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Oct 15, 1946‘. w, J, (:RrrEs' _ 2,409,255 HYDRAULIC COUPLING Original Filed March 6, 1942 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 . f 4 . 45 ATTORN S 2,409,256 Patented Oct. 15, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,409,256 HYDRAULIC COUPLING Wilbur J. Crites, deceased, late of Bartlesville, Okla, by First National Bank in Bartlesville, executor, Bartlesville, Okla, said Crites assign or to Phillips Petroleum Company, a corpora tion of Delaware Original application March 6, 1942, Serial No. 433,676. Divided and this application Febru ary 1, 1944, Serial No. 520,898 1 Claim. (Cl. 192-58) 1 porting medium, the rods will enter a bending stress at such time as the resistance to downward This invention relates, to improvements in pumping machinery used in the production of oil from wells, and particularly to apparatus for travel at the plunger becomes greater than the gravitational e?ect at that point to the extent hydraulically connecting a prime mover to a pumping device. 5 that the rod column above will be distorted. Un like the stresses of tension and compression, the The present application is a division of copend bending stress from distortion is not distributed ing application, Serial No. 433,676, ?led March 6, throughout the length of the rods, but will be 1942, issued as Patent No. 2,358,058. concentrated in a few places. The points of In the pumping of wells by sucker rods, it is bending stress concentration will be at those now common practice to operate the rods with an points that oifer the least resistance to bending oscillating beam to which at one end is attached and repeated bending at such points will soon re the sucker rods and at the other end a pitman sult in fatigue failures. Such stress concentra tion may result in shortening the life of the rods from the superimposed weight of the rods alone, but when the rate of applied motion is greater than the rate of motion due to gravity, the stress is increased, resulting in much earlier failure of the rods. Many patents have been issued, including my Patent No. 2,20%,’725, which tend to reduce accel which is actuated by a crank. To offset the weight of the rods and to store the energy inci dent to the dropping thereof, a counter-balance is used. The counter-weight is in a de?nitely ?xed position approximately in a relative cyclic position of 180° from the load. On account of the elasticity of the sucker rods and tubing, the compressibility of the ?uid being produced and the ever changing stress throughout the pumping eration as the load increases. Most of these are cycle, the counter-balancing effect should be ever known as shock absorbers, but in all of these in changing both with reference to position and which there is a de?nite speed relationship be force applied to conform with both the stress requirements of the load and the regenerative 25 tween the prime-mover and the load, the reactive effects may often be as destructive as the direct effect of the falling sucker rods. e?ects would have been without the application In the pumping of oil from wells by the means of the devices which do not control the acceler discussed herein, there are two types of stresses eration. In order to obtain the maximum stress developed, namely; static stresses, or those that reduction, the speed of the load must be inde result from suspended loads, and dynamic stress pendent of the speed of the prime mover. es, or those that result from the application or The solution of the problem lies in having a interruption of motion. The destructive effect coupling device, which is responsive to torque of static stresses is negligible, but dynamic changes and in which there is substantially no stresses are extremely destructive and are the reactive effect, between the prime mover and the source of almost all mechanical failures. The load. Although the normal hydraulic coupling would have distinct advantages in its application greatest dynamic stress in the pumping of oil wells occurs from the interruption of motion and to a system of this kind, it is obvious that a cou pling in which the “slip” characteristics are ad justable would have greater merit than one in which they are not. Further, a minimum slip on acceleration at this point the greater the stress, the down stroke of the sucker rods will result in because the entire load must be set in motion storing maximum energy in the flywheel and that from a static state. Therefore, at this point it is controlled slippage on the upstroke of the rods important to have a minimum rate of accelera tion. Normally, although the stresses are of 45 will effect a minimum, 'stress occurrence. The instant invention employs a type of cou greater magnitude on the up-stroke of the rods, pling for hydraulically connecting a prime mover those on the down-stroke may be more destruc to a pumping unit in a manner whereby full me tive. On the down-stroke, the rods are either in chanical advantage is obtained from the energy tension from their own suspended weight or if of falling sucker rods and full control of the the rate of imparted motion exceeds the actual is normally at that point that the ?uid is started in motion on the up-stroke after the elasticity of the rods has been expended. The greater the sucker rods is obtained during the pumping cycle. rate of gravitational acceleration, the rods will be in compression. Compression stresses in a suck It is to be noted that the instant invention may be employed in an oil well pumping system, such as that shown and described in U. S. Patent No. er rod system are not, per se, destructive, but on account of the high ratio of longitudinal to cross sectional area and absence of an immediate sup 55 2,268,701. 