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Патент USA US2409285

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i. 15, 194%:
V N_ M_ HOPKlNs
V
DUAL PURPOSE‘ AER‘IAL BOMB
2,4Q9Z82
‘
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Filed June 18, 1942.
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Inventor
2,409,282
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,282
_
DUAL-.PURPO SE AERIAL BOMB
.Nevil Monroe Hopkins, New York, N, 1.5-; ‘Bay
monde B. Hopkins, executor of said Nevi'l Mon
roe Hopkins, deceased, assignor, by mesne as
signments, to Raymonde" Briggs Hopkins,
Samuel Lloyd, and Murray T. Quigg, as trustees
Application June 18, 1942, Serial No. 4.47.570
7 Claims.
(01. 192-52)
1
.2
.
tion to provide a bomb casing with an inner con
This invention pertains to improvements in
ways. means and methods of using component
liquid parts of a liquid high explosive in aerial
tainer ‘having closure members with associated
mechanism, for mixing a relatively small volume
of a liquid combustible, with a relatively large
volume of ‘liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide, either dur
‘bombs. it is a particular object of this invention
to provide Ways, means and methods of. using the
ing the ?ight of the bomb from plane to target,
component liquid parts of a liquid explosive in a
non-leak system.
'
or after impact of the ‘bomb with the target.
‘
, ‘It is also asvery important object of this inven
tion to adjust the vapor pressure of one or more
It is a particular object of the invention to
provide a bomb casing, enclosing an inner con
tainer having closure members with associated 10 liquid combustible ?uids mixed with liquid nitro
gen .tetraeoxide, and placed in one chamber of
the bomb, so as ‘to be substantially the same as
mechanism for moving said closure members into
opened positions end/or mixing the component
liquid parts to form the liquid high explosive
after the release of the bomb as born on. aero
plane
the Vapor pressure of liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide
isolated thereirrom by being placed in another
15 chamber of the bomb
-
,It is also a very important ‘object of this ‘in
.It is also a. particular object oi the invention
vention to adjust the vapor pressure of one or
to provide a bomb casing with an inner container
more liquid combustible fluids, and placed in
having closure members therefor with associated
mechanism for mixing the component liquid
parts to form the liquid high explosive, either
during the ?ight of the bomb from aeroplane to
target, or after impact of the bomb with the
target, depending upon the adjusted position of
a simple control device, thereby producing a dual
purpose bomb.
l
one chamber of the bomb, so as to be substan
tially the same as the vapor pressure of liquid
nitrogen tetra-oxide isolated therefrom by being
placed in another chamber of the bomb.
vIt is also an important object of this inven
tion to simplify the bomb by fashioning it. and
its associated explosive ?ller, so as to require
but one detonator, to explode it, either upon
impact of the bomb with the target, or by delayed
'
It is also a particular object of the invention to
provide a bomb casing with novel auto detach
action after such impact- '
able ways .and means of attaching the tail mem
With the foregoing enumerated objects in view,
ber comprising air vanes or stabilizing ?ns.‘
It is also a particular object of this invention 30 as well as certain other objects which. will be
come apparent as the description proceeds and
to provide anti-fouling means for the external
the illustrations are studied, the invention re.
mechanism of the bomb upon penetration of or
sides in the novel parts, combinations of parts,
contact with the ground or debris of a building
scienti?c principles and methods, all as here
for example, which penetration or contact nor;
Inally prevents the proper functioning of said
mechanism.
,
35
to provide positive mechanism for the function
ing of the closure members of the inner con
tainer, using stored kinetic energy of compara
‘2
ments over my earlier development work in the
art of missiles and other devices, and explosive
40
‘
vIt is also an important object of the invention
to provide an impeller device with a delayed ac.
tion for mixing the component liquid ingredients.
It is also a ‘particular ‘object of this invention
to provide a bomb casing with an inner container
having closure members with associated mecha
nism for converting a relatively insensitive and
relatively low powered mixture of a liquid hydro
carbon and liquid nitrogen teire~oxide into a -'
relatively sensitive and relatively high powered
mixture of these ?uids either during the flight
of the bomb from plane to target, or after im
pact of the bomb with the target.
It is also an important object oi this inven
.
This invention is a continuation with improve
It is also a particular object of this invention
tively great magnitude for the purpose.
in set forth and particularly covered by the
claims.
