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Патент USA US2409279

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Oct. 15, {946.
L. M. HEDGES '
2,409,278 '
FILTER
Filed Oct‘. 1, 1943
'
INVENTOR
[£5 M $0450‘.
BY DMZ/Liam
'
A
TORNEY
Patented Oct..15, 1946
grams
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,278
FILTER
Lee Minor Hedges, Somervillc, N. J., assignor to
Johns-Manville Corporation, New York, N. Y'.,
a corporation of New York
1
>
'
Application October 1, 1943, Serial No. 504,558"
3 Claims. (01. 183'—45)
.
The present invention relates to ?lters or ?lter
units for-the removal of dust or other particulate
matter from air or other gases.
2
_
A further object of theinvention is the pro
'vision 'of'a "?lter unit including a main ?ltering
Filters in ac
body composed of nodules as previously described
cordance with the invention, may be employed
in the industrial arts, air conditioning appara
and a “back up” ?lter mat} or mats of suitable
type overlying the nodules at the exit end of the
unit. The back up mat is important in making
tus, respirators, air intakes for internal com
bustion engines and in any other situation where
it is desirable to remove either solid or liquid
particulate matter such as dust, dirt, smoke,
tars, oils etc. from air and other gases.
The principal object of the invention is the
provision of a ?lter or ?ltering unit for the pur
the last layer ofjnodules relatively impervious
to dust or other particulate matter.
I
_
My invention willbe vmore fully understood
and further objects and advantages thereof will
become apparentwhen reference is'made to the
.more detailed description of the preferred em
bodiments thereof which is to follow and toy the
poses referred to, the ?lter having increased life,
low flow resistance and high ef?ciency as com
"Fig. l is a perspective
vdrawing toview
which:
of a ?lter
.
unit
'
em
,
pared to known ?lters for certain applications. 15 accompanying
A ?lter in accordance with the invention is one
bodying the invention.
which will accumulate a large amount of the
Fig. 2 is an elevationalview partially in sec
particulate matter without clogging, and which
tion of the device of Fig. 1.
s
at the same time operates e?iciently in remov
Fig. 3 is a perspective View of an individual
J'ng very ?ne particles from the air or other gases. 20 nodule as employed in the instant invention.
More particularly an object of the invention is
Fig. 4 is a view partially in elevation and par
the provision of a ?lter or ?ltering unit compris
tially in section illustrating a modi?ed form of
ing a mass of gas pervious, resilient ?brous bod
- the invention, and,
ies, preferably of somewhat rounded shapes, such
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4, illustrating a
bodies being hereinafter referred to as “nodules.” 25 further modi?cation.
__
The nodules are arranged generally in layers and
Referring now to the drawing, and particu
the nodules of each layer are in partial or lim
larly to Figs; 1, 2 and‘3,v there is shown a ?lter
ited contact with one another, providing voids
unit It comprising a cylindrical casing l2, and
or pockets therebetween. The nodules may be
foraminous end closures M and I5. It willlbe
of various shapes, such as rounded cubes, spheres,
ellipsoids and the like.
understood that thevparticular form and char
Another object of the invention is the pro
vision of a ?lter unit employing nodules formed
of felted mineral wool ?ber.
?lter element may vary radically depending upon
the particular use to which the ?lter is to be
put, the form shown having been selectedonly
acter of the casing or holding means for the
Another object of the invention is the provision 35
of a ?lter comprising a plurality of layers of
for purposes of illustration.
.
_' _
The ?lter element or body, in accordance with
nodules in which a great number of void spaces
or pockets are created with larger voids at the
the invention, comprises a mass or body ofv re
or adjacent the air exit face of the unit.