2,409,256 3 4 The primary object of the instant invention is to provide an apparatus for hydraulically con with an interior liner partition 23 in which rotor necting a prime mover to a pumpingdevice. ed to form an inlet chamber 21 and a discharge chamber 28 which connect with a passage 29 Another object of this invention is to provide a hydraulic coupling for use with well pumping equipment which stores the energy of the falling sucker rods in a flywheel and then utilizes said stored energy to assist the prime mover during periods of peak loads. A further object of this invention is to provide a hydraulic coupling apparatus in conjunction with well pumping equipment which will reduce stresses in the pumping equipment, particularly in the sucker rods. Another object is to provide a well pumping ap paratus which will require less power for opera; 24 is rotatably positioned. Partition 26 is adapt that is formed in housing 23 through an inlet port 30 and a discharge port 3|, respectively. Housing 23 also contains an idler pin 32 which is attached thereto and which rotatably carries an idler gear 33 that meshes with rotor 24, and a ?xed crescent-shaped member 34 that is po sitioned between the rotor and the idler gear. In order to control the ?ow of working ?uid through passage 29, there is formed a valve seat 35 in the passage. The valve seat receives a valve 15 head 36 which is adapted to be slidably positioned will be apparent to persons skilled in the art by reference to the following description and an on one end of a valve stem 37. The valve head is provided with an interior bore 38 which per mits a desired lateral movement of the valve head along stem 31. A compression spring 39 of any desired strength is carried on the valve stem nexed drawings, wherein which extends beyond housing 23 and which is tion than present-day conventional equipment. ‘These and additional objects and advantages . Figure 1 is a plan View of the pumping equip ment which may be employed in the practice of the instant invention ; connected at its outer end to a thrust plate 40 that is rotatably positioned on shaft l5. One or more stop assemblies 4|, each having a compres Figure 2 is an elevation view of the pumping 25 sion spring 42, which is identical to spring 39, are attached to housing 23 and to the thrust Figure 3 is an elevation view of my invention plate, which is maintained perpendicular to the partly in cross-section, of the hydraulic coupling central axis of shaft l5 at all times. Thrust device employed in the system that is shown in plate 40 is urged to the right by springs 39 and Figures 1 and 2; 30 42, and to the left by an adjustment collar 43 Figure 4 is a sectional view of the invention, which in turn is moved to the left by a yoke partly in cross-section, taken along the line 4-4 44 that is attached to the adjustment collar in a of Figure 3. pivotable manner, and which carries a rack 45 Referring to the drawings and more particu on its upper end. A pinion 46, which meshes with larly to Figures 1 and 2, there is denoted there 35 the rack to move the adjustment collar, is mount in a prime mover, such as a high slip type alter ed in a well known manner on a support 41 which nating current electric motor, by reference nu also assists in supporting yoke 44. A thrust~ equipment shown in Figure 1; meral l0. Rotary motion developed by prime bearing 48 is preferably placed intermediate mover Ii) is transmitted by shaft H to a ?y thrust plate 40 and adjustment collar 43 to fa Wheel I2 and to one portion of a positive dis 40 cilitate relative movement therebetween. placement rotary pump which is adapted to serve In operation, the apparatus is assembled as as a coupling means l3 that is connected to the shown in the drawings and the interior of hous shaft. A pulley M, which is secured to another ing 23 is ?lled with a desired working fluid. It is shaft |5 that is connected to another portion of to be noted that during a complete cycle of op coupling means I3, transmits power through V 45 eration of the coupling | 3, as shaft | | rotates rotor belts I6 from the prime mover to a drive wheel 24 clockwise in Figure 4, the working ?uid is I1 which is connected to one end of a pitman discharged into chamber 28 from which it flows l8. The other end of the pitman is Connected through port 3|, passage 29, port 30, and thence to one end of a walking beam I3 which is sup into chamber 21 from which it is pumped again ported by a Samson post 23. The other end of 60 into chamber 28. It is to be further noted that the walking beam is connected to a sucker rod when valve 36 is seated that the coupling is hy string 2| which is employed in lifting ?uid from draulically locked since no ?uid can ?ow through an underground formation. In the lifting of fluid, passage 29, causing shafts II and I5 to rotate sucker rod string 2| reciprocates through conven substantially at the same rate of speed. On the tional surface well equipment 22. 