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Патент USA US2409344

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Patented Oct. 15, 1946
David W. Young, Roselle, N. J., assignor, by
memo assignments, to Jason, Incorporated, a
corporation of Louisiana
No Drawing. Application sieptember'zll, 1041,
Serial N0. 411,651
3 Claims.
(Cl. 260*32)
The object of this invention is to formulate im
proved chemical-resistant coating compositions
essentially from thermoplastic hydrocarbon poly
mers of high chemical resistance and adequate -
physical properties with ingredients which give
theconiposi-tioh enhanced ?lm-forming qualities.
her‘ formed from the iso-mono-ole?n varies con
side‘rably according to the molecular weight.
The low’ molecular weight polymers are sticky
and viscous liquids. As their molecular Weights
increase, the polymers undergo a transition un
til they finaliy become tough, elastic, ‘solids hav
ing‘ substantial tensile strength.
0h the basis of penetration data, a critical
The use of chemical-resistant ?exible coatings
for weatherproo?ng materials, such as brick, con
crete, felts, fabrics, stone, wood, tiles, etc., espe~
ciall-y for protecting metals against corrosion,
‘change occurs when the molecular weight of
the polyb'utene type polymers is increased to
‘has risen- in importance and has encouraged‘ re
_ about 27,500 as determined by the Staudinger
search in determining how synthetic thermoplas
tic materials can be utilized most advantageously
viscosity method (‘Der Aufbau der hochmcleku
laren Org; Verbindungen, C. A. 26,3513). In the
vicinity of this molecular weight, the penetration
A synthetic thermoplastic material found to be 15 is? drastically lowered, indicating a’ transition
for this purpose.
one of the most satisfactory in chemical proper
ties for resistance to ‘ageing, moisture penetrae
tion, and corrosive chemical action is a high
from a-viscous liquid to plastic solid state. Fur
thermore, the polymers ?nally acquire substan
tial tensile ‘strength and tensile expansion prop
erties when they have ‘a molecular Weight of at
least about 60,000. Then they become rubber
molecular Weight hydrocarbon ‘ polymer of the
p‘olybutene type.‘ Thist‘ype of polymer is corls‘ti
tuted principally of’ a recurring saturated
branched hydrocarbon unit in a' very long chain,
and therefore it is considered to be a substan
like, non-tacky, and avoid the cold flow tenden
cies of the plastic polymers having intermediate
molecular weights ranging from about 27,500 to
The polybutene polymers, which are formed
essentially from isobutene, are represented as
‘ It' is'the polybutene type thermoplastic poly
tially saturated hydrocarbon polymer.
more of substantial tensile strength, having m‘o->
lecular weights ranging upwardly from 60,000 to
as high as‘ about 300,000, more preferably“ with
constituted principally of the saturated recurring
branched unit:
these'monomers have the necessary high poly
merization-reactivity to Vform'the extremely long
average molecular weights between about_80_,000
and 150,000, which are suitable in'their physical
properties for the present purposes. These are
‘eased materials with speci?c gravities of about
0.93. They retain their elasticity in the tempera
The iso-mono-ole?ns having 4 to 5 carbon
atoms per molecule, particularly isobutylene, are
suitable for making this type of polymer, because
ture range of about ~30 to over +100° C. > They
chain “polymers of branched structure, ‘which
become plastic‘ at temperatures of about 220° C.
and above, and withstand thermal decomposition
until higher temperatures are reached, such as
see to 40050.
have good solubility in hydrocarbon solvents, ex;
ceptional inertness, and toughness.
’ These elastic solid polymers with pronounced
40 rubber-like properties» of expansibility and elas-v
In the polymerization of the iso-mono-ole?ns;
ticity, have other qualities which make for their
e. g., isobutylene, to obtain» polymers having the
versatile, use in‘ valuable'coating ?uids, as for in
desired properties, the temperatures of reaction‘
stance, high stability against water, oxidation by
air, and, decomposition by chemicals; remarkable
are very low, of the order of about-d0? C., +100°
Cqor lower, and thepolymerization is carried out
in the presence'of a highly active catalyst of a
Friedel-Crafts type, such as,~preferably, boron
rieties. These polymers have exceptional chem
?uoride, or aluminum chloride dissolved in‘ anon
ical vresistance against most of the common dilute
or concentrated acid and alkalies. Concentrated
reactive solvent of low- freezing point, such as
methyl chloride. The reaction- temperatures are
carefully‘controlled by the use of a refrigerating
diluent, and~the reactants used‘are of high purity,
i. e,, free from inhibiting. contaminants, or with
suitable promoters,
The physical nature of‘ the hydrocarbon poly
insulation to heat and electricity; good reception
and binding power for ?lling materials of all va
sulfuric acid,“ for example, does not materially‘v
affect this polymer for a long time at high tern-i
Advantageously, the elastic solid polybutenei
type polymers are soluble in volatile hydrocarbon
55 solvents which are among the most economical
The kinds of substances which have been found
to ful?ll the requirements for improving the
solvents obtainable. However, even low concen
trations of these high molecular weight polymers
dissolved in the hydrocarbon solvents form solu
film-forming qualities of the polybutene coating
tions which are extremely viscous, similar in con
sistency to masticated crude rubber. This high
thickening property has retarded the use of these
high molecular weight elastic solid polymers in
the coating industry.
