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OCt. 15, 1946.
Filed May 14, 1945
2 sheets-sheet -1
Oct. 15, 1946.
Filed May 14, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Get. 15, 1946
Joseph C. Cantley, Beverly, and Arthur F. Pym,
deceased, late of Topsiield, Mass., ‘by George H.
Heys, administrator, Swampscott, Mass., as
, signers to United Shoe Machinery Corporation,
Flemington, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey `
Application May 14, 1945, Serial No. 593,640
8 Claims. (Cl. 89-3)
This invention relates to firearms and more
particularly to mechanism for insuring an ap
proximately constant rate of ñrein automatic
iired at its normal rate, serves as a basis Yfor
computing the velocity-curve of the power-driven
It has been found that the rate of fire of guns
installed in airplanes, for example, is dependent
to a considerable extent upon the wind pres
sures and temperatures to which the guns are
subjected, the greater the wind pressure and/or
the lower the temperature, the slower the cyclic
rate of fire of the guns. It is desirable at all
times to maintain as nearly as practicable the
normal iiring rate of the gun, having in con
sideration, for example, the need for maximum
ñre power and the most efûcient operation oi
mechanism which automatically feeds ammuni
tion to the gun.
It is an object ci' the present invention to pro
vide a Simple, efïective device for maintaining
a sustained ñring rate in automatic guns oper
When the power-driven and the tube-oper
ated racks are reciprocated at the same speed
f in
opposite directions along their respective
guideways, the pinion, which is rotatably mount
ed upon the valve operating slide, rotates but
does not cause the slide to move along its guide
way. When, however, the vtube-opera'tedrack
is moved slower than the power-driven rack,
the slide is moved along its guideway bythe
pinion, causing the valve to reduce the oppos
ing eiiect of the resistor unit, thereby enabling
the tube tc accelerate to its normal speed for
its particular displacement from battery posi
tion. When the tube speeds up suiîiciently to
cause the tube-operated rack to'move faster
than the power-driven rack, the pinion carrying
slide is moved in an opposite direction along
ating under adverse conditions. With the above
object in View and in accordance with a feature
of the present invention, there is provided, in an
automatic gun, a power-driven member having
a substantially uniform velocity-curve, a member
its guideway, causing the valve partiallyto close,
operative in response to recoil and counter-recoil
movement 0f parts ofthe gun, a resistor unit,
battery position. ' The valve is'so operated that
comprising fluid and a housing therefor, for op
posing the recoil and counter-recoil movement
with the result that the opposing effect of the
resistor unit is increased Vto such an extent that
the tube slows down approximately to its nor
mal speed for that particular displacement from
the speed of the tube-operated rack will at any
particular moment be substantially equal to the v
speed of the power-drìvenrack, thereby insur
of said parts of the gun, a valve for controlling 30 ing that the cyclic rate of the gun shall be ap
proximately constant irrespective of the condi;
liow or fluid in said housing, and mechanism re
sponsive to differences in speed between the
power-driven and the gun-operated members
for controlling said valve to cause the velocity
curve of the gun-operated member to approxi
mate the velocity-curve of the power-driven
The power-driven member and the gun-oper
ated member, which is operatively connected to
the tube or barrel of the gun, have the form of .A
racks which reciprocate in directions opposite
to each other along spaced parallel guideways
respectively, the teeth of one of the racks being
spaced from and in opposed relation to the teeth
oi the other rack. Opposing the recoil and
counter-recoil movement of the tube and other
parts of the gun is said resistor unit, the re
tions under which it is operated.
' A
The various features of the invention will' be
understood and appreciated from the following
detailed description read in connection with the
accompanying drawings, inwhich
Fig. 1 is a side view, partly broken away and
partly in section on line I-I of Fig. 3, Showing
the illustrated device incorporated in a 37 mm.
gun 'of the general type disclosed in United
States Letters Patent No. 1,525,055, grantedV Feb
ruary 3, 1925, on an application filed in the name
of John M. Browning.
