Patented Oct. 15, 1946 2,409,367 UNITED `STATES PATENT oFFlcE ' PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Charles W. Leguillon and Carroll P. Krupp, Akron, Ohio, assignors to The B. F. Goodrich Company, New York, N. Y., la corporation of New York ì Application September 22, 1942, Serial No. 459,266 1I) Claims. This invention relates to protective clothing and especially to suits of water-tight construc tion substantially enclosing and protecting the wearer’s body against objectionable exposure, including flotation suits. ` Under some conditions of shipwreck, sailors are forced to jump into the water and to en deavor to remain afloat until rescued. It is de sirable to provide effective protection for the personnel against the weather and the water dur~ ing such an emergency. While the invention is useful especially in the construction of flotation suits for mariners, it is applicable in many of its features also to other (Cl. 2--82) 2 In order to protect the wearer against objec tionable and harmful exposure, it is desirable that Va flotation suit I0, such as is shown in Fig. 1, en close completely the wearer’s body, except for his face, in a'substantially water-tight manner. The suit Il) includes, accordingly, a headpiece II which is integral with an outer covering I2 for the body or torso and the limbs including the hands and feet. Preferably, the head piece II having an open ing for the'face fits snugly against the head of the wearer and is made of flexible material which may be stockinet fabric impregnated or coated with a suitable water-proofing substance such forms of protective clothing such as sleeping as Va rubber-like or other plastic material. bags, jackets, and wading suits for Sportsmen, fire ñghters, suits, and other complete or partial slackness IIa in the headpiece Il at the back A of the neck in the region of joinder with a torso portion I3 is desirable to permit freedom of head movement. The headpiece Il is joined integrally Objects of the invention are to provide for clothing effectively protecting the wearer’s body 20 with the torso portion I3 by sewing, or by a suit able adhesive such as rubber cement, or both. against objectionable exposure, to provide effec The outer covering l2 is generally loosely fit tively for water-tightness together with ease of ting with considerable fullness in the torso por donning and dofling the clothing, to providecon tion I3, to‘permit the wearer to be fully clothed venient access to the interior of the suit afloat, and to provide comfort to the wearer. 25 with auxiliary flotation means such as an in flatable vest or belt and to permit access to the Further objects are to provide simplicity of interior of the suit by withdrawing the arms construction, and to provide for convenience of from sleeves 3l and 32. This covering is made manufacture, and convenience and effectiveness of strong, flexible and substantially water-tight of operation. body coverings. . Still further objects are to provide for admit ting a portion of the wearer’s body into the cloth ing, and to provide for substantially sealing an opening therein against leakage. These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following de scription. 30 material and may be made of duck fabric having an impregnation or coating of rubber-like or other suitable plastic material. For facilitating donning the suit Iû, there is provided a neck opening having marginal por tions Ida and Ido and a divided front portion IEa and I5b in the outer covering IZ‘. ` The front portion I5@ and I5?) of the torso portion I 3 is split centrally and downwardly from the neck opening part of this specification, and in which like to approximately the crotch of a trouser portion numerals are employed to designate like parts throughout the same, 40 I2a., and the margins Ißa and Iiìb thereof are joined detachably by a slide fastener I1 or other Fig. 1 is a front view of a flotation suit in suitable fastening means. ' cluding a headpiece constructed in accordance In the accompanying drawings, which form a with and embodying the invention, parts being ' It is desirable that the divided front portion broken away and in section, I5a and I5b andthe neck opening be sealed in y Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the suit showing 45 some suitable manner `so as toirender the suit l0 water-tight. To this end an extensible front the margin of the neck opening in a closed and portion I8 of flexible and substantially water contracted condition, i tight material, which is lighter in weight and Fig. 3 is a view like Fig. 2 except that the suit more ñexible than the outer covering I2, is se is in a fully closed condition, Fig. 4 is a rear View of the suit showing the 50 cured to the inside of the margins I lia and `Ifib of the covering I2 along the lines I9 and 2t and pocket in an inflated condition, parts ' being to a margin 2i ofthe opening in the headpiece broken away and in section, II by sewing, or a suitable adhesive like rubber Fig. 5 is a view taken along line 5-5 of Fig` cement, or both, as shown in Fig. .1.. The front 1, and Fig. 6 is a view on an enlarged scale taken 55 portion I8 has considerable fullness, especially in the upper reaches thereof, whereby it may be along line 6--6 of Fig. 2. ` ` 2,409,367 3 4 extended outwardly thus