Another objectionable characteristic that the
elastic solid polybutene type polymers have in a 10
pure solvent is a tendency to stretch or string
out, so that after the pure solvent solution is
applied to any solid surface and the solvent is
evaporated, the polymer is left in a stressed con
dition with a tendency to then become distorted,
much the same as in the manner that many gels
shrink or contract on drying, and a polymer ?lm
coating of this kind on drying becomes non
uniform in its covering and strength.
In accordance with the objects of this inven
compositions are volatile substances boiling be
low the end boiling point of the solvent, and
which will not dissolve by themselves the high
molecular weight polymer, but rather actually
precipitate the polymer out of solution in a pure
hydrocarbon solvent when added thereto under
normal conditions in certain concentrations
(above about 15%). These non-solvents are
polar organic compounds having dielectric con
stants substantially higher than the dielectric
constants of the polymers or of solvents for the
polymers. The effectiveness of these polar com
pounds for improving the ?lm-forming qualities
of the coating solutions, tends to increase with
the dielectric constant which, in general, should
be above 4, and preferably above 8, measured
at 20° C.
' Among the organic compounds which serve for
tion, I have established that the elastic solid poly
butenes, either with or without added pigments
or ?llers, can be used bene?cially in formulating
the present purposes as non-solvent modi?ers
are: chlorinated hydrocarbons, oxygenated hy
clrocarbons, more speci?cally the following:
coating compositions having enhanced flow and
?lming qualities by modifying solutions of these
polymers with effective compounds which them
methylene dichloride, ethylene dichloride, tri
chlorethane, tetrachlorethane, 2,2 -dichlorpro
pane, methanol, ethanol, and higher alkanols
selves are normally non-solvents for the polymer,
having less than about 7 carbon atoms per mole
but which in proper proportions, blend homoge
cule, esters having less than about '7 carbon
neously into a clear solution of the polymer.
Not only do these non-solvent modifying agents 30 atoms per molecule, such as iso-amyl formate
and butyl acetate, and low molecular weight
facilitate the painting or application of the coat
others. The list of these compounds may be
ing or paint composition to form a smooth con
extended a great deal further to include alde
tinuous ?lm on the most varied kinds of mate
hydes, ketones, nitrogen-containing compounds
rials, such as leather, paper, glass, wood, cloth,
stone, concrete, metal, wire, etc., by giving im 35 and sulfur-containing compounds, etc., which,
in general, have low molecular weights, high
proved ?uidity, but they have been ascertained
dielectric constants (4-8, preferably higher) and
to serve usefully in eliminating the objectionable
boil at a temperature above about 20° C. and
stringing characteristics which the polymer has
below about 200° C., and preferably below 150° C.
With no intention of being bound by any theory 40 Characteristic properties of the non-solvents
are shown with respect to the following repre
as to why or how the improvement is obtained
sentative examples:
by the use of the modifying agents which are
in a pure solvent.
normally non-solvents for the high molecular
weight polymers, it may be said that these agents
appear capable of preventing the polymer
molecules from “lining up” or orienting into a
net work of long rod shaped molecules. It has
been satisfactorily demonstrated that with these
agents in the polybutene coating compositions
or paints, the stringing from an air gun is 50
eliminated; also, the ?lm coatings of these com
positions avoid the formation of pin holes or
phenomenon, the long chain polymers behave
point at l
atn;., ° C.
at 20° C.
Methylene dichloride.
______________ _.
30. 8
Ethylene dichloride___
_____ . .
83. 7
S-tetrachlorethane. _ _ .
_____ _ .
146. 3
2—2, dichlorpropane .......... ._
70. 5
l0. 2
64. 5
30. 2
78. 3
______ _.
Ethanol. __ . _
n-Pentanol ._
unevenness when applied by spraying, brushing,
clipping, or spreading.