Fig. 2 is a side view similar to Fig. l, partly in
section on line II-II of Fig. 3;
Figs. 3 and 4 are sections on lines III-v-III,
lV-IV of Figs. 2 and l, respectively;
Figs. 5 and 6 are sections on lines V-V and
sistance of which varies in accordance with the
setting of said Valve. In meshing relation with
‘JI-_VL respectively, of Fig. 4; and
Fig. '.7 is a timeedisplacement chart of recoiling
the teeth of the racks is a pinion rotatably 50
mounted upon a slide which is movable in a
parts of the gun.
guideway arranged parallel to the guideways
The illustrative 37 mm. gun comprises a barrel
or tube 2t (Fi-gs. l, 2 and 3) an enlarged breech
portion of which is slidingly mounted for recoil
and counter-recoil movement in a cylindrical
of the above-mentioned racks and is operatively
connected to the valve. The velocity-curve of
the tube-operated rack, when the gun is being
bore 22 (Figs. 2 and 3) of a trunnion block 2li,
the tube being further supported >for sliding
housing 38, together with the recuperator spring
movement in said bore by a brass bushing 25
(Figs. 1 and 2) secured to the forward end of
the trunnion block. Secured by screws 2S to the
trunnion block 2li are trunnions 35 which are
swiveled upon a cradle (not shown) suitably
mounted for rotation about a vertical axis for
moving the gun in azimuth. Since the 37 mm.
gun illustrated herein is of the type used exten 10
and the oil in the front chamber 54 of the hous
sively in this and other countries and is well
known to those skilled in the ordnance art, only
such parts of the gun as are `necessary :in dis
su, opposing recoil movement of the tube 2G,
ing opposing the counter-recoil movement of
the tube, which recoil movement is eiîected by
the action of the recuperator spring.
It is desirable that the gun shall fire at its
normal cyclic rate (approximately 150 shots per
.minute) even under adverse conditions, such,
-for example, as high wind load and extremely
low temperatures. Moreover, it is further de
sirable that when the gun has an automatic
ammunition feed, such, for example, as dis
closed 'in an application for Letters Patent of
closing the illustrative device need Ábe described
15 the United States Serial No. 637,236, filed De
cember 26, 1945, in the names of Ernest W.
The tube 20, together with `a 'tube extension 3%.?
Stacey and Frank W. Reinhold, the regular nr
(Fig. 2) threaded onto the rear end of the tube,
ing rate shall be substantially maintained in
is moved rearward approximately 9% inches
order that the mechanism which feeds the shells
during recoil along the bore 22 of the trunnion
block 2li from its battery position, shown in full 20 to and chambers said shells in the gun shall
roperate most effectively.
lines Eig. 2, the tube and its extension being re
‘When the gun is being ñred under ordinary
turned to battery position from its fully recoiled
conditions at its normal cyclic rate, the velocity
position, shown in dash lines, by a recuperator
curves of the tube 2€) and the tube extension
or resistor unit 315. .Formed integral with and
>extending downward from the trunnion block 2t 25 3?. on the one hand and .a lock frame (not
is a support 35 in a bore of which is secured a
shown) on the other hand are approximately
two-part recuperator housing 3S containing oil.
Secured to the housing 38 is a bushing ¿25 (Figs.
1, 4 and 5) provided with three circumferentially
Vwriifcrrn or constant, such curves being readily
computed from the 37 mm. gun time-displace
ment chart such as illustrated in Fig. '7.
As will appear later, when the illustrative gun
.spaced elongated oil by-pass openings (i2 (Figs. 1
land 4), the purpose of which will be explained
later. Slidably >mounted in the bushing ¿it is a
piston Ml (Figs. 1 and 5) threaded onto the for
ward end of a Vrod ¿i5 which passes through regis
tering openings llß, 55 (Fig. 2) formed respec
tively in a rear closure cap `52' threaded .into the
recuperator housing 38 and in a depending por
tion of the tube extension 32. 'I'he rod 46 is se
cured to the tube extension 32 by a nut 54 which
is threaded onto the rear end of the rod, iits in
a hole in the tube extension, andis turned to
draw a collar 55 >of the rod into clamped engage
-ment withsaid extension.
The forward end of the recuperator housing
3,3 is closed by a cap 58 (Figs. 1 and 5) threaded
>into the housing. Surrounding the rod e5 and
>interposed between the piston ¿il and the rear
closure cap 52 is a spring 59 which is com
pressed during the recoil movement of the tube
-20 _and the tube extension 32 and serves to move -
said tube, together with its extension, back to
battery position. The piston »til is moved length
wise of the housing 38 from its full-line posi
tion (Fig. 1,) to its dash-.line position and >back
again, oil being transferred Yfrom one of the
chambers 62 (Figs. 1, >2 and 5), 64 (Figs. l and
5) at the rear and front, respectively, of the
piston, to the other through the by-pass open
ings 42 (Figs. 1 and 4) in the bushing 49. The
rear closure cap 52 (Fig. 2) of the recuperator
housing 38 is provided with a suitable stuñing
box >65 to insure against oil seeping from the
rear chamber E2 between the cap and the pis
ton rod 46.
