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, Oct-15,1946.
w. e. VAN voom-ns
7
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>
2,409,334
TRENCH BXCAVATING MACHINE
Filed Nov. ‘is, 1944
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
I William G 74.112 76.029155‘
Oct. 15, 194a
w. G. VAN Voom-us
'
2,409,334
TRENCH ExcAvATIkG MACHINE
Filed Nov. 13,‘ 1944
'
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
William 65165]: 1602172115’
‘ 0d. 15, 1946.
w. cs, VAN VCORHIS
2,409,334
.TRENCH EXCAVATING MACHINE
Filed Nov. 13, 1944
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
E1EEW
Oct. 15, 1946.
w. G_ V'AN VOORHIS
‘
2,409,334
TRENCH EXCAVATING MACHINE
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Filed Nov. 15, 1944
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4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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William 6}’ V0322 760292;}?
Patented Oct. 15, ‘1946
2,409,334
> - UNIT ED? STATES
O‘BF FliCE
2,409,334
TRENGH-EX‘GAVATiNG-MKCHINE'
WilliamsG; VanyVoorhis; Columbus; OhimasSign-Y
or to-TheJaeger MachjneaGompanmt-Golumbuw
Ohio, aracorporationtof Ohio-v
Aiiplicationwo'vembef 13, 19‘4‘14; Serial ‘No: 50331251
.
.
1:
v
.
This‘ invention relate’si to: ditch? and tre'nohe
diggingim'achines ‘ andi‘hasifo'ri an?‘ object ‘to‘provide
an‘iimpro‘vedr“ maohihe for ‘this purpose‘: embody‘
ing a. portable engine-propelled’ base" vehicle
having? mounted; on one end - thereof: a» turiia'bie
21
va't’e‘dl‘ position. at‘ one si'dej oi? the mocha-re? for
discharge‘ of the-1 stoop‘? contents into an‘1 associe
med-vehicle;
‘
I
Fig.‘ 41 is: a'- vertioal'l transverse‘i sectionali View
» taken through the boom and'i's‘coopi‘on thelpiati’e
mast‘ fozt etféotinfg: the support of: a1- pivotally
mounted boom; a; ditch ohtrehchhdi'ggihg scoop
Fig‘. 51 slat hoziizontal‘i-sectional-view? oh? the‘
plane-7i die ted bythe?1ihe15;-53=of‘Fig.l11;»
01-‘- bi'i‘cket“ being':'_1'1miuntedi 011W the-boom‘ foflon‘g‘ié
I6 is a": detailiseetionaliiview" di‘s‘closihTg the
tudihal‘l travel; there bein‘g‘?poweri-a’cthatedacabie
-'
means connected? with the/‘Bebop or: bucket“ for 10 pivotal coii?ectioii hetweehith'e so‘ooo‘a‘n'd it
effecting? positive“ advance’ ' thereof lbhgitiidi?allqy
sooiateoia carriage1= anwi the‘ ooor'woperatihgi yo e;
the piano: oh the; ?‘g'?re- being: disolo'sedlb'yf the
inleitheri dif'rectior'i'~ on‘ the boom‘; '
It is \another object‘offtheihvehtion‘ to‘p‘rovic‘ie
a‘scoop or ‘Bucket’ fof‘u‘s‘e-inlconne'ction‘with such
‘Fig. 'mstamemargedifragmehtawtoo ‘planwiew
di‘ggin'g' or» excavating “operation; travels from the
outer‘e'nd‘ of‘it'ssupporting oo‘om'toward'tl'ie auto‘
Figs 8? 1st‘ at fragmentany; side‘: eievati'on‘al; view
disclosing; the? oabiemperatedi scoop; or‘, bucketwat
a‘- trench‘iforming“ machine" which, during‘ its's'o‘i1== 15 of the boom and its supoottiirg'mast;
motive base“ vehicle on ‘ which‘ the" boom’ is‘ mount
the outer end‘: of‘? the :' supporting? boom" and‘? in I‘ a;
ed and‘ wherein‘ the“ open‘ end‘ of the-“scoop? o'r“
bucket isE-provided“
a pivotally mounted‘ d‘o‘o‘i" 20
trenché-diggingn positiom-
which; through: an" automatic‘ operation‘, occu
pies'an' o‘pen’ position-upon advan‘ce'movem'ent‘ of