'
?llers therefor, as exempli?ed by my previously
?led and conending patent applications as fol
‘lows:
Missiles, Serial No. 217,900, ?led July '7, 11938;
High explosive device, 'Serial No. 217,901,‘ filed
July '2, 1938; Penetration liquid explosive missiles,
Ser. No. 268,487, ?led April 18, 1939; Liquid ex
plosives, Serial No. 272,434, ?led May S, ‘1939,, now
‘Patent No. 2293255; Torpedoes, Serial No.
$21406, ?led January 20, )191i2; ‘Explosive devices
for war, naval and industrial purposes’, Serial No.
‘$3,816, ?led March 7, 1942; Explosive device,
Serial No. 433,989, ?led March 9, 1942; Container
for liquid mixtures and vmethod ,of ?lling the
some Serial No- 433,988, filed March ,9, 194.2;110W
2,409,282
3
4
Patent No. 2,385,810; Aerial bombs, Serial No.
437,702, ?led April 4, 1942.
the axial shaft 20. Pinned on this threaded shaft
is the stop collar 30, and above the collar, but
screwed up some distance from it, is the threaded
hub (threads not shown) 3| carrying the impeller
Referring to the accompanying illustrations
forming a part of this speci?cation, and in which
like numerals designate like parts in all the
views—
I
I
'
'
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view through
blades 32, 32, fashioned toexert a pressure in the
direction toward the closure member ‘25, on any
a bomb made in accordance with this invention, ‘
liquid in which they may be immersed.
v33 represents in full and dotted lines the level
with the liquid components of the explosivev mix; '
in the container ll of such a liquid (nitrogen
.10 tetra-oxide for example), and 34 represents in
ture omitted for the sake of clearness;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the bomb;
.
_
Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the bomb with the
screen cover removed; and
'
Fig. 4 is a side elevational view of the tailend Y
of the bomb illustrating a portion of the control
device used in connection with the timing .of the
opening of the inner chamber of the bomb. ‘
Referring to the drawing, I 0 represents the »
wall of the cylindrical outer steel casing, and H
the wall of the inner steel (or aluminum) tubu
lar container provided with a ?ange I2 by which
it is suspended coaxially at the wide throat open
ing of the bomb casing as shown, and l3, l3 are
two of a plurality of large openings through the
wall ll.
-
A steel ring “I is welded to the interior surface
of the steel tube and positioned just below the
plurality of large openings I3, l3. This ring may
be electrically Welded with a continuous gas and
liquid tight union all around its periphery, and be .
in addition, welded with steel through the agency
of a high temperature ?ame, as indicated by the
. .V shaped solid mass i5.
This ring is provided
with a grooved valve seat as shown for the re
ception of a correspondingly grooved valve or .
closure member I6.
There may be a ground gas
and liquid tight joint here, or a suitable gasket
of tin or aluminum for example, maybe used.
full and dotted lines the level in the space be
tween saidcontainer and the bomb casing ll] of
a mixture of one or more liquid combustible ?uids
‘with nitrogen tetra-oxide on the one hand, or a
simpler mixture of one or more liquid combustible
?uids, free of nitrogen tetra-oxide, on the other
hand. 35 is the hub of a stout wire spider, fash
ioned to act as a centralizing member, when and
if necessary for the shaft 20.
As previously described the reduced portion
2! of shaft 20 is secured to the collar 22' which
seats into the bottom of the large stuf?ng box
35, provided with an internal shoulder 31 serving
as a bearing surface for the heavy stationary disk
38, fashioned to relieve the rotatable collar from,
the downward pressure of the packing 39 when
the stuffing box closure plug 40 is ?rmly screwed
down (screw threads not shown). This station
ary disk, seated as shown, is an important ,mem
her‘, because it prevents the strong downward
pressure of the packing 39, from arresting the
free rotation of the collar 22. The packing here
may consist of graphited asbestos cord for exam
ple, as this has proven an excellent packing, not
only for liquid hydrocarbons but for liquid nitro
gen tetra-oxide, and for mixtures of nitrogen
tetra-oxide with liquid hydrocarbons.