defining a large opening for admitting the wearer’s body, and in the closed wardly through an aperture in the exterior wall of the strip 24, the aperture being reinforced condition providing an ample air pocket for by a grommet 2B and a fabric patch 30. When buoyancy. In the extended condition of the the suit ID is in the closed condition, as shown portion I8, which is continuous across its width Cn in Fig. 3, the looped portion 26a of the draw between its attachments at I9 and 2a and, like string 26 is disposed in the space between the a bag or pouch, has considerable fullness, may extensible front portion I8 and the margins Ißa droop as shown in Fig. 1, but may be folded and and I6b of the divided front portion I5a and I5b. drawn up to its closed position closer to the In the operation of donning the suit Iíl, the wearer as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. 1,0 wearer first places the divided front portion I5a During closure of the divided front portion I5a and I5b in a fully opened condition by manipu and |517, the extensible portion I8 is disposed lating the slide fastener I'I downwardly thus inside the outer covering I2 in a plurality of disengaging the margins Iöa and |619 whereby a overlapping folds, bellows fashion. It also has V-shaped opening is formed, as shown in Fig. l, substantial fullness in a portion 22 thereof adja and extends the bellows-like extensible front cent the neck of the wearer and extending be portion I3 outwardly to its maximum fullness, yond the margins I4a and I4b of the outer cover including the marginal portions 23 and the folded ing I2, as shown in Fig. 3, to permit freedom of strip 24. Then grasping the torso portion I3 in head movement. . the region of the neck opening, the wearer in It is desirable that a marginal portion 23 of 20 serts his body, feet first, through this opening the extensible front portion I8 defining the open largely defined by the front portion I8, and pulls ing for admitting the wearer’s body be adapted the outer covering I2 up over his shoulders, for arrangement into a plurality of elements thereafter inserting the arms into sleeve por -preferably a multiplicity thereof, in overlapping tions 3I and 32. and closely contacting relationship, preferably 25 Next the headpiece II is pulled on over the in the form o-f plaits 25 or flat folds, in order to head and the margin of the neck opening in the provide for substantially sealing against the neck, front portion I8 is contracted by grasping the when so positioned, thus preventing the entrance looped portion 26a of the draw-string 26 and of water into the suit ID. sliding the clamp 28 upwardly until the folded We have found that this may be accomplished 30 strip 24 is positioned in a plurality of overlapping satisfactorily by utilizing a folded strip 24 or and closely contacting plaits 25 against the neck. flattened tube of soft, iiexible and substantially This contraction of the strip 24 permits arrang water-ti-ght material, such as a closely woven, ing the extensible front portion I8 in loosely smoothly finished rayon fabric or fabric lightly overlapping folds extending downwardly in the impregnated with rubber or other suitable rna 35 space defined by the margins IEa and IEb of the terial, which is more flexible and is lighter in divided front portion I5a and |51). In fact, owing weight than` the material of the extensible front to the ability of the draw-string 26 to hold the portion I8. The strip 24 is attached to the mar front portion of the suit in, the margins Iûa, |61; gins 2| and 23 of the headpiece Il and the ex need not be brought together or attached except tensible front I8, respectively, by sewing, as shown 40 for added protection and neatness. in Fig. 1, the strip 24 extending along the upper In the arrangement illustrated in Figs. 2, 3 and margin 23 of the front portion I8 continuously 6, the draw-string 26 being under tension presses from one margin 2l of the headpiece to the other the plaits 25 inwardly against the ñeshy part of margin thereof and the strip 24 is of sufficient the neck adjacent and below the jawbone, and depth to permit the desired puckering or folding also it pulls downwardly upon the patches 2l into a multiplicity of plaits 25 in order to present causing the margin 2l of the headpiece II to collectively a succession of the bent edges of the fit snugly against the forehead and the cheeks, plaits stacked against one another and in edge all of which is accomplished without discomfort on relation to the wearer’s neck to obtain a sub to the wearer. By virtue of the inward pressure stantially continuous sealing surface against a - of the string 26, the plaits 25, being of soft, yield neck portion 33 of the wearer by virtue 0f the able material, are bent into an overlapping and yieldability and closely contacting condition of the material, which puckering and contracting contacting relation to one another thus provid of the strip 24 to form a plurality of closely con tacting plaits is effected by means of drawing the strip 24 along a draw-string 26 within the fold at the margin of the strip 24. Fig. 6 illus trates more in detail the sealing surface thus obtained. Owing to the softness of the material the plaits 25 lie close to each other and close to 60 the skin of the wearer and it has been