It will be notedV (Fig. l) that the oil by-pass
openings 42 extend well forward of a front
working face >68 of the piston 4d -in its full-line
battery position and rearward approximately
to a rear working face 'm of the piston in its
recoiled dash-line position. The bushing open
ings 42, which are considerably smaller in cross
section than are corresponding openings in the
bushing of the 37 mm. gun now in common use,
Iserve to by-pass oil around the piston (it, the
oil in the rear chamber 52 of the recuperator
hres at a subnormal rate because of adverse
conditions, resistance operating against recoil
ing and counter-recoiling movement of the tube
25, together with its extension, is automatically
decreased in accordance with the reduction in
speed of said parts, with the result that lsaid
parts of the gun almost immediately acquire a
speed slightly greater than the normal speed of
such parts for that particular portion of their
cycle. When this occurs, the resistance oper
ating against the recoiling and counter-recoil
ing parts of the gun immediately increases and
accordingly the speed of such parts is reduced
slightly below their normal speed for that par
ticular portion of the cycle. When operating
under constantly changing wind and tempera
ture conditions, the resistance operating against
the recoiling and oounter-recoiling parts of the
gun is continuously varied through the provision
of mechanism which is hereinafter described
and is constructed and arranged to insure that
the velocity-curves of said ,parts of the gun re
main approximately uniform and are approxi
mately the same as the Velocity-curves of said
parts when the gun is operating under normal
conditions. With such a control, it will be ap
parent that the gun maintains a substantially
constant cyclic rate regardless of the conditions
under which it is fired.
With a View to varying the resistance operating
.against the recoiling and counter-recalling parts
o1' the gun, there is provided a block ‘l2 (Figs. 1,
e, 5 and 6) having a pair of oil passages ‘i4 (Figs.
4 and 5), 75 (Figs. l and V6) the rear ends of which
are in registration with openings 78 (Fig. 5) , ‘80
(Fig. 1), respectively, in the recuperator housing
38 and aiiord access to the rear oil chamber 62.
The forward ends of the passages "M, 'I6 are in
registration with alined openings 82 (Fig. 5), 84
(Fig. 1), respectively, which are formed in the re
cuperator housing 38 and the bushing 40 and
alTord access to the front oil chamber 64. The
block 'l2 is held in forced engagement with the
bottom of the recuperator housing 33 by a cylin
drical portion 8S (Figs. 1 Vand 4) of the block
which ñts on and is secured to the housing. As
`above stated, the passages 14, 16, which may be
said to include the openings 18, 80 and the open
ings-82, 84, respectively, extend forward to posi
tions just in advance of the piston 44 in its full
line battery position (Fig. 1) and rearward to
`positions just behind the piston in its recoiled
position- (shown in dash lines, Fig. 1). Mounted
in the passages 14, 16 are check valves 88, 90,
rack |20 (Figs. land 3) .mounted for forward'and
rearward reciprocation in a guideway |22 of a
depending portion`|24 of the trunnion block' 24.
Itwill benotedY upon examining the Vtime dis
placement chart shown in Fig. 7 that the tube
20 and the tube> extension 32 of the above-iden
tified 37 mm. "gun, arrive at a battery position
¿and remain there 'at rest for a short period, rep
resented by reference numeral |28, while the lock
respectively, the valve 80 preventing flow ofoil 10 frameV (not shown) of the gun moves" forward
undei` spring action to its battery position, the
in the passage 1E from the rear oil chamber 62
sh'ell‘during such rest period beingÍ chambered
to the front oil chamber 64 of the recuperator
and the breech block (not shown) being locked in
housing 38 and the valve 88 preventing flow of
its battery position._ Accordingly, the vcarnway
oil in the passage 14 from the front to the rear
|08 vis designed to cause the lever ||2 to vremain
oil chamber.
at rest during the rest period of the tube 120, the
Mounted for rotation in the block 12 is a valve
follower H0 at such time being in engagement
92 (Figs. 4, 5 and 6) having ports 84, 96 which
with a concentric portion |28 (Fig. 1) of the cam
may be moved into registration with the passages
» Way.