The stu?ing box 38 is seated in and hermeti
cally welded, or otherwise sealed, to an aperture
surface of the closure member IS, an end of said 4.0 in the bottom wall of the heavy iron cup M by
dog projecting through one of the large openings
virtue of its extension boss 42. This heavy iron
l3 to prevent rotation of the closure member more
cup ,4! is suspended by its integral ?ange 43
than a limited number of degrees. A boss “3 is
which overlaps the ?ange l2 of the inner con
.formed centrally of the closure member, and said
tainer H. Thus it will now be appreciated that
boss and said member are bored through and r both ?anges are suspended at the ‘wide throat
threaded with a right hand thread to receive the
opening of the bomb casing,
- A small steel dog I‘! is secured to the upper
right hand thread I 9 on the axially disposed steel
The metal of the throat of the bomb casing is,
shaft 20, which steel shaft is reduced in its diam
of course, turned or faced off in a lathe, and the
eter as shown at 2|, by turning down in a lathe
face ‘of the metal as well as the ?anges l2 and
after the screw threads I!) have been cut. The 50 Y43 may be ground together with a gas and liquid
end of this reduced portion of said shaft, enters
tight ?t, Or suitable gaskets may be provided,
the collar member 22 and is securely attached
gaskets of tin or aluminum for example. The
thereto by screw threads (not shown) and pin.
exterior surface of the cylindrical portion of the
A stuiling box 23 is pinned to the shaft 20 and
neck of the steel casing is, of course, cut with
fashioned to enclose the end of the boss I8 with 55 screw threads (not shown) to receive the threads
a liquid and gas tight ?t, as well as a length of
:(not shown) in the heavy closure cap 44 which,
graphited asbestos cord 24 wrapped around the
when powerfully turned down by a long and pow
shaft in the cavity of the stuf?ng box. ‘
erful' Stilson wrench, clamps and unites the cup
The lower end of the tubular steelcontainer
4| and the inner container ‘II to the bomb cas
II is closed by the valve or closure member 25, 60 ing and to each other in gas and liquid tight
relationship.
"
provided with a deep groove to receive the end
of the container with a gas and liquid tight ?t;
The heavy cap 44 is provided with the stout
graphited asbestos cord (not shown here) or other
central apertured boss member 45 having a
suitable sealing device or medium ‘may be used
threaded portion 43 (threads not shown) over
for this purpose. A metal plug 26 is provided for . which the apertured member 41 is securely locked
a ?ller opening in the closure member 25, and 21
in position by means of the heavy nut 48 v (threads
is a steel spring secured to the upper surface of
not shown)‘; The apertured member 4] carries
said closure member as shown and fashioned to
alpluralit'y of attaching members 49, 43 for a
exert spring pressure against the inner surface
‘cylindrical housing 50 over which slips, with-a
of’ the container II, to impede free rotation of
tight ?t, the surrounding cylinder 5| to which
‘ said member,
are'attached the air vanes or stabilizing fins such
vThis closure member is likewise provided with
_ a central boss 28 which is bored part way through
and threaded with a left hand thread, to receive
a portion of the long left hand thread 29 cut upon '
_as.52 of the bomb.
The apertured boss member 45 has a pair of
recesses 53, 53 for the reception of the pins54,
'54‘ ?xed in one end of the tubular member 55
2,409,282
5
freely slidable on the shaft extension 20'. This
tubular member is provided with a weight 56,
and at its other end carries a yoke member .51
the opposite ends of which have sharp terminals
58, 58 capable of penetrating, when deperessed,
6
unscrew in ?ight (threads not shown), and thus
become detached from the boss 19, thereby ex—
posing the end of the ?ring pin 80 extending
out of said boss.
The firing pin, on being ex
posed and struck when the bomb impacts the
target, ignites a chemical composition in the cap
8| which in turn ignites the powder constituting
the thin metal caps 59, 59, disposed over the long
closed metal cans 60, BI] and additionally capable
the core of the coiled fuse 82 which, upon com
of ?ring primers centrally disposed in said cans.
pletion of its combustion, explodes the mass of
One of these primers is illustrated at 60' and
it is fashioned to ignite, through its fuse, the 10 heat sensitive explosive 83, fulminate of mercury
for example, withinthe coil of said fuse.
combustible composition 6| in the can, said com
It is a feature of this invention that a single
position consisting of a mixture of sodium ni
detonator
may be employed, whether the bomb is
trate, sulphur and charcoal.
