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O_ct. 15, 1946.
2,409,335
Y. Z. VON STACKELBERG
HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM
Filed NOV. 22; 1944
____
J
Yui*geh Z.von S’rackelberg
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
2,409‚335
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2‚409,335
HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM
Yurgen Z. von Stackelberg, Baltimore, Md.‚ as
signor to The Glenn L. Martin Company, Mid
dle River, Md.‚ a. corporation cf Maryland
Application November 22, 1944, Serial N0. 564,594
11 Claims. (GI. 188—152)
2
This invention relates 110 a hydraulic braking
system,- particularly for aircraft, and its prima
object is to provide a hydrauli<: braking system
‚including an emergency fluid system whereby the
bl‘akes may be operated in the event the ?uid
pressure pump fails o1‘ where the normal ?uid
line conveying fluid 110 the brakes has been rup
tured.
~
It is more or less <:onventional in aircraft brak
ing Systems to energize the wheel brakes by utiliz
ing a ?uid pressure system comprising a ?uid
reservoir and pump connected thereto fur forcing
?uid under pressure to foot-controlled valves
which are attached to the right and left rudder
pedals of an aircraft for operation by the pilot,
With the Fluid under pressure controllecl thereby
communicating With the wheel brakes for apply
ing actuating pressure thereto. It is obvious that
the fluid pressure lines leading from the 15001:
quires a major overhaul 0f the system beqause
of the air in the syste‘ms.
‘
In the present invention, the hydraulic braking
system include3 a closed, normal ?uid system for
the brakes, comprising a ?uid reservoir and pump,
foot; control valves attached to the rudder pedals
for passing ?uid to the wheel brakes, and a pair of
four-way valves inserted in the fluid 1ines lead
ing from the foot operated brakes, whereby ?uid
10 under pressure is normally passed therethrough
_to the brakes.. A vent; line is provided from shut
tle valves on the brakes back through the tour
Way valves and thence 110 a common discharge
line, which is connected to the r€servoir. A hy
draulic fluid accumulator of any accepted de
sign is placed in the ?uid line between the pump
and the foot oper2mted valves, with a check valve
interposed in ‘ehe ?uid 1ine betvveen the pump
and the accumulator. With this arrangement,
the accumulator is kept under full pressure ‘als
all times and acts as~ a pressure equalizer on the
line. Upon failure of the pump, tlr1e check valve
operates to prevent escape of ?uicl from the ac
controlled brakes on the rudder pedal to the
wheel brakes a1‘e quite vulnerable and thai; if
these lines rupture there would be no pressure
available for actuating the brakes. Furthermore,
this dangerous condition may occur if the pres
cumulator back through the pump, and vthe pres
sure pump develops any mechanical di?lculty 25 sure is maintained at the brake va1ves by the
accumulator.
and fai1s to maintain the necessary ?uid pres
sure in the operating 1ines.
‘ ‘ “
A slhuttle valve similar to that illustrated in
It is usual to carry a compressed air bottle hav
Overbzäke Patent N0. 2,300‚694,dated October 3,
ing a manually controlled valve thereon and a
separate air circuit to the brakes through shut
tle valves located adjacent the brakes whereby
if the normal ?uid 1ine lacks suf?0ient pressure
130 operate the brakes, the air bottles may be
opened to shift the shuttle va1ves and close off
?uid therethrough and to permit air from the
compressed supply 120 energize the brakes. Hew
ever, this type of emergency brake operator has
several inherent disadvantages inasmuch as the
1942‚ is placed on each brake. The valve forms a
?tt‘lng to- Which the normal pressure line and the
ve'nt 1ine which also forms the emergency ?uid
pressure line, are connected. The four-way
valves controlling the normal and emergency
conduits are preferably made in a single unit and
are manually operated ~by ‘ehe pi1ot, when the
“feel” cf the pedal valves controlling the regular
brake lines indicates there is insu?icient ?uid
pressure to operate the brakes. By merely f1ip
ping a 1ever, the plugs of thefour-way valves
shift; the ?uid pressum from the control valves,
air bottle permits only a Single operation of the
brakes, and more important, after the emergency 40
opera’oi0n, ‚the entire hydraulic system is con
from the normal line, into the emergeney line
through the shuttle valves. I1: Will be appa3rent '
taminated wi‘oh air and. it is ther1 necessary to
that When the normal ?uid lines are used, the
disconnect and purge the Whole braking system
' emergency lines act as vents therefor and com-v
before normal fluid operation can again be ef
fected. The use of compressed air in the brakes, ' versely when the emergkency lines am used the
because there is no- control over its application 110
the brakes, locks the aircraft wheels and in mos't
cases causes the ti'res to be ruined in arresting
the plane; As before stated; the greatest di'sad
vantage in ‚such an em€rgency air system is that
the WhOle system must be bled of the air before
repairs can be made and the hydraulic ?uid sys
normal lines act as a vent, and this~ ventlng
operation and use of shuttle valves positively
prevents any hydraulic lockin the system. Fur
. thermorejthere is a great advantage attendant
to the use of this type of hydraulic system over
the air bottle heretofore proposed, as no air is
aclrnitted into the ?uid System. 'I‘he Check valve
referred. to prevents any recession of ?uid from
‘gern fails because of the non-operation of the
‘ehe accumulator‘either Joy fai1ure 0f the pump
?üid pump, such a minor mechanical falilure re
or rupture of the normal ?uid pressure lines'
2,409,335
3
leading from the foot brakes to the wheel brakes.
