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Патент USA US2409257

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Oct 15, 1946‘.
w, J, (:RrrEs'
_
2,409,255
HYDRAULIC COUPLING
Original Filed March 6, 1942
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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ATTORN
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2,409,256
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,256
HYDRAULIC COUPLING
Wilbur J. Crites, deceased, late of Bartlesville,
Okla, by First National Bank in Bartlesville,
executor, Bartlesville, Okla, said Crites assign
or to Phillips Petroleum Company, a corpora
tion of Delaware
Original application March 6, 1942, Serial No.
433,676. Divided and this application Febru
ary 1, 1944, Serial No. 520,898
1 Claim. (Cl. 192-58)
1
porting medium, the rods will enter a bending
stress at such time as the resistance to downward
This invention relates, to improvements in
pumping machinery used in the production of oil
from wells, and particularly to apparatus for
travel at the plunger becomes greater than the
gravitational e?ect at that point to the extent
hydraulically connecting a prime mover to a
pumping device.
5 that the rod column above will be distorted. Un
like the stresses of tension and compression, the
The present application is a division of copend
bending stress from distortion is not distributed
ing application, Serial No. 433,676, ?led March 6,
throughout the length of the rods, but will be
1942, issued as Patent No. 2,358,058.
concentrated in a few places. The points of
In the pumping of wells by sucker rods, it is
bending stress concentration will be at those
now common practice to operate the rods with an
points that oifer the least resistance to bending
oscillating beam to which at one end is attached
and repeated bending at such points will soon re
the sucker rods and at the other end a pitman
sult in fatigue failures. Such stress concentra
tion may result in shortening the life of the rods
from the superimposed weight of the rods alone,
but when the rate of applied motion is greater
than the rate of motion due to gravity, the stress
is increased, resulting in much earlier failure of
the rods.
Many patents have been issued, including my
Patent No. 2,20%,’725, which tend to reduce accel
which is actuated by a crank. To offset the
weight of the rods and to store the energy inci
dent to the dropping thereof, a counter-balance
is used.
The counter-weight is in a de?nitely
?xed position approximately in a relative cyclic
position of 180° from the load. On account of
the elasticity of the sucker rods and tubing, the
compressibility of the ?uid being produced and
the ever changing stress throughout the pumping
eration as the load increases. Most of these are
cycle, the counter-balancing effect should be ever
known as shock absorbers, but in all of these in
changing both with reference to position and
which there is a de?nite speed relationship be
force applied to conform with both the stress
requirements of the load and the regenerative 25 tween the prime-mover and the load, the reactive
effects may often be as destructive as the direct
effect of the falling sucker rods.
e?ects would have been without the application
In the pumping of oil from wells by the means
of the devices which do not control the acceler
discussed herein, there are two types of stresses
eration. In order to obtain the maximum stress
developed, namely; static stresses, or those that
reduction, the speed of the load must be inde
result from suspended loads, and dynamic stress
pendent of the speed of the prime mover.
es, or those that result from the application or
The solution of the problem lies in having a
interruption of motion. The destructive effect
coupling device, which is responsive to torque
of static stresses is negligible, but dynamic
changes and in which there is substantially no
stresses are extremely destructive and are the
reactive effect, between the prime mover and the
source of almost all mechanical failures. The
load. Although the normal hydraulic coupling
would have distinct advantages in its application
greatest dynamic stress in the pumping of oil
wells occurs from the interruption of motion and
to a system of this kind, it is obvious that a cou
pling in which the “slip” characteristics are ad
justable would have greater merit than one in
which they are not. Further, a minimum slip on
acceleration at this point the greater the stress,
the down stroke of the sucker rods will result in
because the entire load must be set in motion
storing maximum energy in the flywheel and that
from a static state. Therefore, at this point it is
controlled slippage on the upstroke of the rods
important to have a minimum rate of accelera
tion. Normally, although the stresses are of 45 will effect a minimum, 'stress occurrence.
The instant invention employs a type of cou
greater magnitude on the up-stroke of the rods,
pling for hydraulically connecting a prime mover
those on the down-stroke may be more destruc
to a pumping unit in a manner whereby full me
tive. On the down-stroke, the rods are either in
chanical advantage is obtained from the energy
tension from their own suspended weight or if
of falling sucker rods and full control of the
the rate of imparted motion exceeds the actual
is normally at that point that the ?uid is started
in motion on the up-stroke after the elasticity
of the rods has been expended. The greater the
sucker rods is obtained during the pumping cycle.
rate of gravitational acceleration, the rods will be
in compression. Compression stresses in a suck
It is to be noted that the instant invention may
be employed in an oil well pumping system, such
as that shown and described in U. S. Patent No.
er rod system are not, per se, destructive, but on
account of the high ratio of longitudinal to cross
sectional area and absence of an immediate sup
55
2,268,701.