A. further object of the invention in one form
be cut from a mineral wool felt as made, for
example, by the process disclosed in Powell re
silient ?brous nodules l8 arranged substantially
air entry face, the voids progressively diminish
in layers extending transversely to the direction
ing in size to relatively small voids at the air 40 of air ?ow. Each layer is formed of one or more
exit face. In the attainment of this object, the
strata of the nodules and preferably is built up
invention, contemplates the use of relatively large
to have a thickness approximately equal to twice
nodules in the layer adjacent the air intake, the
the thickness of the individual nodules of the
nodules of successive layers progressively deé
layer. The nodules are preferably formed of
creasing in size to smaller nodules in a layer at, 45 inter-felted mineral wool ?bers and suitably may
thereof. is the provision of such ?lter unit in
which a lay-er adjacent the air exit end of the
unit is composed of alternated or intermingled
smaller and larger nodules, whereby the’ voids
are decreased
the surface area increased
to insure removal of ?nal remnants of the par
ticulate matter which may penetrate to this
point.
A still vfurther object of the invention, in cer
tain forms thereof, is the provision of a ?lter
including a plurality of layers of resilient ?brous
nodules, the ?lter including fo-raminous sep
arators such as ?ne mesh screens interposed be
tween adjacent layers.
issue patent Re. 22,090 dated May 5, 1942. In
a felt of this type, the ?bers lie predominantly
in planes, generally parallel to the faces of the
mat. Suitably the ?bers are maintained in their
felted relationship and resilient characteristics
are imparted to the mat by a minor proportion
of a hardened binder such as an asphalt, resin,
55 drying oil or the like disseminated throughout
the
mat.
_
’
. .
7 As pointed out above, the nodule is,,as illus
trated in Fig. '3, preferably of generally cubical
shape. ~The cubes are cut from a felt ,as de
60 scribed above, and tumbled in a shaker to round
off the sharp edges, and to cause the ?bers to
2,409,278
4
3
extend or “fuzz out” from the surface areas.
The nodules may take other shapes if desired,
such as spheres, ellipsoids and the like. The nod
ules are elastic, springy and resilient and of suf
?ciently open structure to allow air to pass‘.
through them as well as around them.
vides a great number of voids and pockets with
relatively large voids adjacent the air entry face,
the
voids ‘ progressively‘ diminishing
in
size
through the ?lter to very small voids adjacent
the air exit face. By this arrangement the ?l
- tered matter is distributed substantially uni
Fine
formly throughout the body. That is, clogging
occurs substantially simultaneously throughout
?bers are desirable to remove the ?ne partic- ‘
ulate matter, relatively ?ne mineral .wool‘ ?bers
being particularly effective‘ for this purpose.
the thickness of the ?lter with the result that
However for some ?ltering uses, other ?bers can 10 most, if not all, of the particle retaining capacity
of the ?lter is employed. The resilient charac
teristics and shapes of the nodules, as distin
guished from ordinary so called nodulated wool
employed for general insulating purposes, prevent
be employed such as felted asbestos ?bers, kapok
?bers and the like.
‘ '
‘
Nodules l8 are arranged in the ?lter body to
form, in effect, a plurality of layers l9 each pref
erably comprising a, plurality of strata as illus 15 settling or deformation which would ?ll ' the
voids and destroy or greatly lessen the effec
trated in Fig. 2. The nodules adjacent the air
tiveness of the ?lter. The arrangement of small
entry side of the unit, the direction of air ?ow
to large nodules from air exit to air entry ends
being indicated by the arrow, are of relatively
of the unit not only greatly increases the dust
large size, say 1A" to 1" or more in diameter.
The nodules of the successive layers progres 20 retaining capacity, but also permits cleaning of
the unit by the simple expedient of sharply jar‘
sively decrease in size to relatively small nodules
ring it with the air entry face down. Either dur
in the layer at, or adjacent, the exit end of the
ing the jarring of the unit or thereafter, air may
unit. The smaller nodules may be say, approxi
mately 1/8" in diameter. It has been found to 1 be blown in a reverse direction through the unit
be preferable to employ nodules of two or more 25 to remove loosened particles.