the scoop‘ or‘hu‘ckiat" ih'to the- soil‘ and“ a closed
themumerat: I05 d'esiéhat‘es? the chassis or? frame
o-f-wan ia‘utomotivefbasevehicle; which formsfiaipart'
of: my" improved-loading or- exoavating; machine:
position upon‘ outward“ movement‘ of the" scoop
o‘r‘ bucket" on“ the boom‘; whereby“ toename the
25 d-ling excavating;scoopitshoveliori other‘ load! 0813*
scoop‘or bucket t'b‘Tet‘ai‘n soillwithiiiithe‘ 'c‘dii?h'es
thereof " during ‘ raising of‘the" boom to" 'b‘ring'th‘e'
scoop'orl bucket“ to‘~ an‘1 elevated: position‘ of ma“--‘
'
-
Rei‘éI'I‘iIigE moreI particularly to the: drawings;
the’ numeral’ H designates-1: the material-ham
rie‘n}: the: muiierahi I12? designates: generally:v the‘
boomrsemployedrihl the-‘framing? ‘or ‘IOWBtingilOfi the
scoop; tot causézit: to? assume r desiredsp‘bsitions" or
material .excavation- and: discharge;v and the’: nu=~
It is“ ‘a further ‘object’ of theihvehtioir to'*p'r‘o-" 30 mieral'i t3“ designates im its ‘ entirety‘ a; vehicle;
teritti1 discharge?
‘ ‘
vide" a“ soill-ex‘cavating‘machi?e“ of’ the‘ chara'oter‘
set‘ forth‘ whereih‘the cable“ lines," employed” in‘
causih'g the‘ scoop“ or bu‘cliet“ totravei" l‘on‘gitudti
carried mast to which the . b‘oom; is? piv‘otallyl
nature‘: characterized h‘y'thet simplicit'yi'o't its hie;
chanica'i ‘ construction; the '~ ease‘ “by which’ its’ *opi
suitable; driivew connections adapted: to impartv
power’! to: th’eawheels: HI.‘ The‘ ‘end ‘of the frame
oration‘; may be; governed‘; azidf“ its‘ compact“, and‘
lotoppositel't‘o thewhe‘el's: I 451s" providedwithi one
united“ at» its: inner; end-1' for‘ turning?‘ movement
about botmhorizohtall and-‘vertical axes:
The;mast1<-@is;-carriedabto'thei‘fname I 0 iatfi-itsvfoiii
n'ali'y'fb‘ack and‘ fortlifv o'ii ‘ it"s"a‘s'sobiatedi support;
ing boom; are“ so" relat'edi to=tiie¢1pivoteu1" d‘o‘ofo'fi 35 wardior: loadingzendrandfisoisposed over,v a‘: pair"
the" scoopor- bucket-‘1 as‘ to automatically open’ or‘ » of; gfoundi-exigaginggg power driven,‘ traction
Wheelsv M; Mounteidrromtheoframe: III is aFpowerl
close‘ the; latter‘ when‘; movement" of’ said scoop
plant [5‘.- whichrconvenientlyvis in'the form of;
o'r ‘bucketon‘ theilcioom'is‘e?ectedi
an: internal combusti‘ori- engineahaving" associated
Still; a further object: of" the i'n'vehtionl is to
provide‘ a- loadih'g’ or excavating‘ machine of’thi‘s‘ 40 therewith; a;- changeesp'eed transmission: IE‘, and‘
stiirdyl" mechanical design‘ b'yf’whichsithe sa‘ihe‘is"
or‘ more gro‘ondlenga'ging’a steering; wheels}. not
rendered; adaptable for hard‘ u‘s'a'g'ieif Without?’ 11a: 45 shown; which may; beifmanipulated1:v by the‘! oils;
tomar-y. steering,-:contro1'>» H’ located“ conveniently
bilit‘ii-r of lme'chani'e'ali failure.‘
to the generator-ls?)positioxiv~ l8:
FO‘If‘a“ further‘understandirigiofi the invention;
referenceiis tolb‘el h'a'df‘toithe followiii'gi‘ldes'c‘r-ibtiorii
and the accompanying drawings, whereinizf
'lihemiastxihbiudes hit‘tlblll?'l‘ "coium'n . l9-,2whioh1
is: rotatahlytsupportedii at'5 its? lower‘; endI-i‘n: con
Fig.1 is a side elevational'iview'offaloadingior 50 nection‘awith b'earings‘eprovidediion the-frame l0,‘
excavating‘ machine formed‘ in‘, accordance‘éwithl
an'drat'. itsv‘ uppferif end’lih‘; a bearing 2h“)- proi eating»
the“ present ‘ invention; .