desired to be exploded immediately upon its im
‘ This combustible composition is fashioned with
pact with its target, or at a time after such im
a suitable binding substance, or otherwise, to
pact,
thereby avoiding the necessity of providing
have the long conical recess, ‘as in a rocket, to
provide a discharge of high velocity gas, upon
ignition of said composition, rather than to pro
vide an explosion. The speed of burning is con-_
trolled by the percentage composition of the gun
powder in its salt peter, the sulphur and charcoal
comprising the .rocket composition placed in the
tin cans. By selecting the composition of the
detonators having di?erent times of firing as
found necessary at the present tune. To, this end
there is proposed a detonator capable of explode
ing the explosive mixture, for example, within
twenty seconds after actuation of its firing pin
as by impact of the bomb with the target. This
time element of twenty seconds is only by way
rocket powder it is possible tov secure close con
trol over the mechanical performance of the im
peller member 162 with regard to velocity of rev
olution and power.
This impeller has blade members 63, 63 so in
of example, and in any event it is :made such as
to be as great as the time element required for
the gas generated by the rocket motor 61 to ac
complish ‘the opening of the inner container as
well as the completion of the mixing of the com
the ignited rocket composition strikes them, up
is not desired until after the mixing of the com-.
ponent parts of the liquid explosive. The reason
clined as to revolve, in a right hand or clock
for this is that the ?nal action of the detonator
30
wise manner when the streams of hot gases from
on the left .hand threads 64 of the shaft 20’.
The hub 65 of this impeller is internally threaded
(threads not shown) to engage the threads 64
and it is therefore fashioned to climb (as viewed
in the drawing) upon such right hand revolu
tion.
Under the influence of the rocket gas blast,
ponent parts of the liquid explosive, but it is to
be understood that such mixing may be ,accome
plished during the downward ?ight of the bomb
and before it reaches its target, or the mixing
maybe accomplished after the bomb has reached
its target as in the case where a delayed explosion
of the bomb is desired; such delayed explosion
the impeller blades with their heavy peripherally
disposed metal strips 65', 65’ revolve rapidly and
is desired when the bomb is used to penetrate the
earth to some distance, to penetrate an outer
the impeller with its hub member and long as
sociated ferrule 66, climbs the thread 64. This
aeroplane from the scene of the intended explo
climb continues until the end of the hub ‘mem
ber strikes the cap member 61 secured to the
extreme end of shaft 20' whereupon all of the
acquired kinetic energy, as well as the torque of
the impeller under the gas discharge, is brought
.to bear suddenly in a turning effort on the shaft
extension 2|!’ which converts the static friction
of the tightly set up screw threads I9 and 29
in the threaded bosses l8 and 28 respectively into
moving friction, thereby resulting in closure
member [5 being forced upwardly and closure
member .25 being forced downwardly by the right
and. left hand threads I!) and 2.9 respectively.
A heavy wire screen 68 supported by the ring
69 over the end of housing 50, is provided to
prevent debris from falling into the impeller
mechanism, said screen having centrally thereof
a ring member ‘H! serving as a guide for said
ferrule which serves the purpose of protecting
the screw thread 64 from any debris which may
enter through the openings in the screen when
‘the bomb penetrates soil, for example.
At the nose of the bomb is provided the .-de-—
layed action detonator device 15 screwed into the
axial opening 16 (screw threads not shown)
through the wall of the bomb casing and covered
internally of said caisng by the housing "I?! which
is secured to said casing to make a liquid-tight ,
fit therewith. This housing permits of the ?lling
of the bomb casing with a liquid component part
of the liquid explosive, ‘with the detonator absent.
In the present detonator there is provided the
usual form of ‘arming air vanes 18, fashioned to
wall of a building, or to permit escape of the
sion.
Whether the bomb is to have a substan
tially immediate explosion upon impact with the
target, or a delayed explosion thereafter, it is to
be further understood that the detonator has-its
action initiated when its firing pin is actuated by
the impact. The time element of ?nal action of
the detonator may be governed by the propor
tioning of the ingredients constituting the fuse
core thereof, and/or by varying the length of its
coiled fuse.
For the purpose of cont-rolling the time of the
explosion of the bomb, there vis provided a latch
or other mechanism generally identi?ed by the
numeral 90 ‘held in frictional support by the :tail
housing 59, and provided with a ?nger lug '91 or
other actuating device (such as the cord and
pulley arrangement indicated ‘by the dotted lines
in the upper portion of Fig. 4 for remote opera
tion) for sliding the latch,
well as provided
‘with an indication means such as the pointer 92.
This latch is provided with an inwardly extend
ing portion engageable and disengageable with
one of the vanes 63 of the air ‘impeller within
said housing :50.
