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Патент USA US2409330

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Oct. 15, 1946.
2,409,328
R. S. WILDER
ILLUMINATING- UNIT FOR OPTICAL PROJECTORS
Filed Oct. 26, 1944
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Patented Oct. 15, 1946
2,409,328
UNITED >_SJTATES PATENT" ‘ OFFICE
G'UNITFOR OPTICAL
I
‘
PROJECTORS
.
Raymond S: ,Wilder, Waltham,,Mass..
Application October 26, 1944", senarno. 560,138?‘
a claims; (01. arr-24)"
2
This invention pertains to optical‘ instruments,
especially to an optical‘ comparator-or- micro-pro
objective lens support of'such- an instrument and
which is designed to‘ carry a series of independ
ent lighti sources'disposed- symmetrically in a cir
jector designed in particular to project onto , a
screen, irr juxtaposition, enlarged images of’ a
workpiece (for‘instance a- small machine part)
and‘ a‘standard part with which the workpiece is
to be compared. Forloptimum accuracy of‘com
parison it‘ is essential that the light“ source be
intense, in order to produce the desired contrast‘
.
unit easily‘ applicable to andfremovablefrom the
, cle coaxial with the optical axis of the‘lens. A
further object is‘ to provide an instrument‘ of
the class‘ described‘ having“ provision‘ for so‘sup- ‘
porting a‘series of incandescent lamps ofcom~
mercial type as to provide substantially» uniform
between image and background, and also‘v that 10 illumination for- that surface of‘ the workpiece
theillumination be uniform and such that, irreg
> which is presented‘ toward the objective‘ lens.
ular shadows, halos- or “ghost” images may not
Other- and‘, further‘ objects and advantages of the
be: formed, Customarily the light source em
invention'will be~pointed~out in‘the following more
ployed in such instruments is a sin'ge incan
detailed description‘ and by referenceto the ac
descent lamp arranged to‘ illuminate the back‘ of 16 companying drawing wherein
the object, that‘ is to say, that‘ side of‘ the object
Fig. 1 is a small scale, diagrammatic vertical‘
which is remote from the objective lens, and‘
section through a micro-projector of‘ a- commer
thus the image formed on‘ the screen is merely
cial type‘, showing the projector provided-1 with the
a shadow image. However,‘ when comparing cer
improved? illuminating» unit‘ of: the present‘ inven
tain types of‘ work, for instance- pieces having; 20 tion;
1
.
projecting portions, cavities, etc, it‘ is not‘ possible
Fig; 2 is a side elevation, to larger scale, of
to obtain‘ the desired results merely by‘ shadow
the light unit;
images produced by transmitted light; In such
Fig. 3' is a vertical section substantially on the
cases it is desirable to direct light’ from a‘ suit
able source against the forward surface of the 25
line -3--3 ‘ of Fig. 21;
,
Fig; fl is a plan view of’ the ‘device. at Fig. 2:‘
work, that is to say, that‘surf‘ace which is toward
the objective lens,‘ so that, an image is formed‘
by reflected‘ light, or partly by transmittedyand
and;
Q Fig. 5 is a bottom'pl‘an view, with partsiinihori
zontali section, substantially on. theline 5-—-5 of
partly by re?ected light. , However, the use of ‘re
Fig. 3;
7
?ected light is attended with; substantial di'?i 30 Referring to “the drawings; thelnumeral. I‘. dcs~
culties, .especially by reason of"the space I-iinita
ignates one of: pair of. parallel posts or‘ stand;
tionsof such an apparatus, in’ particular‘the pres‘
ards- rigidly" connected together and which form‘
ence of the objective lensandf its' support be
a. supportior' a; vertically'mova ble horizontal arm»
tween the work-supporting‘ table and the-‘screen,
2 which carries‘ thew worktable- 3; the, latter being
Under these conditions, the re?ected light; as 35 of" glass or other" suitable transparent material;
heretofore provided, has been non-uniform, with
The posts: I alsosupport a bracket: lwhiclrv car-'
the result: that‘ troublesome irregular shadows,
halo eifects, etc. are produced which interfere
ries-atruncatedlconical hollow‘ posti. > At‘its up-v
greatly with-theaccurate-comparison OfilihGj-‘W?l‘ke
per end. this post 5 is; provided witha; socket: for
the.‘ reception of any one of. a plurality of in
piece and standard: part: asztheir'images‘i appear: 40
terchangeable
objective-lens
sets . of 1 different
magnifying power,‘ respectively. Each lens set has
The principal: object of theinvention. is to..=pro
a‘baseportion 6‘ (Fig. 3')? each of said base'por
Vide. an. illuminating unit, applicable to an in;
tions: being‘ at the same-external. diameter so: as
strument of.‘ the, kind referred to,. bymeans: of
to‘l?t into the-.socketthc.‘ post 5. The‘ objec
which the front surfaces: ottthe workpiece; and 45 tive' lens;_ when thus» mounted, hassits axis. ver
standard: part may be intensely illuminatedcby
tical? and is: designed! to. direct an 1. image of van
light of‘ such uniform ‘character. as to provide
object‘ mounted on they worktable onto a. mirror
sharp, clear and substantially- shadowless; images
1' which re?ects thi'simage- ontcra screen. 8iwhere
onthe screen, A further‘ obiect is; to. provide an
itlmay be observed; The mirror ‘I ishousedwith~
onthe screen;
'
'
.