frotnw the: maohihevyicon?nin‘gr housing 2|"? of?
Fig. 2 isa top plan-iview thereof; ‘
saidifran‘ie: Thelb'ottom‘ofithekcolumn‘has‘f?xed
Fig. 3- is alfront elevational view ofr‘them‘a;:-=
thereto;- a. worm gettrws'e'gi‘nent"v 22,12 the teeth or
chine’, disclosing the=boom and scoop int-its ole-1
which-mesh‘iwithl-aniengine-driveriwwormi 2'33 and
2,409,334
3
4
by means of which the column may be rotated
29, thereby causing penetration of the scoop
about its vertical axis.
into the soil and movement of the scoop longi
tudinally and inwardly of the boom toward the
base vehicle I0.
Formed with and arising
from the segment 22 are ears 24 to which are
pivoted for turning movement about a horizontal
When the scoop is ?lled with soil, or other ma
axis the inner ends of a pair of boom rails 25, Ch
terial being gathered or excavated, rotation of
the latter being disposed on opposite sides of
the drum 49 is discontinued, and by customary
an inverted U-shaped beam 26, the rails 25 being
clutch and brake control on the drum 49, the
of channel-forrri' to provide open-sided guides.
tension on the cable 45 may be released, thereby
The rails 25 and the beam 26 are rigidly united
in spaced order by transverse bars 21 to form 10 causing the door 34 to assume its position of
scoop closure as a result of the expansion of the
the complete boom.
springs 38. The boom is then oscillated about
Mounted for longitudinal travel in the guides
its horizontal axis, provided by the cars 24,
provided by the rails 25 are rollers 28, the latter
whereby to cause elevation of the scoop from the
being mounted for rotation on inwardly project
ground or other working surface and after which
ing studs 28a carried by a pair of carriage plates
29. The lower edges of these plates are pivotally - the scoop, with its open end closed by the door
34, is moved linearly and outwardly of the boom
united as at 36 with the vertical sides 3| of said
to a discharge position. Such outward movement
scoop. The scoop or bucket is closed on all sides
of the scoop is effected by a cable 5|, which is fas
except the open front thereof, and when the '
scoop is moved upwardly with the boom to a dis 20 tened at one end, as at 52, to the carriage 29.
charge position, as in Fig. 3, the open end there
From its point of securement to the carriage, the
cable is advanced forwardly of the boom and
of is closed by a pivotally mounted door or end
closure 34, the latter having its upper portion
trained over a sheave 53 ?xed for rotation on the
pivotally mounted as at 35 in connection with
outer end of said boom.
the top of the scoop.
>
;From the sheave 53, the cable 5| is trained
,
The door 34 is normally held in its scoop-clos
ing position by providing the sides of the scoop
rearwardly, passing around one of the sheaves
46 at the inner pivoted end of the boom. From
the sheave 46, the cable 5| passes upwardly in
parallel order with vthe cable 45 and is trained
around one of the sheaves 41, then passing down
with a pair of pivoted bolts 36. The threaded
free ends of these bolts receive nuts 31 against
which press the outer ends of a pair of coil
springs 38, the opposite ends of the latter being
engaged‘ with turnable heads 39 carried by the
side edges of the door 34, the expansive force of
said springs thus Serving to hold the doorin its
wardly through the column | 9, around one of the
sheaves 49 and is then wrapped around a drum
54 to which its inner end is secured. The drum
riage: plates 29 and the scoop sides 3| include
turnable studs 46 having headed outer ends 4|.