The attached drawing 15 a diagrammatical lay
out of a ?uid system embodying the principles
of this invention, but it will be obvious that these
principles can be incorporated in ?uid braking
systems of other design. Speci?cally the normal
4
vent for said shutt1e valve through said ?ow com
trol valve.
2. A hydraulic brake system comprising a res_
ervoir, a pump, a pressure control valve, a ?uid
line and a brake, interconnected to cooperate to
deliver ?uid under controlled pressure 110 said
brake, an accumulator connectecl to said 1ine be
?uid circuit extends from the ?uid reservoir R
tween said pump and said. control valve to equal
having a vent V thr_ough pump P and Check va1ve
ize the pressure in said line, said ?uid line ex
CV to aceumulator A and through main fluid
line l to foot operated valves 5 and 5' which 10 tending from said pressure control valve to said
brake including a manually operated ?ow control
may be attached to the rudder pedals of the
va1ve connected to receive ?uid under pressure
aircraft and operated Joy linkages 7 and 'l’‚ re
from the out1et of said pressure control valve, a
spectively. As shown, the main ?uicl 1ine l is
shuttle valve mountecl on said brake, a pair of
branched. into the casings 0f brake pedal valves
5 and 5', and these valves ma-y De individually 15 flu_i_d lines extending from said ?ow control valve
vented through vent 1ines 29, 29’ to ma‚in retllI-Il
to the inl_et ports of said shuttle valves, said
1ine 2T.
"I‘he four-way valves I5, I5’ receive ?uid
manually operated valve so connected that fluid
through lines H, H’ connected to the foohop
erated valves 5 and 5’. In the position shown,
under pressure may be di1‘ectecl through one 01‘
the oth„er of the brake lines to said shuttle valve,
the plugs of the four-way valves pass ?uid to the 20 the 1ine through Which ?uid pressure is not di
rected. a?ords a vent for said shuttle valve
normal brake operating conduits I9, l9’ through
through said ?ow contro1 valve.
~
shuttle valves 2 l, 2!’ to the whee1 brake B. Vent
3. A hydraulic braking system for vehicles com
lines are provided via ’the four-way valves
prising a brake, a reservoir, a pump having the
through emergency lines 23, 23’ through the
passa€€s of valves I5, l5' and vent line 27 C011 25 inlet side connected to said reservoir, an ener
gizer-accumulator connected to the line on the
nected _to the top of reservoir R.
outlet side of the pump, a check valve between
If the pump P falls or if the normal ?uid 1ines
the inlet to the accumulator and said pump, a
I9, I9’ are shot away the pilot operates lever l'l
pressure control valve in said line controlling the
and. moves it from the normal to emergency 100
sit‚ion indicated by the letters N and E 150 rotate 30 pressure of ?uid through the brake line to the
brake, said brake line including a ?ow control
the plugs of the four-way valves I5, I5’ whereby
valve, a shuttle va1ve mounted on said brake and
the ?uid circuit permits ?uids from the ever
a pair of conoluits extending from said ?ow con
gharged accumulator A t0 pass through 1ine I,
tro1 valve to the inlet ports of said shuttle valve;
valves 5 vand ‚5' as in normal Operation, and thence
t0ßm€rgency lines 2.3, 23' and through the shut- ' said ?ow control valve connected to said pressure
control valve to receive ?uid therefrom and di
t1e valv‚es to the brakes. The normal lines I9,
rect it through either of said pair o-f lines to said
I9’ then vent; the shuttle valves and prevent any
shuttle va1ve, the other line affording a vent for
hydraulic lock from occurring. It is preferable
said shuttle valve through said ?ow contro1 va1ve.