‘
‘
‘
illuminatingunit designed to form animage. oi '
the workpiece, by re?ected light, which will. be
substantially free. from‘ halo, “ghosts” or‘ other
troublesome effects‘such ascommonly resultfrom
the use of. a single light! source-j-forthispurposes.
A, further object.
in. a, darkaboac 9: whichsmaytifr desired; form the
At‘. their
upper ends the posts’ or standards. I support. a
bracket H] which carries adjusting ‘mechanism H‘
by means; of which.‘ the position of theworktable
‘ support. for‘ the posts or‘ standards. l.
tov provide an. illuminating 75.5 may the vertically adjusted“ relatively to; the ob
2,409,328
4
jective lens. The bracket It may also support a
housing l2 within which a light source, for in
stance a single incandescent lamp, having its
?lament at the optical axis of the objective lens,
and which furnishes a beam of light directed
onto the worktable by condensing lenses within
the lamps are out of the ?eld of vision of the ob
jective lens so that images of the ?laments are
not formed by the lens. Preferably the outer
wall IQ of the unit extends upwardly above the
top of the lamps 26 so as to protect them from
the housing l2 so as to form an image of the
surface of the wall [9 is of re?ecting character
mechanical injury. Preferably, also, the inner
thereby to utilize the light from the lamps in
The base 60f each objective-lensset'is a heavy
the'mosteffective way. Since the outside dimen
hollow cylindrical part-having a bottom ?ange 10 sions of the illuminatingunit are so small it may
6a which seats in the socket in the top of the post _ readily be mounted upon the lens tube I3 and
5. Within this hollow cylindrical member 6 there ' ‘beneath the work table without interfering with
the normal operation of the apparatus, and the
is mounted a cylindrical tube l3 in which the ob
object by transmitted light.
jective lenses l4 and I5 are mounted.
Q '
"work table may be adjusted downwardly until
The structure thus far described is of substan 1.5 the work is very close to the light source if de
tially usual type, designed to form a shadow image "sired.
~
In use, the .unit..l6 is slipped down over the
of the workpiece by transmitted light, it being.
lens-supporting tube," and when the lamps 26 are
understood that the lamp within the housing vl2 '
may be provided with a switch so that this light " lighted‘ (being supplied with current from any
source may be used or not as desired.
20 suitable source) a powerful beam is directed up
wardly against the workpiece resting on the table
I In accordance with the present invention there
3. Although the several light sources, constituted
is provided an illuminating unit [6 for use with
by theindividual cylindrical lamps 26 are inde
any one of the objective lens sets. This illumi
nating unit comprises an annulus l'l, whichmay
pendent, yet by reason of the arrangement of
be a casting, or which may be made by machining 25 these light sources in closely spaced relation and
symmetrically in a circle, the light thrown onto
it from bar stock, Or which, if desired, may be of
the workpiece is substantially uniform; moreover,
the angle of incidence of the light from the sev
eral lamps is the same so that allsides of the
?ning an aperture of a size to receive the upper 30 workpiece are equally illuminated and the image
of the workpiece (formed by the objective lens)
end of the lens tube [3, preferably with an easy
is uniformly bright, free from shadows, distor-v
sliding ?t. To limit downward movement of the
suitably moulded synthetic resin or the like. This
annulus I‘! has inner and outer radially spaced
cylindrical walls l8 and [9, the inner wall de
illuminating unit relatively to the tube IS, the
tions, halo effects, etc., thus providing the op
timum condition for comparison of the images of
as an inwardly directed ?ange or shoulder 20 at 35. the‘ workpiece and a standard part.