14, 16, respectively. In order to vary the ilow of
Slidingly mounted in a rectilinear guideway
oil in directions 95 (Fig' 5), 91 (Fig. 6) through
|30 (Figs. 2 and 3) of the depending portion |24
the passages 14, 15, respectively, for the purpose
of the trunnion block 24 is a rack |32 the vrear
of controlling the cyclic rate of the gun ñring
end of which has secured to it a lug |34 (Figs. 1
under adverse conditions, the valve 92 is actuated
and 2) provided With a transverse slot |36 (Fig.
through mechanism which will now be described.
When the valve 82 is in the position shown in 25 2) in which nts a depending ilange |38 ofthe
tube extension 32. Rotatably mounted in the de
Figs. 5 and 6, its ports 94, 06 are so positioned
pending portion |24 of the trunnion block 24 is
that they restrict to a considerable extent the
a shaft |40 (Figs. 1,'2 and 3) to which are se
flow of oil through the passages 14, 15, the com
cured large and small pinions |42 (Figs. 2 and 3),
bined ilow of oil through said ports thus posi
tioned and through the openings 42 in the recu 30 |44 (Figs. 1 and 3),-respectively, the pinion |42
being operatively connected to the rack |32 and
perator bushing 40 restricting the flow of oil
the pinion |44 being operatively connected to
from one chamber 62, B4 to the other approxi
mately to the same extent that oil is restricted
in larger but corresponding recuperator bushing
Yopenings alone of the 37 mm. gun now in use. -
a rack |46 slidingly mounted in a rectilinear
guideway |48 which is formed in said ~depending
portion |24. The pinion |42>has a diameter
approximately three times that of thepinion
|44 and accordingly the travel of the rack in its
guideway |48 is one-third of the recoil and coun
Accordingly, when the gun is operating under
normal conditions, the valve S2 is positioned ap
proximately as illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6, the
ter-recoil travel of the tube 20 and is also in a
iiow of oil in the passages 14, 1B being somewhat
reverse direction to the direction of travel of
restricted. Since the unitary valve 92 comprises
said tube.
ports 94, 96 for regulating the iiow of oil through
Slidingly mounted in alined guideways' |50, |52
the passages 14, 15, respectively, such valve may
i (Fig. 1) of the block 12 and the depending por
be considered as constituting a pair of valves and
tion` |24 ofthe trunnion 'block 24 is a rack `or
be referred to as such.
rack slide |54 (Figs. 1 and 4) upon the rear’bi
In order that the velocity-curve of the tube
furcated end of which freely rotates a pinion
20, and accordingly the recoil portion of the ve
|56 (Fig.v l) constructed and arranged to mesh
locity-curve of the lock frame of the gun, shall be
teeth of racks |20, |46. The teeth of the
approximately uniform and similar to the veloc
rack slide |54 mesh with teeth of a pinion |58
ity-curves of corresponding parts of the gun iired
secured to the rotary valve 92.
at a cyclic rate of 150 rounds per minute, the
V1t will be apparent that when the racks |20,
valve 92 is automatically rotated, if necessary.
|45 move at the same speedV in opposite direc
Such rotation of the valve is effected through
tions lalong their parallel guideways |22, |48, the
mechanism which will be described presently and
vpinion |56 Will rotate freely 'upon the rack slide
which operates during the recoil and counter-re
|54 but will not impart-to the slide |54 a trans
coil movement of the parts of the gun in order
latory movement along its guideways |50, |52
to allow oil in greater or less quantities to flow
whichare parallel to the guideways |22, |48.
through the passages 14, 18 in directions 95 (Fig.
Should the tube-operated rack |46 slow down
5), 97 (Figs. 1 and 6), respectively, with the re
and thus move slower than the rack |20, which
sult that the resistance opposing the recoil and
may be referred to as a control or speed regulat
counter-recoil movement of the tube is varied
ing rack, during the recoil movement of the tube
in accordance with changes in the setting of the
20, for example, the slide |54 will move to the
left, as viewed in Fig. 1, causing the valve 92
Mounted for rotation at a constant predeter
to rotate clockwise, as viewed in Fig. 5, with the
mined speed in a bracket 98 (Fig. 3) secured to
result that resistance to the flow of oil from
the trunnion block 24 is a shaft 100 which is op
chamber 82 to chamber 64 of the housing 38 is
eratively connected through a suitable clutch |02
decreased. The effect of such action is to cause
to a shaft |04 also rotatably mounted in the
recuperator piston 44 to offer less resistance
bracket. Secured to the shaft |04 is a cam |06
recoil movement of the tube 20. When this
(Figs. 1 and 3) having a camway |08 (Fig. l) in
occurs, the tube 20 immediately speeds up until
which fits a follower ||0 rotatably mounted upon
it causes the rack |48 to move faster than the
a lever ||2 (Figs. l, 2 and 3). The lever i|2 is
rack |20, with the result that the rack slide |54
swiveled at its upper end upon a fulcrum pin | i 4
secured to the trunnion block 24 and has at its
>lower end an elongated slot ||6 (Fig. 1) for re
ceiving a pin ||8 secured to the rear end of a
moves to the right, as viewed in Fig. 5, causing
the valve 92 to be rotated counterclockwise and
thereby restricting the now of oil in the direction
'£5 in the passage 154 and causing the recuperator
piston ¿le to oirer increased resistance to there
coil .movement of the tube 2U.