130 Vent the foot-operated valves 5 and 5’ inde
4. A hydraulic braking system for vehicles com
pendentl5n and this is sho-wn by lines 29, 29' 40
prising a fluid circuit including a reservoir, a
joined to the main return 1ine 2T.
pump for maintaining the ?uid in the circuit;
As be‚for_e indicatecl, the accumulator contains
under pressure, a brake, an accumulator secured
su?lcient ?uid pressure to 0p_erate the brakes a
‘so the line on the outlet side of the pump acting
number of times, and ‚by reason of the check valve
as a pressure equalizer, means to prevent ?ow of
CV the accumulator is constantly Charged and
?uid frbm said accumulator through said pump,
available for instant use. When lines I9, I 9’
a pressure control va1ve for controlling the ?ow
are shot; away, the ?uid escapes therefrom and
of ?uid to said brake on the vehicle, a normal
the system does not become pressure locked.
?uid pressure line extending from said pressure
The mechanism described a?orcls an alternate
control valve to said brake, a second pressure line
?uid pressure source that operates the brakes in
extending from said pressure control valve 1:0 said
the same manner and With the same “feel,” after
brake, a manually operable ?ow control valve
lever I’! has been moved from the normal to the
meang interposed between said pressure control
emergency position.
valve and said brake for directing ?uid under
‘It is to be understood that certain changes, a1
pressure through either the normal line or the.
terations, modi?cations and substitutions can be
secondary line.
V
made without departing from the spirit and scope
5. A hydraulic braking system including a plu
of the appended claims.
r-a1ity of brakes, a ?uid reservoir, a pump and
?uid pressure lines each having a pressure control
I claim as my invention:
va1ve for delivering, ?uid under controlled pres
1. A hyclraulic brake system comprising a res
sures from the pump to each brake, an accu
ervoir, a pump to deliver fluid under pressure from
mulator interposed in the system between the
the reservoir to a ?uid line, and a brake‚ a pres
pump and the pressure control valve to equalize
sure _contro1 valve in said ?uid 1ine controlling
the pressure in the system and a manually op
the ?ow of ?uid to said brake, said ?uid line
erated ?ow control valve in said system for di
extending from said pressure control valve to said
recting ?uid under pressure from each of said
brake including a ?ow control valve connected to
pressure c_ontrol valves 120 saicl bra-kes through
receive ?uid under pressure from the outlet of
one or the other of separate ?uid pressure lines.
said_ pressure control valve and a shutt1e va1ve
6. A hydraulic brake system comprising a res
on said brake, a pair of ?uid lines extending from
erv‚oir, a pump 130 deliver fluid under pressure
s_ai<_:1 ?ow control valve to the inlet ports of said
f‚r‚om the reserv‚oir 130 a ?uid line, and a brake, a
shut‚tle valves, one o_f said lines constituting the
pressure control val.ve in said fluid line control
normal pressure line am]. the other an emergency
ling the ?ow 0f ?uid to said brake, said fluid line
pressure lin‚e‚ said ?ow control valve adapted to
extending from said pressure control va1ve to said
direct ?uid through either the normal or emer
brake including a ?ow control valve connec'oed to
gency pressure line, the other line ‚afforcling a
B
2,409,835
5
receive ?uid under pressure from the out1et of
said pressure control valve and a shuttle valve on
said brake, a pair of ?uid lines extending from
said ?ow control valve to the in1et ports of said
shuttle valves, one Of said lines constitutiug the
normal pressure line and ‘ehe other an emergency
pressure line, said. ?ow control valve being a man
6
and said brake and an accumulator connected to
the line between the pressure control va1ves and
the pump a. Check valve between said accumula
tor and said pump, said accumulator acting to
equalize the pressure in the system maintained
by said pump and act as an emergency source of
pressure upon failure of the pump.