2,409,256
3
4
The primary object of the instant invention is
to provide an apparatus for hydraulically con
with an interior liner partition 23 in which rotor
necting a prime mover to a pumpingdevice.
ed to form an inlet chamber 21 and a discharge
chamber 28 which connect with a passage 29
Another object of this invention is to provide
a hydraulic coupling for use with well pumping
equipment which stores the energy of the falling
sucker rods in a flywheel and then utilizes said
stored energy to assist the prime mover during
periods of peak loads.
A further object of this invention is to provide
a hydraulic coupling apparatus in conjunction
with well pumping equipment which will reduce
stresses in the pumping equipment, particularly
in the sucker rods.
Another object is to provide a well pumping ap
paratus which will require less power for opera;
24 is rotatably positioned. Partition 26 is adapt
that is formed in housing 23 through an inlet
port 30 and a discharge port 3|, respectively.
Housing 23 also contains an idler pin 32 which
is attached thereto and which rotatably carries
an idler gear 33 that meshes with rotor 24, and
a ?xed crescent-shaped member 34 that is po
sitioned between the rotor and the idler gear.
In order to control the ?ow of working ?uid
through passage 29, there is formed a valve seat
35 in the passage. The valve seat receives a valve
15 head 36 which is adapted to be slidably positioned
will be apparent to persons skilled in the art by
reference to the following description and an
on one end of a valve stem 37. The valve head
is provided with an interior bore 38 which per
mits a desired lateral movement of the valve head
along stem 31. A compression spring 39 of any
desired strength is carried on the valve stem
nexed drawings, wherein
which extends beyond housing 23 and which is
tion than present-day conventional equipment.
‘These and additional objects and advantages
.
Figure 1 is a plan View of the pumping equip
ment which may be employed in the practice of
the instant invention ;
connected at its outer end to a thrust plate 40
that is rotatably positioned on shaft l5. One or
more stop assemblies 4|, each having a compres
Figure 2 is an elevation view of the pumping 25 sion spring 42, which is identical to spring 39,
are attached to housing 23 and to the thrust
Figure 3 is an elevation view of my invention
plate, which is maintained perpendicular to the
partly in cross-section, of the hydraulic coupling
central axis of shaft l5 at all times. Thrust
device employed in the system that is shown in
plate 40 is urged to the right by springs 39 and
Figures 1 and 2;
30 42, and to the left by an adjustment collar 43
Figure 4 is a sectional view of the invention,
which in turn is moved to the left by a yoke
partly in cross-section, taken along the line 4-4
44 that is attached to the adjustment collar in a
of Figure 3.
pivotable manner, and which carries a rack 45
Referring to the drawings and more particu
on its upper end. A pinion 46, which meshes with
larly to Figures 1 and 2, there is denoted there 35 the rack to move the adjustment collar, is mount
in a prime mover, such as a high slip type alter
ed in a well known manner on a support 41 which
nating current electric motor, by reference nu
also assists in supporting yoke 44. A thrust~
equipment shown in Figure 1;
meral l0.
Rotary motion developed by prime
bearing 48 is preferably placed intermediate
mover Ii) is transmitted by shaft H to a ?y
thrust plate 40 and adjustment collar 43 to fa
Wheel I2 and to one portion of a positive dis 40 cilitate relative movement therebetween.
placement rotary pump which is adapted to serve
In operation, the apparatus is assembled as
as a coupling means l3 that is connected to the
shown in the drawings and the interior of hous
shaft. A pulley M, which is secured to another
ing 23 is ?lled with a desired working fluid. It is
shaft |5 that is connected to another portion of
to be noted that during a complete cycle of op
coupling means I3, transmits power through V 45 eration of the coupling | 3, as shaft | | rotates rotor
belts I6 from the prime mover to a drive wheel
24 clockwise in Figure 4, the working ?uid is
I1 which is connected to one end of a pitman
discharged into chamber 28 from which it flows
l8. The other end of the pitman is Connected
through port 3|, passage 29, port 30, and thence
to one end of a walking beam I3 which is sup
into chamber 21 from which it is pumped again
ported by a Samson post 23. The other end of 60 into chamber 28. It is to be further noted that
the walking beam is connected to a sucker rod
when valve 36 is seated that the coupling is hy
string 2| which is employed in lifting ?uid from
draulically locked since no ?uid can ?ow through
an underground formation. In the lifting of fluid,
passage 29, causing shafts II and I5 to rotate
sucker rod string 2| reciprocates through conven
substantially at the same rate of speed. On the
tional surface well equipment 22.
