied
ponents of direction, the electric potential means
in accordance with the high frequency energy in
and the intensity of the static magnetic ?eld be
the input system, and subsequently, through at
ing so adjusted that the stream of electrons 75 least a portion of the high frequency ?eld of the
2,409,222
15
output system upon which the static magnetic
?eld is superposed with components of direction
perpendicular to the lines of force of the super
posed static magnetic ?eld whereby energy in ac
cordance with the charge density variations of
the electron stream is generated in the output
system.
16
the input coaxial system within the tube envelope
and spaced from the foraminate member closing
the end of the outer conductor of the coaxial
input systemv such that when the input system
is energized a high frequency control voltage is
impressed between the foraminate member clos-‘
ing the input system and the cathode, electric
potential means for maintaining the outer con
15. A device according to claim 14 character
ductor of the coaxial output system and its clos
ized in that the electron transit time through the
high frequency ?eld of the input system is a pe 10 ing foraminate member at positive potentials with
respect to the cathode, and electrical potential
riod between the period of a whole number of
means for maintaining the inner conductor of
cycles of the high frequency ?eld and the period
the output coaxial system at a potential lower
of that number increased by one-half cycle.
than that of the outer conductor whereby elec
16. A device according to claim 14 and includ
ing a feedback connection whereby high fre 15 trons are drawn from the cathode through the
foraminate members into the interconductor
V quency energy may be transferred from the out
space occupied by the said superposed static mag
put system to the input system.
netic and high frequency electric ?elds with radial
17. A high frequency electronic device compris
components of velocity, and means for energizing
ing an electron tube having an evacuated en
velope, a resonant coaxial output system, one end 20 the input coaxial system at a desired frequency‘
of operation to modulate the electron stream be
of which is enclosed within the envelope of the
fore it enters the output system whereby energy
electron tube, a closure member substantially
at the input energizing frequency is generated
closing for high frequencies the end of the outer
in the output system.
coaxial conductor of the output system within
19. A high frequency system comprising an
the electron tube, the closure member, however, 25
electrically resonant cavity generally toroidal in
being foraminate to permit the passage of elec
shape, the boundary of which is a shell of con
trons therethrough, means for maintaining an
ducting material consisting essentially of two con
axial static magnetic ?eld between the inner and
centric tubular portions one within the other and
outer conductors in a portion of the output sys
tem included within the tube envelope, the static 30 two annular portions connecting the two tubular
magnetic ?eld being superposed upon the radial
portions to each other at their ends, thereby
enclosing a space extending radially between the
high frequency electric ?eld produced in the in
two tubular portions and longitudinally between
terconductor space when the output system is
the two annular portions, the inner tubular por
energized, means including electrical potential
means connected to the coaxial conductors of the 35 tion of the shell having a slit through its con
ducting material, the slit extending alternately
output system for projecting a stream of electrons
in longitudinal and circumferential directions di~
through the said foraminate closure member into
viding the inner tubular portion into two parts,
the space between the said coaxial conductors
each part comprising a plurality of segments in
such that the electrons have components of direc
terleaved with segments of the other part such
tion radial with respect to the coaxial conductors.
that the inner tubular portion comprises a plu
18. A high frequency device comprising an elec
rality of longitudinal segments with alternate segw
tron tube having an evacuated envelope which
encloses as electrodes the end portions of resonant
ments connected together and to the other mate
rial of the conducting shell at opposite ends of
coaxial input and output systems which are res
onant at substantially the same frequency and 45 the inner tubular portion, those connected at one
end being separated from those connected at the
are axially aligned with the ends Within the tube
other end by the said alternately longitudinal and
envelope facing and spaced from each other, the
circumferential slit, means for maintaining a lon
outer conductors at these facing ends being sub
gitudinal static magnetic ?eld within the said
stantially closed for high frequencies by conduct
ing members which are foraminate to permit the 50 inner tubular portion, means for projecting a
passage of electrons therethrough, means for
stream of electrons into the inner tubular por
tion with components of direction perpendicular
maintaining an axial static magnetic field be
to the lines of force of the static magnetic ?eld.
tween the inner and outer conductors in a portion
and means for varying the charge density of the
of the output system included within the tube
envelope, the static magnetic ?eld being super 55 electron stream at the resonant frequency of the
cavity whereby high frequency energy is trans
posed upon the radial high frequency electrie ?eld
produced in the interconductor space when the
ferred from the electron stream to the cavity.
output system is energized, an electron emitting
cathode connected to the central conductor of
JACK A. MORTON.
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