54 is disposed on the frame l0 adjacent to the
drum 49, both drums through suitable clutch
and brake controls being actuated by power de-v
rived from the engine l5. Thus with the drum
49 released to permit of the withdrawal of the
The heads 4| are formed with openings for the
. cable 45 therefrom, the rotation of the drum 54
sliding reception of a door-operating yoke 42,
the intermediate portion 43 of this yoke being
will cause the cable 5| to be wound thereabout
position of ~ scoop closure.v
r The pivotal connections 39 between the car
received Withinears 44 projecting from the door
34. When the door is open, by means herein
after described, it will be seen that the springs
shortening the effective length of said cable and
causing the carriage and scoop to be moved out
wardly and linearly of the boom 25.
To raise the boom so that the scoop, when ad
38 are compressed and the yoke 42 slides out- - ; vanced to the outer end of said boom, will occupy
wardly in the heads 4 I . When the forces opening
an elevated position, for instance, above the body
the door are released, the expansion of the springs
55 of a dump truck, use is made of a third cable
38 forces the door to its position of scoop closure
in order to con?ne the contents. thereof, and the
yoke slides forwardly in the openings provided in
the stud heads 4|.
‘
56.
This cable has’ its inner end anchored to
a bail 51 which is pivoted as at 58 on the upper
end of the-turnable mast I3. ‘ From its point of
connection with the bail 51, the cable 56 extends
- Connected with the intermediate portion of the
to a sheave 59 mounted on the extreme outer
yoke 42 is one end of a cable 45.- From its point
of connection with the yoke, the cable 45 extends
to a sheave 46 carried by the inner ends of the
boom rails 25. From the sheave 46, the cable 45
is trained upwardly, passing over a sheave 41
end of the boom structure. After passing around
the sheave 59, the cable 56 is trained rearwardly,
passing over the sheave 41, thence downwardly
through the column I9, around the sheave 48 and
is wrapped around and secured to a third drum
69. This latter drum is mounted on the vehicle
frame It adjacent to the drums 49 and 54 and
like the latter drums is operated by motion trans
mitting means 6| from the engine l5, the drum
'60 having the usual individual brake and clutch
controls of standard design. When the cable is
wrapped around the drum 60, it will be seen that
mounted on the upperend of the mast l3. After
passing over the sheave 41, the cable 45 depends
vertically through the hollow-interior of the col 60
umn l9 and, at the lower end of the column,
passes around a sheave 48 supported on the ve
hicle frame Ill. From the sheave 48,'the cable
45,extends to a power-actuated drum 49 driven
by: the engine I5 and mounted on the frame It. 65 forces are applied to the outer end of the boom
structure, causing the latter toswing about its
1 It‘will be seen that when the cable 45 is Wound
horizontal pivotal connection 24 in an upward
about the drum 49 so that'its effective length is
direction until elevated to the full line position
shortened, the ?rst movement of said cable causes
the scoop door to swing to an open position against
disclosed in Fig. 3.
the resistance of the coil springs 38, the opening 70 ' With the boom held in such an elevated posi
movement of the door being limited by the con
tion,'the cable 45 is actuated to open the door 34,
tacting of stop enlargements 56 provided on the
providing for gravitational discharge of the scoop
ends of the side legs of the yoke 42 with the heads
contents int/o'the- vehicle body shown at 55, or
other elevated receiver. Preferably, the outer
4| of the studs .40. When this occurs, a direct
pull is imparted by the cable 45 to the carriage 75 ends of the boom rails 25 are, as viewed in Fig. 1,
7230933374
inclined ‘upwardly “as at l'62, so *that ‘when ‘the
boom ‘is elevated and the scoop advanced into
‘registration withithe inclined region 362 thereof,
16
i
itageouslinlthe ‘dumping of theiscoop‘or- bucket *lIl ,
as ill-u'strated-ln‘Fig. 3, but his also equally ad
vantageous in starting a trench-digging ‘cut, ‘as
‘the-scoop will assume ‘an enhanced position 1of
shown-marge.