65 other hand, if valve head 36 is open, the rotation ’
Turning neXt to Figures 3 and 4 for a descrip
of shaft |5 will be a function of the pressure of
tion of coupling means l3, it is to be noted that
the ?uidpumped from port 30 to port 3|, where
there is employed a positive displacement rotary
by the fluid acts upon rotor 24. Some inter
pump which is adapted to serve this purpose. It
mediate position for valve 36 will usually effect
is not desired to limit the instant invention to 60 the mostdesired rate of rotation of shaft I5. With
any particular type of positive displacement ro
a varyingload, such as that of sucker rods 2|, the
tary pump means, as other types may be employed
rotational speed of the shaft will further vary
successfully, but rather there is shown and here
with variations in theltorque of shaft l5 which
inafter described this particular type for the pur
varies with the load of the sucker rods. Let us
pose of disclosing the instantinvention. Shaft 65 assume that the prime mover has been placed
I5 is integral with a housing 23 or the coupling
in operation, that valve 35 is placed in a desired
spacedrelationship with valve seat 35, and that
means, and is adapted to accommodate a pump
the pumping equipment shown in Figure 1 is set
rotor 24 which is integral with shaft ll.’ Hous
ing 23 extends outwardly over shaft |_ | and is pro
into operation with sucker rods 2| just beginning
vided with a packing gland 25 which is employed 70 to move upwardly. At this point in the pumping
to hermetically seal the housing and to prevent
cycle, the load on sucker rods 22 is at substan
the leakage of a working fluid which is placed
tially a minimum. But as the rods move upward
interior‘ of the housing and utilized to operate the
they are elongated without any appreciable move
coupling means. In adapting the pump to ahy
ment of the plunger but with increasingrod load
draulic coupling, there is provided housing 23 75 which increases the torque of shaft I5 and causes
5
2,409,256
the shaft to slow down. Due to the amount of ?uid
passing valve 35, when shaft I5 is slowed down,
the acceleration of the rods occurs gradually With
out subjecting the equipment to severe stresses.
As the rods begin to pick up speed, the torque on
shaft [5 decreases, less ?uid passes valve 36, and
shaft 15 rotates more rapidly. As the rods reach
the end of the upward stroke and start down
wardly, the weight of the falling rods accelerates
shaft l5 until it rotates at a faster rate than shaft
I I, causing the working ?uid in coupling l3 to be
pumped in a reverse direction from chamber 2'!
to chamber 28 through passage 29 where the
?uid acting against the partially opened valve
head 36 causes it to move over stem 37 and seat
6
paratus for practicing the instant invention will
be readily comprehended by persons skilled in the
art. It is to be clearly understood, however, that
various changes in the apparatus herewith shown
and described and in the modes of operation out
lined above may be resorted to without departing
from the spirit of the invention, as de?ned by
the appended claim.
What is claimed is:
A ?uid coupling for transmitting energy from
a rotatable driving shaft to a rotatable driven
shaft comprising a housing adapted to be con
nected to one of the above mentioned shafts; a
positive displacement pump including a pump
chamber formed within the housing, a pump rotor
upon valve seat 35, closing passage 29 and hy
draulically locking my device. Thus, the energy
of the falling rods is transmitted through shaft
I5, coupling I3, and shaft H to ?ywheel I2 where
the energy is stored in the rotating ?ywheel. Not
only does the flywheel decrease the speed of the
falling rods, but also at the end of the downward
stroke and at the beginning of the upward stroke,
rotatably disposed in the chamber and adapted to
be connected to the other above mentioned shaft,
many other types of machinery and employed
By WALTER E. DANNEBURG,
Trust Oj?cer,
Administrator of the Estate of Wilbur J. C'rites,
a fluid inlet and a ?uid outlet communicating
with the chamber; a conduit establishing com
munication between the inlet and the outlet; and
valve means for controlling the ?ow of ?uid
through the conduit, comprising a valve seat in
the conduit, a valve stem, a valve head slidable
the energy stored in the ?ywheel is utilized in
assisting the prime mover to accelerate the rods 25 on the stem to seat on the valve seat, yieldable
resilient means urging the stem away from the
upwardly. When the rods complete their down
seat, an annular plate secured to the stem and dis
ward movement, flywheel I 2 causes shaft H to
posed around the adjacent one of the shafts,
rotate more rapidly than shaft l5, causing the
and means slidable anct rotatable relative to
working ?uid to be pumped through passage 29
in the normal direction, opening valve 36, where 30 the last mentioned shaft to adjust-the stem to
ward the seat by overcoming the force of the
upon the rods are accelerated upon gradually in
yieldable means.
accordance to the torque in shaft I5.
WILBUR J. CRITES,
It is to be understood that although there is
FIRST NATIONAL BANK
described the application of the device to pump
ing equipment, that it may be adapted to operate 35
IN BARTLESVIILE,
therewith advantageously.
From the foregoing, it is believed that the ap
Deceased.
'
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