As indicated by the drawing, when the :latch
is in ‘its “up” position, the impeller vanes are
prevented ‘from rotation during the downward
?ight of the bomb, with the result that the liquid
ingredients of the explosive mixture are not ‘mixed
during said ?ight. However, when the impact
of the bomb with its target occurs, the weight of
the ‘latch is sufficient to cause the ‘latch to auto,
matically slide ‘down .by virtue of its momentum
2,409j282
8
or kinetic energy, overcoming its frictional ‘clamp
age, ‘and thereby release the impeller vanes. At
prescribed temperature a greater vapor pressure
the same time of impact, the weighted yoke 57
under its kinetic energy is caused to move down
sure) than‘ the vapor pressure (and consequently
(and consequently a greater hydrostatic pres
the hydrostatic pressure) of the liquid nitrogen
Wardly with such forces as to have its sharp points Cl tetra-oxide in the inner container, any slow leak
58 detonate the primers B0’ and thereby initiate
age or seepage that could take place during any
the generation of gas from the rocket composi
period of time through the valve seats, packing
tion 8|, the blast of such generated gas causing
boxes and screws, would cause the pressure in the
rotation of the impeller vanes and the ultimate
inner container to rise rapidly until a vapor‘ pres
mixing of the liquid explosive ingredients, such 10 sure (and accompanying hydrostatic pressure)
mixing being accomplished within the time ele
was reached which equalled the vapor pressure
ment of the detonator fuse 82.
(and hydrostatic pressure) of the exterior sur
On the other hand, when the latch is in its
rounding liquid. From any inspection of the
“down” position, the impeller vanes are not ‘en
drawing it will be seen that the space or volume
gaged thereby, and hence said vanes are free to
rotate during the downward ?ight of the bomb
by virtue of the air currents indicated by the
arrows; As heretofore described the ‘rotation of
the impeller'brings about ‘the mixing of the
liquid explosive ingredients‘, therefore the mixing ~
in this case is accomplished during the downward
flight of the bomb, and the mixture is completely
formed by the time the bomb impacts its target
and thereby initiates action of the detonator.
From a careful study of this bomb and its asso
ciated mechanism, it will be appreciated that it is
a dual purpose bomb, with but one detonator de
vice,» the bomb being fashioned to explode sub
stantially immediately upon impact with a target,
'or to explode through delayed action after such
impact, as desired and in accordance with the
set position of the control latch. For immediate
explosion upon impact (as in use against troops,
for example) the impeller vanes 63 constitute an
air motor means for mixing the component parts
of the liquid explosive during the time of ?ight
from aeroplane to target, and dependence is had
upon the sheer force of impact of the bomb, and
the mixed ‘condition of’ the liquid explosive, to
bring about detonation or explosion of the bomb.
That is to say, this detonation takes place en
tirely independently of the detonator device; in
fact such device might in this case be totally
is comparatively small between the levelof the
liquid nitrogen‘ tetra-oxide in the container and
thebottom of the valve in its ring seat.
"
tainer without rapidly and materially increasing
the pressure therein. Therefore, the small in?ux
of normal butane or iso-butane mixed with the
benzol necessary to establish this superior hydro
static pressure, would not be sufficient to form a
dangerous explosive mixture. In fact, it would
not be su?icient to form any explosive mixture
at all. The admixture of a. small volume of these
liquid hydrocarbons with the comparatively large
volume of the liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide would
be far removed from an explosive mixture.
To
form a really sensitive explosive mixture, it would
be necessary to have about one-third of the vol
ume comprise the liquid combustibles, and two
thirds of the volume comprise the liquid nitrogen
tetra-oxide, but upon inspection of the drawing
it will be appreciated by any physical chemist
or physicist that such a status or proportion would
be impossible to establish through leakage.
The foregoing technique is employed where I
elect to convert a comparatively insensitive and
absent.
comparatively low powered mixture of benzol,
For delayed action, after impact with a target 45 butane
and nitrogen tetra-oxide, into a compar
(as in demolition work of a building, or a city
atively sensitive and comparatively high powered
street, or submerged water; gas, or electric mains,
mixture by the addition of liquid nitrogen tetra
for example) there is employed the rocket com
oxide from the inner tubular container H to the
position constituting a gas motor means for mix
encircling space in the outer shell I0.
ing the component parts of the liquid explosive, 50
In the case, however, where ,I elect to com
and the delayed action detonator so fashioned,
and so timed, as to strike its blow only after the
pletely separate the benzol and butane from the ‘
explosive mixture is formed.