A characteristic of the polybutene type poly 55
mers employed for the present purposes is ex
hibited in their thickening effect. In this
137. 9
13. 7
128. 7
15. 4
Ethyl ether _____________________________ _ _
34. 6
4. 3
Mesity] oxide“
From a study of a large number of compounds
for their effects as volatile non-solvent modi?ers,
it was observed that those which could be suit
ably used have substantially complete immisci
as if they are long rod-shaped molecules which
bility with the solid polymers at ordinary tem
rotate to ?ll an effective spherical volume much 60 peratures in the range of 0° F. to 100° F. and act
larger than their actual molecular volume. I
as precipitants when added in amounts above
have found that this effective volume of the
those desired to a solution of the polymers in
polymers in solution is considerably reduced by
this temperature range.
the non-solvent modi?ers, as illustrated by the
A test procedure found convenient for prede
following data:
Grams polybutene (104,000 M. wt.) per
100 ml. solvent
65 termining whether a polar organic compound has
in centi
stnkcs at
100° F.
adequate non-solvent action on the polymer con
sists simply in dissolving a quantity of the pol
ymer in a clear colorless solvent, such as naph
tha or kerosene,-e. g., 10% by weight of the pol
70 ymer in 25 cc. of the solvent, then adding, with
slight agitation, to the resulting solution the polar
organic compound to be tested. If the polar
organic compound added in an amount exceed
ing about 15% causes precipitation of the pol
75 ymer from the solution observed from the for
‘mation of turbidity or separation of the ‘polymer,
ing, drying, stabilizing, ‘or hardening may be
at ‘about room temperature, then the ‘polar or
ganic compound is indicated to have the desired
added, as desired.
The compositions thus obtained are entirely
satisfactory in a practical way for coating a
large variety of materials such as those previ
ously mention. They are easily applied so as to
non-solvent property. However, while the polar
compounds 1ham‘ng ‘slowest. miscibility with the
polymer, tend to be the ‘most 'e?‘ect'ive modi?ers,
it is also important that effective amounts of
form smooth, uniform coating which adhere
such polarcomp‘ounds be restricted, l. e., to about
tenaciously to these various bases when the com
‘5 to 15% and be capable of blending homoge
position dries. They have a very important
neous‘ly into the clear polymer solution without 10 characteristic of retaining the polymer stable
causing turbidity, in order to have the solution
homogeneously dissolved for a very long time.
remain stably homogeneous.
For the purpose of further illustrating the in
‘The polymer solvents to be used ‘in the coat‘
vention, the ‘following examples are given of typ
ing compositions may be of ‘any preferred type
ical coating; and paint formulations made in ac
sui?ciently volatile to vaporize ‘readily’ and ‘be 15 cordance with the present invention:
capable of meeting any other technical require
The following examples relate to the use of
ments with regard to non-toxicity, ?ash point,
the polymers having molecular weights of the
odor, insolubility in water, stability, etc.
order of 80,000 to 150,000 in compositions which
Among the types of solvents found useful may
form a clear ?nish:
be mentioned: pure low boiling para?ins, oleiins, 20
Erample 1
naphthenes, and aromatics; petroleum ether,
gasoline, solvent naphtha, kerosene, and other
.Per cent
non-polar substances boiling ‘ in the range of
Po-lybutene (104,000 M. W.) ______________ __ 12
about 20° C. to about 250° C., e, g., low dielectric
constant chlorinated hydrocarbons, e. g., carbon 25
Butyl acetate __________________________ _-.__ 10
50% benzene-I-50% .CCli _____ __. ___________ __ 78
Example 2
tetrachloride, n-amyl ether, and the like.
Characteristic properties of the solvents are
Per cent
shown in the following representative examples:
'Polyhutene v(120,000 ‘M. 'W;)___‘_ __________ __ 15
Calcium salt ‘of tort-‘amYl-phenol sul?de____Toluene
at 20° 0.
n-Hexane _______________________________ -_
n-Octane ____ ._
point at .
' latm., ° 0.
Example 3
.‘Per cent
1. S7
125. 75
1. 96
Polybutene (“120,000 ‘M. W.) ______________ __ 15
2. 05
Polystyrene resin _____‘___________________ __
80. 8
. 79. 6
2. 28
2. 57
Carbon tetrachloride ____ __
Trichlorethylene _____________________ _ _
61. 2
86. 7
3. 4
n-Amyl ether ___________________________ . .
3. 1
_ ..
Acetyl methylaniine ______________________ M
68. 75
164. 6
Xylene . _ ._ _
Mesitylene_.___ _ _
________________________________ __ 8
Mesityl oxide ____________________________ __
Earample 4
e. g., oil-soluble phenol formaldehyde resins, as
Per cent
Polybutene (87,500 M. W.) ________________ __
Cetyl methacrylate resin (about 50,000 M.