Vresistor unit, comprising fluid and 'a housing
therefor, 'for opposing the recoil -and counter
recoil movement of said parts of the gun, a valve
If., during its ‘counter-.recoil movement, the
vfor controlling flow of ñuid in said housing, and
tube 2€) vfails to maintain its desired velocity Ul mechanism responsive to differences'in speed be
curve, the rack |46 slows down with relation to
tween rthe power-driven and thev gun-operated
the rack |20, causing the rack slide |54 to move
members for controlling said Valve to cause the
to the right, as viewed in Fig. 1. Such action
velocity-curve of the gun-operated member to
causes the valve 92 to move counterclockwise, as
approximate the velocity-curve of the 'power
viewed in Fig. 6, and accordingly to offer less re 10 driven member.
sistance than previously to the flow of cil in di
3. .In an automatic gun, a member movable in
rection 91 through the passage ‘16. As the resist
response to vrecoil and counter-recoil movement
ance to counter-recoil movement of the tube 20
oi parts of the gun, a power-driven member hav
Vi's reduced the tube 26 speeds up and attains a
ing a substantially uniform velocity-curve, means
velocity suñicient to cause the rack |46 to lmove
for resisting recoil and counter-recoil movement
faster than the rack k|29 and thus to move the
of said parts of the gun, said means comprising
rack Slide i 54 to the left,`as'viewed'in Fig. 1, with
iiuid, a housing therefor, and a valve for restrict
the result that the valve 92 is rotated clockwise,
ing now of fluid in the housing to control the
as viewed in Fig. 6, and offers increased resist
rate of recoil and counter-recoil movement of
ance to the flow of oil through the passage 16.
said parts of the gun, and valve operating mech
When this occurs the recuperator piston 44 of
anism which is responsive to differences in speed
fers increased resistance to the rtube 2B which
between the Gun-driven member and the power
tends to slow down to its 'normal speed for its
driven member and which is constructed and
particular displacement from battery position.
arranged to operate the valve and to insure that
The construction of the above-described op
the cyclic rate of the gun shall be approximately
erating parts is such that the device is sensitive
equal to that of the power-driven member.
to slight variations in speed between the racks
fi. In an automatic gun, a member movable >in
i253, |136 and responds rapidly to said variations,
-response to movement of recoiling and counter
the valve 92 moving almost continuously back
recoiling parts of the gun, a control member,
and forth 'to a slight extent when continuously 30 means for moving the control member in a su'b
varying operating’conditions are encountered.
stantially uniform velocity-curve, a valve, a fluid
The ‘shaft le!! isV driven by a constant speed
containing resistor unit for controlling the rate
motor (notshown) for example. When the gun
of recoil and counter-recoil movement of said
is being-fired automatically, the clutch |92 is op
parts ci the gun and accordingly the cyclic rate
erative to couple the shafts |88, |94 so as to ro
of the gun in accordance with the setting of said
tate the shaft lef! ata 'fixed speed, a solenoid
valve, and means movable in response to differ
|59 being continuously energized during such
time to hold the clutch in its driving position,
shown in Fig. l.
ences in speed between said members for operat
ing said valve.