"In connection with storage of these bombs. it
liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide, by placing all of the
liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide in the inner tubular
in the matter of the adjusted vapor pressures
sures, over the foregoing.
container H, I elect to reversethe vapor pres
is desired to particularly point out that there 55 sures,
and consequently the hydrostatic pres
is herein disclosed a new and valuable teaching
(and consequently the adjusted hydrostatic pres
sures) of the liquid combustible material and the
In other words I elect
to adjust the benzol, butane mixture to have
a less vapor pressure, and consequently a less
hydrostatic pressure, than the liquid nitrogen
liquid nitrogen tetra—oxide, respectively, whereby 60 tetra-oxide in the inner tubular container. In
such storage is rendered'safe. That is to say,
there has been, and there still persists, a fear in
some quarters that one of the liquid component
parts of this liquid explosive might leak into
this liquid ?ller system, I must increase the ca
pacity of the inner tubular container, and reduce
the capacity of the surrounding space, because
another component part, that is from one cham 65 in most cases I desire to have at least twice the
volume of liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide, to one
ber to another, and form a dangerous explosive
Volume
of the mixed hydrocarbons. This sub
mixture. In other words, it might be alleged that
stantially two to one by volume mixture, in favor
such a leak might be brought about through slow
seepage past the valve seats of the valves, and
past the stu?ing boxes and threads, during weeks 70
or months and perhaps years of storage.
However, it is here emphasized that, by 'ad
justing the quantity of either normal butane vor
"
Based upon Boyle's law respecting the 'com
pressibility of gases it will be evident, 'upon‘an
inspection of this limited volume or space, that
very little liquid from the outer casing could be
forced into the liquid within the inner con
of the liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide, gives the great
est sensitivity and power possible upon detona
tion.
The reason for adjusting the vapor pressure
(and consequently the hydrostatic pressure) of
the benzol, butane mixture to be less than that
of theliquid nitrogen tetra-oxide, is to allow of
iso-butane to ‘the benzol, for example, in the space
surrounding the inner container, to exert at a 75 restricted leakage of the liquid nitrogen tetra,
2,134,998.82
16
said
propeller,
and
means
for ?ring said cartridge
oxide into the benzol ‘and butane mixture, raise
upon nimreet of 'thedev'ice with a target
'
9
ing the taper pressure under Boyle’s law the
outer casing I10. and stopping further leakage
;3, A- device of the character described, com-_
raising a casing and a liquid therein, a "can?
there in the same manner as before. but in the
teieer‘vvithie said cases and having relatively
teevable closures normally in clesed pes'itidnia
discreet in is? Within the elesed enema
inner tubular container If‘.
,With this filler system and hydrostatic 511+
periority from the inside, I am enabled to detect
grammar , by said geese eaesies-mov'émént
quickly. andeffectively ‘leakage if. and when. it
may take place. This is very e?ectively done by
adding a little water to the benzol, butane mix
ture, and by inserting an insulated zinc electrode
into the casing [0. Through the agency of this
electrode, I may quickly “inspect,” from the out
side of the bomb, the condition of isolation of
the liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide from the benzol,
butane, water mixture inside, by attaching the
a; sale eleeuree late‘ Wetting-veggies. Positions;
10
terminals of a milli-voltmeter to the zinc elec
trode and steel casing l0 respectively, because a
small quantity of the liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide
will react at once with the water present to form
nitric acid. Now nitric acid, zinc and iron, form
a voltaic cell (a Grove’s cell or battery), and the
electromotive force set up will de?ect the pointer
said means extending into said container’ and
provided with a member producing circulation
and admixture of the two liquids upon opening
of said container, means for controlling the actu
ation of the closure-moving means, said control
means comprising a rotatable motor mounted on
the closure-moving means and a potential source
of propellant gas for rotating said motor, and
means for initiating the release of such propel
lant gas upon impact of the device with a target.