It may be noted that the sources of light are,
the upper edge of the inner wall IS. The walls [8
commercial incandescent lamps, readily availand H] are radially spaced apart a distance such
able at reasonable cost, so that the illuminating
as to provide an annular chamber of substantially
unit is relatively cheap to make and to maintain
the minimum radial dimensions capable of ac
commodating commercial incandescent lamps of 40 and in these respects is far superior to devices
heretofore suggested in which special annular
the type illustrated and as hereinafter described,
lamps are depended upon to provide the light.
the walls l8 and I9 being united by an annular,
Moreover, this improved unit is readily applicable
horizontal web 2| (Fig. 4) in which there is
to and removable from a lens-supporting tube so
formed a series of circumferentially spaced bores
that the interchange of lenses is not interfered
with ‘their faxes vertical. These bores are ar
with. When it is not desired to use re?ected light,
ranged symmetrically with reference to the axis
the unit may be removed for storage, leaving the
of the annulus and, as here shown, there are ten
apparatusexactly as it was before application of;
of these bores spaced 36° apart; a greater or
the illuminating unit.
I
I
lesser number of such bores may be provided, if
While one desirable embodiment of the inven-'
desired, but it is believed that there should be at 50
unit is provided with a suitable stop, here shown
least four of these bores. " Each bore has mount
ed within it a socket 22 of a standard kind; such
as is employed for holding an-incandes'cent lamp
of - commercial type.
Each of these sockets is
tion has been shown by way-of examplepit is to
be understood that the invention is to beregard
ed. as broadly inclusive of any and all modi?ca
tions which fall within the scope of the appended;
provided with an insulated contact 23, here shown
I claim:
7
'
'
as resiliently supported for engagement with the
1. A micro-projector of the kind wherein the
center contact of the lamp, the wall of the socket
image of an object supported upon a work table
being grounded on the annulus I‘! if the latter is
is projected onto a screen by an objective lens
of metal and if not, being connected to a suit
able electrical conductor (not shown). Obvious 60 mounted in a tubular support, characterized in
having an illuminating unit mounted on the lens
ly, if desired, screw type sockets may be used in
support and comprising an annular housing hav
stead of the push type sockets here shown. The
ing an inner cylindrical wall de?ning an aper
contacts 23 of the several sockets are connected
ture designed to receive the upper end of the axial
by individual insulated conductors 24 to- a con
cluctor 25 which extends concentrically around ' cylindrical walls united by a radial web and spaced
the tube“ below the annulus l1 and out of con
apart a distance only su?icient to accommodate
tact with the tube when the illuminating unit is
the lamps employed, the inner wall‘ de?ning
mounted on the lens-supporting tube. The sev
a stop shoulder engageable with the end of the
eral conductors 24 pass through'openings in a disk
tubular support to limit axial movement of the
24“ ofinsulating material which holds the con_. 70 housing, the housing also having a, radially ex
ductors 24 inwproper relative positionv and which
tending web portion provided with a. series of
also holds the conductor 24a outwardly and away
spaced lamp sockets whose axes ‘are parallel to
from the tube ‘l3.
" '
that ofv the housing, the sockets being disposed
Each socket 22 receives a lamp 26, the axes of
symmetrically with respect to the optical axis
the sockets being so located that the ?laments of 75 of the lens and being so spaced laterally- from
claims.
-
-
_
5
2,409,328
said axis that lamps disposed inthe sockets are
out of the ?eld of vision of the lens, the housing
also having an outer cylindrical wall of a depth
greater than the heights of the ?laments of lamps
disposed in the sockets, said outer wall being of an
internal diameter such as to a?ord rap-proximate
ly just sui?cient space for the lamps arranged in
the sockets and having an inner re?ecting sur
face.
2. An illuminating unit for use in a, micro
projector of the kind wherein the image of an
object, supported on a work table, is projected
onto a screen by an objective lens mounted in a
tubular support, said unit comprising an annulus
having a central aperture of such diameter as to
receive the tubular lens support, the annulus hav
6
7/
ing inner and outer radially spaced coaxial walls
united by a radial web, the inner wall de?ning the
aperture which receives the tubular lens support,
said inner wall having an inwardly directed stop
shoulder engageable with the end of the tubular
lens support thereby to limit axial movement of
the annulus relatively to the support, the web
having therein a, series of circumferentially spaced
sockets designed to receive incandescent lamps
of commercial type, the sockets being disposed
symmetrically relatively to the axis of the annulus
and the outer wall of. the annulus being of a depth
to provide a protective shield for lamps mounted
in the sockets.
RAYMOND S. WILDER.
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