5. In an automatic gun, a power-driven mem
When single shots are being fired by the gun, 40 ber having a substantially uniform velocity-curve,
it is desirable that the rack |20 shall be set
a member movable in response to recoil Vand
in motion upon pulling the trigger (not shown)
counter-recoil movement of parts of the gun, a
and ’that upon completion of the cycle of the gun
resistor unit for opposing the recoil and counter
the rack shall come to rest. The illustrative con
recoil movement of said parts of the gun, mech
trol is such that when the trigger is pulled a
anism for varying ‘the amount of resistance with
circuit is closed, causing the solenoid |60 to be
whichY said unit opposes the recoil and counter
come energized and thus to throw in the clutch
recoil movement of the gun, and means respon
|112, thereby rotating the cam |65 at a constant
sive to differences in speed between the power
speed. Upon release of the trigger the above
driven member and the recoil and counter-recoil
mentioned circuit is opened, but a relay is pro
driven member, said means being constructed and
vided to keep the solenoid energized until a
arranged so te control said mechanism that the
switch IâìZ (Fig. 1) is engaged> by a projection
velocity-curve of the recoil and counter-recoil
|66 on the cam Hit, at which time the solenoid
driven member is approximately the same as the
is de-energized and the clutch |702 is thrown out,
velocity-curve of the power-driven member.
the shaft lilli, through the provision of a multiple 3.3
6. In an automatic gun, a piston movable in'op
Vplate brake (not shown) associated with> the
pcsite directions in response to recoil and coun
~ clutch, coming quickly to and remaining Vat rest
ter-recoil movement of one or moreparts of the
until the gun is again ñred.
gun, fluid housing means constructed and ar
ranged to Vresist movement of said piston in op
Having described our invention, what we claim
as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of (SO posite directions, a member responsive to move
the United States is:
ment oi said one or more parts of the gun, a
power-operated member having a velocity-curve
l. In an automatic gun, a unit for resisting re
coil and counter-recoil movement .of parts of the
which is approximately uniform, fluid flow con
for varying the amount of resistance
trol means for varying resistance operative
‘oiîered 'oy said unit, a movable control member
against the piston during recoil and counter-re
having a substantially uniform velocity-curve,
coil movement of the gun, and mechanism oper
a member movable in response to recoil and coun
ative in response to differences in speed between
ter-recoil movement of one or more of said parts
said members for operating said ilow control
of the gun, and mechanism operative in response
means whereby to vary resistance of fluid in said
'to differences in speed between said members for
fluid housing means against said piston.
-controlling said means.
'7. In an automatic gun, a barrel mounted for
2. lIn an automatic gun, a power-driven mem
recoil and counter-recoil movement, a housing
ber having a substantially uniform velocity-curve,
for ñuid, a piston slidable in the housing in re
Va member operative in response to recoil and
sponse to movement of said barrel, said piston
vcounter-recoil movement of parts of the gun, a
having fluid engaging Working faces, passages
connecting chambers of the housing which are 1o
cated opposite the Working faces respectively of
the piston, valves arranged in the respective pas
sages, a rack, power-driven means for reciprocat
ing said rack in a substantially uniform velocity
curve, a rack movable in response to the recoil
and counter-recoil movement of the barrel, a
freely rotatable pinion which is operatively con
nected to both said racks and is also mounted
for movement in a translatory path, said pinion
being rotated but not moved in said translatory
path when the barrel-operated rack moves at the
same velocity as and in an opposite direction to
the power~driven rack, said pinion being rotated
and also moved in said translatory path when
the velocity of the barrel-operated rack is dif
ferent from that of the power-driven rack, and
means responsive to translatory movement of the
pinion for varying the setting of the valves.
8. In an automatic gun, a rack driven in a rec
tilinear path in response to recoil and counter
of the gun, a control rack which is reciprocable
in a rectilinear path parallel to the path of re
ciprocation of the gun-driven rack and Which
moves in a direction opposite to the direction of
movement of the gun-driven rack, said control
rack having a substantially uniform velocity
curve as it moves in said path, a slide, a pinion
rotatably mounted upon the slide and positioned
between and in meshing relation with the racks,
said pinion being rotated but not operative to
move said slide When the racks move at the same
speed in opposite directions, said pinion being ro
tated and operative to move the slide when the
gun-driven rack moves at a speed different from
that of the control rack, and means operative in
response to movement of the slide for causing
said valves to open and close in order that the
gun-'driven rack shall have a velocity-curve ap
proximately the same as that of the control rack,
20 thereby insuring that the gun shall have a sub
stantially constant cyclic rate.
recoil movement of parts of the gun, a fluid con
taining resistor unit for opposing recoil and coun
ter-recoil movement of the gun, valves for vary
ing the resistance oiîered by said unit to the re 25 Administrator of the Estate of Arthur F. Pym.
coil and counter-recoil movement of said parts
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