Iangularity to'iinsure complete gravitational out
- Itl-will‘be understood that certain ‘changes may
\ii'o'w-iof its contents.
5be Ima’de in the construction ‘of my ‘improved
'
- ‘
-'It is often desirable in the operation of a ma
.
machine“without-departing necessarily from the
chine of this character to swing the boom and
se'oopso Lthat the same will be positioned laterally
‘toloneside ‘or the ‘other-of the portablebase ve
spirit“ and scope of the following claims.
hicle. ‘Thus inr-atrench-forming operation, the
‘chineza portable base vehicle, a mast mounted on '
'1. Mia material excavating and loading ma.
dump "vehicles which are‘v used to convey the‘ ex~
'cava'ted soil Yirom-thetrench site, are driven ‘to
saidlbase vehicle and turnable about its longitu
idin‘a‘l axis, a vpivot atone end to said mast beam
occupy positions-parallel with the base vehicle,
for raising and lowering‘movement in vertical
a's-"sho'wn in Fig.3. .Hence, ‘to discharge the con
planes and swinging movement in horizontal
ltents-oiithe‘s‘coop into the body of a‘ dump ve
-lpl'anes, aiscoop suspended from said boom and
‘hicle‘lso ‘positioned, it is ‘necessary to swing the
movable longitudinally thereof toward and away
v‘boo‘rn-landscoopllaterally of ‘the‘machine so that
“tro'm'said ibasevehicle, said scoop being openable
the ‘lsa/meflwill ‘occupy the positions depicted in
{at Ltheiront end thereof to provide for the admit
tance-ofexcavated materials therein and the dis
In the present machine, thislmay be conven~
charge of such materials therefrom, a door hinged
ientiy accomplished by turning the column is
‘to said scoop and normally closing the ‘front “end
about its vertical axis, which swings with it the
thereof, bolts pivoted to the sides of said scoop,
boom structure and scoop. Through the motion
turnable bearing elements carried by said door for
transmitting means 65 and reversing clutches 63,
the slidable reception of said bolts, coil springs
power from the engine 45 is applied to the worm
confined between the outer ends of said bolts and
23 to rotate the latter in one direction or the
said turnable bearing elements, said springs nor
other, thus turning the segment 22 and the col
mally serving to maintain said door in its posi
umn l9 therewith, producing required horizontal
tion of scoop closure, yoke means connected with
swinging movement of the boom and scoop in 30 said door and said scoop for limiting the opening
the direction desired.
movement of said door, and a pair of drum-actu
In View of the foregoing, it will be seen that
ated cables carried by said base vehicle, one of
the present invention provides an excavating or
said cables being connected with said door and
loading machine for use in many capacities when
the other of said cables with said scoop, whereby
earth and other loose bulk materials of various
to e?ect automatic actuation of said door and
kinds are required to be removed from the ground,
the movement of said scoop longitudinally of
or other base surface, and elevated to a desired
said boom toward and away from said base vehicle.
position of discharge and deposit. A particular
2. In a loading machine, a portable self pro
advantage which the machine possesses is found
pelled base vehicle, a turnable mast structure '
in constructing and mounting the boom ‘so that, 40 carried by and arising from said base vehicle, a
in addition to lifting the associated scoop in a
boom having its inner end pivotally connected
vertical direction, it may also be revolved about
with said mast structure for swinging movement
a substantially vertical axis to locate the scoop
in vertical planes, said boom projecting beyond
laterally of the machine. This feature provides
one end of ‘said base vehicle and being turnable
for greater facility in operation by reducing the ' in unison horizontally with said mast structure,
amount of maneuvering of the automotive base
a carriage movable longitudinally of said boom,
vehicle to effect registration of the scoop with
a scoop supported by said carriage, said scoop
associated drum vehicles or other positions of
being closed on all sides and having an opcnable
Fig.3.