Various kinds of solid ?llers, inert minerals, or
pigments which may be suspended or homege
neously dispersed in the coating solution are, for
example, ?nely divided titanium dioxide, silica,
zinc oxide, clay, talcum, chalk, barium sulfate,
asbestos powder, calcium sulfate, calcium sul?te,
leather waste, cork, etc. Compatible solid resins,
________________________________ __ '76
"W.) __________________________________ __
Nickel salt of tert-amyl-phenol sul?de ____ __10.5
Petroleum ether _________________________ __
Methyl alcohol __________________________ __
The following example relates to a coating com
phalts, etc, may be added. Wetting agents 50 position containing white‘ pigment which forms
such as soaps, sulfonates, phenols and pheno
lates, particularly calcium or barium salts of di
a non-chalking white enamel-like coating:
Example 5
isobutyl and di-tert-amyl-phenol sul?de may be
included in the composition to assist the polymer
Polybutene (104,000 M. W.) ______________ __ 7
in wetting and bonding itself to metals or metal 55 T102 ___________________________________ _. 18
lic compounds, and to make suspended ?lling
___________________________________ __
Solvent naphtha __________________________ __ 60
material remain permanently in suspension.
Ethylene dichloride ______________________ _- 10
In preparing the coating compositions, it is
preferred to use the ingredients in the following
The following examples relate to compositions
proportions by weight, viz., about 2 to 15% by 60 suitable for use in making black linings for metal
weight of the polymer dissolves in the volatile
tanks and coatings for concrete:
solvent with about 4 to 15% of the non-solvent
Example 6
Per cent
homogeneously blended in the polymer solution.
The 'solid ?llers or pigments are preferably added
Polybutene (104,000 M. W.) ______________ __ 15
in amounts of about 5 to 40% by weight of the 65 Carbon black ____________________________ __ 25
composition. ‘The wetting agents are added in
Wetting agent __________________________ _,__ 1
minor proportions of about 1 to 2% by weight.
Solvent naphtha_____‘ ____________________ __ 55
The proportions may be varied depending upon
Iso-propyl alcohol _______________________ __ 4
the eiiectiveness of the particular non-solvent
Emmple 7.
Per cent
modi?er and upon the other ingredients used;
also, the proportions may vary somewhat de
Polybutene (87,500 M. W.) ________________ __ 12
pending on the desired consistency for any given
Soft carbon black ________________________ __ 12
type of application. In addition to types of in
Amyl-phenyl-ethy1-thiophosphite ________ __
gredients mentioned, others employed in small
Kerosene _______________________________ __ 70
amounts, such as agents for dyeing, plasticiz 75 Ethyl alcohol ____________________________ _- 5
Per cent
Soft carbon black _____________________ __ 15
sodium sulfonate of oxidation wax acids___
Heavy solvent naphtha ________________ __ 66.75
Methyl alcohol ________________________ __ ‘8.0
Example 9
Per cent
Polybutene (100,000 M. W.) _______________ _point)
________________________________ __ 35
Tert-butyl ether of o-tert butyl-p-cresol_-___
________________________________ __ 54
Isopropyl alcohol ________________________ __
an alkanol having 1 to 3 carbon atoms per mole
cule dissolved in said volatile hydrocarbon liquid
with the polybutenes, remaining parts of the
Polybutene (87,500 M. W.) _____________ -1 15
drocarbon liquid, and 4 to 8 parts by weight 01’
Example 8
It is to be understood that the examples are
composition being a suspended solid ?ller with a
small amount of a wetting agent.
2. A chemical-resistant and non-tacky ?lm
forming paint composition comprising in 100
parts by weight of the composition 12 to 15 parts
by weight of the polybutenes having molecular
weights between 60,000 and 300,000 as deter
mined by the Staudinger viscosity method, 55 to
70 parts by weight of a volatile hydrocarbon sol
vent for said polybutenes, and 4 to 8 parts by
weight of an alkanol having 1 to 3 carbon atoms
per molecule dissolved in said solvent with the
polybutenes, remaining parts of the composition
themerely illustrative of speci?c embodiments
being 12 to 25 parts by weight of suspended car
of the invention and is not intended to be limited
bon black and a small amount of a wetting agent
20 in the resulting solution.
3. A chemical-resistant and non-tacky ?lm
The present invention is not to be limited to
forming black paint composition comprising in
any theory nor to any speci?c composition given
100 parts by weight of the composition 15 parts
for the purpose of illustration, for there are
by weight of polybutenes having molecular
widely varying modi?cations which come within
weights between 60,000 and 300,000 as determined
the spirit of the invention as de?ned in the ap
pended claims.
I claim:
by the Staudinger viscosity method, 55 parts by
weight of solvent naphtha, and 4 parts by
weight of isopropyl alcohol dissolved in the sol
1. A chemical-resistant and non-tacky ?lm
vent naphtha with the polybutenes, remaining
forming paint composition comprising in 100
parts by weight of the composition about 12 to 30 parts of the composition being 25 parts by weight
of suspended carbon black with about 1 part by
15 parts by weight of polybutenes having molec
ular weights between 60,000 and 300,000 as de
Weight of a wetting agent.
termined by the Staudinger viscosity method,
about 55 to '70 parts by weight of a volatile hy
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