65 other hand, if valve head 36 is open, the rotation ’ Turning neXt to Figures 3 and 4 for a descrip of shaft |5 will be a function of the pressure of tion of coupling means l3, it is to be noted that the ?uidpumped from port 30 to port 3|, where there is employed a positive displacement rotary by the fluid acts upon rotor 24. Some inter pump which is adapted to serve this purpose. It mediate position for valve 36 will usually effect is not desired to limit the instant invention to 60 the mostdesired rate of rotation of shaft I5. With any particular type of positive displacement ro a varyingload, such as that of sucker rods 2|, the tary pump means, as other types may be employed rotational speed of the shaft will further vary successfully, but rather there is shown and here with variations in theltorque of shaft l5 which inafter described this particular type for the pur varies with the load of the sucker rods. Let us pose of disclosing the instantinvention. Shaft 65 assume that the prime mover has been placed I5 is integral with a housing 23 or the coupling in operation, that valve 35 is placed in a desired spacedrelationship with valve seat 35, and that means, and is adapted to accommodate a pump the pumping equipment shown in Figure 1 is set rotor 24 which is integral with shaft ll.’ Hous ing 23 extends outwardly over shaft |_ | and is pro into operation with sucker rods 2| just beginning vided with a packing gland 25 which is employed 70 to move upwardly. At this point in the pumping to hermetically seal the housing and to prevent cycle, the load on sucker rods 22 is at substan the leakage of a working fluid which is placed tially a minimum. But as the rods move upward interior‘ of the housing and utilized to operate the they are elongated without any appreciable move coupling means. In adapting the pump to ahy ment of the plunger but with increasingrod load draulic coupling, there is provided housing 23 75 which increases the torque of shaft I5 and causes 5 2,409,256 the shaft to slow down. Due to the amount of ?uid passing valve 35, when shaft I5 is slowed down, the acceleration of the rods occurs gradually With out subjecting the equipment to severe stresses. As the rods begin to pick up speed, the torque on shaft [5 decreases, less ?uid passes valve 36, and shaft 15 rotates more rapidly. As the rods reach the end of the upward stroke and start down wardly, the weight of the falling rods accelerates shaft l5 until it rotates at a faster rate than shaft I I, causing the working ?uid in coupling l3 to be pumped in a reverse direction from chamber 2'! to chamber 28 through passage 29 where the ?uid acting against the partially opened valve head 36 causes it to move over stem 37 and seat 6 paratus for practicing the instant invention will be readily comprehended by persons skilled in the art. It is to be clearly understood, however, that various changes in the apparatus herewith shown and described and in the modes of operation out lined above may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention, as de?ned by the appended claim. What is claimed is: A ?uid coupling for transmitting energy from a rotatable driving shaft to a rotatable driven shaft comprising a housing adapted to be con nected to one of the above mentioned shafts; a positive displacement pump including a pump chamber formed within the housing, a pump rotor upon valve seat 35, closing passage 29 and hy draulically locking my device. Thus, the energy of the falling rods is transmitted through shaft I5, coupling I3, and shaft H to ?ywheel I2 where the energy is stored in the rotating ?ywheel. Not only does the flywheel decrease the speed of the falling rods, but also at the end of the downward stroke and at the beginning of the upward stroke, rotatably disposed in the chamber and adapted to be connected to the other above mentioned shaft, many other types of machinery and employed By WALTER E. DANNEBURG, Trust Oj?cer, Administrator of the Estate of Wilbur J. C'rites, a fluid inlet and a ?uid outlet communicating with the chamber; a conduit establishing com munication between the inlet and the outlet; and valve means for controlling the ?ow of ?uid through the conduit, comprising a valve seat in the conduit, a valve stem, a valve head slidable the energy stored in the ?ywheel is utilized in assisting the prime mover to accelerate the rods 25 on the stem to seat on the valve seat, yieldable resilient means urging the stem away from the upwardly. When the rods complete their down seat, an annular plate secured to the stem and dis ward movement, flywheel I 2 causes shaft H to posed around the adjacent one of the shafts, rotate more rapidly than shaft l5, causing the and means slidable anct rotatable relative to working ?uid to be pumped through passage 29 in the normal direction, opening valve 36, where 30 the last mentioned shaft to adjust-the stem to ward the seat by overcoming the force of the upon the rods are accelerated upon gradually in yieldable means. accordance to the torque in shaft I5. WILBUR J. CRITES, It is to be understood that although there is FIRST NATIONAL BANK described the application of the device to pump ing equipment, that it may be adapted to operate 35 IN BARTLESVIILE, therewith advantageously. From the foregoing, it is believed that the ap Deceased. '