-
.
,
material deposit.
The power driven mechanism ‘
front end facing toward said base vehicle, a mov
for turning the mast and boom structures is so 50 able door carricd by said scoop and normally clos
constructed that it looks the latter against undue
ing its open front end, yieldable means normally
horizontal swinging movement by the use of worm
serving to maintain said door in its position of
gearing. Also, the machine is further charac
scoop closure, means for limiting the opening
terized by its mechanical simplicity and ability
movement of said door, power-actuated means
to receive and handle heavy loads expeditiously 55 mounted on said base vehicle, and a pair of oper
with complete and convenient control thereover.
ating cables cooperative with said drum means
The opening and closing of the scoop door 34 is
‘ for effecting longitudinal movement of said scoop
controlled automatically by the employment of
along said boom, one of said cables being con
the cables 45 and 5| and the springs 38, thereby
nected with said carriage to move said scoop in
avoiding the employment of latch devices and as 60 an outward direction along said boom and the
sociated manual controls.
other of said cables being connected with said
The scoop door may be opened by four different
door to move said scoop inwardly along said boom
methods. First, [by pulling on cable 45'while the
in a material-gathering direction, said last
bucket is making a cut, the required cutting force
named cable serving also to e?ect the opening of
supplying the reaction needed to overcome the 65 said door as desired.
tension of the spring 38, as in a typical trench
3. In a loading machine, a portable base vehicle,
digging operation; second, by pulling on cable El
a vertical mast carried by and arising from said
and holding stationary the cable 45, as in dump
vehicle, a boom structure pivotally mounted on
ing the bucket or 800019; third,'by pulling on
said mast for movement in vertical planes and
cable 45 and holding stationary cable 5|, as at 70 lateral swinging movement, said boom structure
the start of a trench-digging cut; fourth, by pull
being formed with longitudinally extending guides
ing on cables 45 and 5 I. This method may or may
and an upwardly inclined outer end, a scoop car
not be used and its only purpose would be to open
riage having roller elements longitudinally mov
the door 34 in the least possible time. The an
able in said guides, a scoop secured to said car
gular outer end of the boom not only is advanq 75 riage for pivotal adjustment relative thereto, said
2,409,334
7
scoop having an open front end and closed side,
back, top and bottom walls, a swinging closure for
the open front end of said scoop, spring means
normally serving to maintain said closurein a
position closing the open front end of the scoop,
a slidable yoke connected with said carriage and
said closure for limiting opening movement of
studs, a door pivoted to the top of said scoop and
movable in a vertical plane to open and close
the front thereof, a bail having side legs slidable
in openings formed in said studs, said bail hav
ing a cross leg uniting the side legs thereof, the
cross leg being pivotally joined with said door,
pivotally movable spring means united with said
scoop and door and effective when released to
maintain the door in a position closing the front
structure, one of said cables being connected 10 end of said scoop, cable means connected with the
carriage of said scoop and trained over guides car
with said carriage and trained toward the outer
the latter, and a pair of drum actuated cables
for moving said scoop longitudinally of the boom
end of said boom and the other of said cables be
ing connected with said yoke and trained toward
the inner end of said boom.
ried by the outer end of said boom for positively
moving said scoop in one direction longitudinally
with respect to the boom, and additional cable
4. In an excavating and loading machine, an 15 means extending over guides disposed adjacent
to the inner end of said boom and connected with
elongated vertically movable boom formed with
said door to open and close the latter against the
a guideway, a scoop carriage depending from
resistance of said spring means and to advance
said boom and supported for movement longitu
said scoop longitudinally of said boom in a di
dinally in said guideway, a scoop having an open
front, means pivotally uniting the sides of said
rection opposite to that a?orded by said first
scoop with said carriage to control the cutting
angle of the scoop, said means including turnable
named cable means.
WILLIAM G. VAN VOORHIS.
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