10. A hydraulic brake system comprising a res
through either the normal or emergency pressure
ervoir, a pump 120 deliver ?uid under pressure
line, the other line affording a vent for said shut 10 from the reservoir to a‚ ?uid 1ine, and a brake‚ a
tle valve through said ?ow control valve.
pressure contro1 valve in saio‘l ?uid 1ine control—
ual1y operable valve 130 selectively direct ?uid
7. A hydraulic brake system comprising a res
ervoir, a. pump, a Dressure control valve, a, ?uid
1ing the ?ow of ?uid 110 said brake, said ?uid line
extending from said pressure contro1 valve to
1ine anal a brake, interconnected to cooperate to
said brake including a, ?ow control valve can
deliver ?uid under controlled pressure 170 sa‚id 15 nected 130 receive ?uid under pressum from the
brake, said ?uid 1ine extending from said pres«
out1et of said pressure control valve and a shut
sure control va1ve to seid brake including a. ?ow
’ole va1ve on said brake, a, pair of ?uid lines ex
control valve connectea to receive ?uid under
tending from said. ?ow contro1 valve 130 the inlet
pressure from the outlet of said pressure control
ports of seid shuttle valves, one 0f said lines con
valve, a. shu’ßtle valve mounted 0n said brake, a 20 st‘ituting the normal pressure line and the other
pair 0f ?uid liues extending from said ?ow con
an eme1‘gency pressure line, said ?ow control
trol valve to the inlet ports of said shuttle valves,
valve adapted 170 direct ?uid through either the
said ?ow control valve so connected that ?uid
normal 0r emergency pressure line, said lines be
under pressure ma.y be directed through one 01‘
ing so connectecl that one will serve a.s a Vent
the other of the brake 1ines tdsaid shutt1e valve, 25 line for one side o1" the shuttle valve when the
the other 1ine aifording a vent for said shuttle
other 1ine Conducts fluid under‚pressum to the
valve through said ?ow control va1ve.
other side of said shuttle valve.
8. A hydraulic braking system for vehicles
11. A hydraulic brake system comprising a, res
comprising a reservoir, a. pump having the inlet
ervoir, a pump 130 deliver ?uid under pressure
side connected to said reservoir, an equalizer 30 from the reservoir to a ?uid line, anti a brake, a
accumulator connected ‘so the line on the outlet
pressure contro1 va1ve in said Fluid 1ine control
side 0f the pump, a, check valve between the inlet
ling the ?ow of ?uid to said brake, said ?uid line
to the accumulator and said pump, a pressure
‘extending from said pressure control valve ’oo said '
control valve in each 1ine controlling t‘ne pressure
brake including a, ?ow control valve connected to
0f ?uid through brake lines to brakes, each of
receive ?uid under pressure from the outlet of
sa‚id brake 1ines includi_ng a, ?ow control valve,
said pressure control valve and a shuttle valve on
a shuttle va1ve mounted on said brake and a pair
said brake, a pair of ?uid lines extending from
of conclui’cs extending from said ?ow control valve
said ?ow contro1 valva 120 the in1et ports of said
120 the in1et ports of said shuttle valve, said ?ow
shuttle valves, one of sa.id lines constituting the
control valve connected 1:0 said pressure control 40 normal pressure line and the other an emergency
valve to receive ?uid therefrom and direct it
pressllre line, said ?ow control valve adapted to
through either of said pair of 1ines to said shuttle
direct; ?uid through either the normal 01‘ emer
va1ve, the other 1ine aifording ‘a vent for said
gency pmssure 1ine, said 1ine being connected
shuttle valve through said ?ow control valve.
through the ?ow control va1ve so that when one
9. A hYdraulic braking system for vehic1es
1ine conductg ?uid under pressure 120 one inlet
comprising a‚ reservoir, a pump for maintaining
port of the shuttle va1ve, the other line serves
?uid in the system under pmssure, conduits ’ex
as a Vent line from the other port 0f said shuttle
tending from said pump to deliver ?uid under
valve through the ?ow control va1ve.
pressure 1:0 the brakes of said vehicle; pressure
»COI11ZI'OI valves in said. conduits between said pump
YURGEN Z. VON STACKELBERG.
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