Having thus described my invention in rather
different sizes, for example of 1/8”, 1A” and %"l
full detail, it will be understood that these details
diameters alternated or intermixed in the layer
need not be strictly adhered to, but that various
at the air exit face of the body as shown in Figs.
changes and modi?cations will suggest them
2 and 4. This cuts down the void space and in
selves to one skilled in the art, all falling within
creases the surface area to insure removal of
the scope of the invention as de?ned by the sub
any remnants of particulate matter which may
joined claims.
'
penetrate to this ?nal layer. The danger of early
What I claim is:
clogging of this layer is'remote due to the rela
1. In a ?lter unit for the removal of particulate
tively small amount of matter which will reach
it. The nodules are ‘placed within the container 35 matter from gases, a con?ned body comprising
resilient nodules of mineral wool ?bers main
tained in inter-felted relationship by a hardened
or housing and are pressed ?rmly and held in this
condition as by the heads l4 and IS SO as to resist ,
binder, the nodules being arranged generally
displacement due to vibration but without such
undue compaction as would destroy the numer
ous openings and voids.
-
in the form of layers and de?ning voids there
40 between, and the nodules of successive layers
Where a high degree of efliciency- is desired
one or more “back up” ?lter ‘mats may be em
ployed as illustrated at 20 in Fig. 2. Such a mat
may comprise cotton ?annel or a thin felted layer
of mineral wool ?bers or the like, or both. Fig. 5
illustrates the use of a plurality of ?lter mats of
different types.
The unit shown includes ele
ments comprising a cotton ?annel or similar
varying in size from larger nodules in a layer
adjacent the entry face of the unit, to smaller
nodules in a layer adjacent the air exit face of
the unit.
'
2. In a ?lter unit for the removal of particulate
matter from gases, a con?ned body comprising
air pervious nodules composed of a resilient in
ter-felted open ?brous structure, the ?bers there
of being maintained in inter-felted relationship
fabric 22, and a thin felted layer of mineral wool
?bers 24 interposed between the face screen l4 50 by a hardened binder, said nodules being of
rounded shape and arranged generally in the
and’ the nodule body at the air exit end of the
form of layers, adjacent nodules of a layer be
unit.
ing in limited contact to de?ne numerous pockets
In accordance with a further modi?cation of
and voids, the nodules of successive layers vary
the invention, successive layers of nodules of
different sizes may be separated by open mesh _ ing in size from larger nodules in a layer adja
cent, the entry face of the unit, to smaller nod
screen material as shown at 26 in Fig. 4. These
ules in a layer adjacent the air exit face of the
separator screens may be of metal, paper, plastic,
unit.
or the like of suitably heavy construction to pre
3. In a ?lter unit for the removal of particulate
vent undue distortion under the pressures ap
plied. For example, wire screen in which the 60 matter from gases, a con?ned body comprising
individual wires have diameters of say 0.05" to
0.06",-has been found to be suitable. The screens
resilient nodules of open ?brous structure com
separate the successive layers and keep the struc
ture open at the interfaces between layers. This
prising segments of a binder containing resilient
mineral wool felt, said nodules being of rounded
shape and arranged approximately in layers
feature overcomes a tendency of the nodules of
with adjacent nodules of a layer in limited con
differing sizes to line up and ?t together at the
interface, thus reducing the void spaces. As will
be understood, in the event that the void space
tact to de?ne numerous pockets and voids, the
nodules of the successive layers varying in size
from larger nodules in a layer adjacent the air
entry face of the unit, to smaller nodules in a
layer adjacent the air exit face of the unit, a
foraminous screen overlying said exit face and
a ?brous ?ltering layer interposed between said
screen and said nodules.
LEE MINOR HEDGES.
is too greatly reduced at these locations, the _
travel of particulate matter into the ?lter is '
stopped and because of the undue localizing of
the ?ltered matter, ?ow resistance is quickly
built up.
’
A ?lter in accordance with the invention pro- ,
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