4. A device of the character described, com
prising two substantially coaxial chambers one
disposed within the other, the inner chamber
having normally closed but movable end mem
bers, a liquid explosive ingredient in one chamber
on the mini-voltmeter. A very small trace of
water is su?icient to enable one to establish, with 25 and a different liquid explosive ingredient in the
other chamber, the ingredient in the outer cham
the liquid nitrogen tetra-oxide, the nitric acid
ber having a vapor pressure which is not less
for this Grove cell or battery type test. Thus,
than the vapor pressure of the other ingredient
after days, months or years of storage, with this
new system, an inspector may quickly determine
whether or not there has been leakage.
It is obvious that those skilled in the art may
vary the details of construction and arrangements -
of parts constituting this bomb, as well as vary
the ways, methods, etc. of forming the explosive
at the same operating temperature, and means
for moving the end members of the inner cham
her into chamber-opening positions, said means
comprising circulating mechanism disposed sub
stantially across the inner chamber in close rela
tion to the inner surface thereof for causing the
mixture and utilizing the bomb, without depart 35 admixture of both ingredients While being circu
lated from one end of the inner chamber through
ing from the spirit of this invention wherefore
the space between said chambers to and into the
it is desired not to be limited to the exact fore
opposite end of the inner chamber, said ‘means
going disclosure except as may be required ‘by the
also comprising mechanism delaying the time of
claims.
40 opening of the inner chamber.
What is claimed is:
5. An explosive device, comprising a casing and
1. An explosive device, comprising a casing and
a liquid therein, a closed chamber in spaced re
a liquid therein, a closed chamber containing a
lation to the walls of said casing, said chamber
second liquid and disposed within the liquid in
containing a second liquid and disposed within
said casing, the two liquids when admixed form
the liquid in said casing, the two liquids when
45
ing a highly sensitive explosive mixture, cham
admixed forming a highly senstive explosive
ber-opening means provided with an impeller
mixture, chamber-opening means actuated after
having threaded engagement therewith of such
impact of the device with a target, said means
character as initially to establish relative move
provided with an impeller establishing a forced
ment between the chamber-opening means and
said impeller as well as longitudinal movement 50 admixing circuit of the two liquids after opening
of said chamber, the such circuit of the admixed
of said impeller upon said chamber-opening
liquids passing through the space between the
means, said impeller establishing a forced admix
walls of said chamber and said casing, means
ing circuit of the two liquids after opening of
comprising gas-propelled mechanism for actu
said chamber, said chamber-opening means pro
vided with a stop device for limiting the longi 55 ating the chamber-opening means, and means for‘
tudinal movement of the impeller and stopping
the relative movement between the impeller and
the chamber-opening means, and means com
prising mechanism for delaying the time of open
ing of said chamber.
2. A device of the character described, com
prising a casing and a liquid therein, a container
within said casing and having relatively movable
closures normally in closed position, a di?erent
liquid within the closed container, means carried
by said casing causing movement of said closures
into container-opening positions, said means ex
tending into said container and provided with
a member producing circulation and admixture
of the two liquids upon opening of ‘said container,
means for controlling the actuation of the clo
sure-moving means, said control means com
prising a propeller mounted on the closure-mov
ing means and an ignitible cartridge disposed to
exploding the admixture.
6. An explosive device, comprising a casing and
a liquid therein, a closed chamber in spaced rela
tion to the walls of said casing, said chamber
60 containing a second liquid and disposed within
the liquid in said casing, the two liquids when
admixed forming a highly sensitive explosive
mixture, chamber-opening means actuated after
impact of the device with a target, said means '
provided with an impeller establishing a forced
admixing circuit of the two liquids after opening
of said chamber, the such circuit of the admixed
liquids passing through the space between the
‘walls of said chamber and said casing, means
comprising gas-jet-propelled mechanism opera
tive after impact of the device with a target for
actuating the chamber-opening means, and
means for exploding the admixture.
'7. An explosive device, comprising a casing and
direct its force of gases of combustion against 75 a liquid therein, a closed chamber in spaced rela
11
12
tion to the walls of said casing, said chamber
containing a second liquid and disposed within
the liquid in said casing, the two liquids when
admixed forming a highly sensitive explosive
liquids passing through the space between‘ the
mixture, chamber-opening means actuated. after
impact of the device with a target, said means
provided with an impeller establishing a forced
admixing circuit of the two liquids after opening
of said chamber, the suchcircuit of the admixed
walls of said chamber and said casing, means
comprising mechanism for actuating the cham
ber-opening means, said mechanism under-the
5
influence of a gas generated after impact of the
device with a target, and means for exploding the
admixture.
'
I
NEVIL MONROE HOPKINS.
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