found that this action, especially in the fleshy region under the chin, provides a substantially water-tight seal without uncomfortable tautness of a draw string 26. The iiexible draw-string 26, for example a braided hemp or linen cord, is disposed within and in association with the folded strip 24, as shown especially in Figs, 1, 5 and 6, the ends of ing a substantially continuous sealing surface contiguous with the neck, and since they are also in a closely contacting condition throughout their width, a substantially fluid-tight seal of the neck opening is obtained. After positioning the looped portion 26a of the string 26 adjacent the outside of the extensible front portion I8, the margins Ißa and I6b of the outer covering I2 are joined together by engag ing the slide fastener I1. The fullness of the front portion I8 permits a bulge in that part ex tending above the margins I4a and |41?, as shown in Fig. 3, which assists in protecting the plaited strip 24 against water spray. The flotation suit I 0 is thus placed in a closed condition. The wearer may squat to expel excessive air from the suit prior to jumping into the water, the string being attached to patches 21 secured 70 and by jumping feet first with the arms close in a Suitable manner as by sewing, to the upper reaches of and at each side of the helmet II adjacent the margin 2l. The draw-strin-g has a middle section in the form of a looped portion 26a having a sliding clamp 28, and it extends out to the sides or brought together over the head he may jump from considerable height without undue concussion and without taking water into the suit. In an emergency, the closure of the 75 divided front portion I5@ and I’5b by operating 2,409,367 5 " ' 6, the slide fastener may be dispensed with With outV appreciably altering the water-tightness of the suit'. ' ' v , , For maintaining the wearer in an upright posi tion in the water when he is equipped with auxiliary notation means such as an inflatable vest or belt, the feet of the suit l0 may be weighted, if desired. The headpiece il» and the hands of the suitv may be of a distinctive color, such as yellow, for ready identification of the 10 wearer. Thel flotation suit l0 may, if desired, be pro yieldabil'ity and closely folded condition of said material, a draw-string disposed in` said margin for thus puckering and positioning the latter, said draw-string being detachably secured to each side of the headpiece at' the upper front reaches there of in a manner to‘draw'said flat-folds against the neck- and to dra-w theA headpiece down upon the head, and means for detachably securing together said> outside portions of the suit in a manner to enclose said extensible portion in a contracted condition, 3. A flotation suit including an integral head vided with an integral flotation means such as piece and torso portion having flexible walls of an inflatable pocket or air bag 34. A wall por tiony 34a is made of flexibleï material and may be substantially water-tight material and includingrv separable outside portions ofthe front thereof, said torso portion having an extensible front portion within said outside portions in the region rubber-like or other plastic material. v The wall of said»Y headpiece, said suit having an opening 34a is secured` to the outer covering I2 by sew therein defined inV part by said- extensible front ing, or` an adhesive such as rubber cement, or 20 portion and in part by said headpiece for ad mitting the wearer’s body, the extensible por both. Preferably, the air bag 3:4 is disposed adjacent tion of said torso portion at the opening compris the shoulders upon the torso portion I3 in the ’ ing a margin of soft, flexible and substantially manner shown in Fig. 1 to. provide for a center water-tight material contractible into a plurality of buoyancy of the suit IVD whi-ch permits elimi 25 of overlapping plaits, the plaits being in contact nating the need for the expedient of weighting substantially throughout their width and‘being positionable against the wearer’s neck to present the feet. A suitable valve 35 and tube 35 en able the pocket or air bag. 34 to be conveniently a substantially continuous sealing surface across inflated either before or after the wearer jumps the` plaits by virtue of the yieldability and closely into the water. plaited condition of said material-Q` a draw-string Variations may be made without departing ` disposed in said margin >for- thus contracting and made of a woven fabric impregnated or coated with a suitable water-proof substance such as a from the scope of the invention as it is defined positioning said margin, said draw-string being in the following claims. We claim: l. A flotation suit including an integral head detachably secured to each side of the headpiece at the upper front reaches thereof ina manner 35 to draw said plaits against the neck and to draw piece and torso‘portion having flexible walls of the headpiece down upon the head, and slide> substantially water-tight material and including fastener means extending along said outside por separable outside portions at the front thereof, tions for bringing together said outside portions said torso portion having an extensible front por tion within said outside portions in the. region 40 of the suit in a manner to enclose said extensible of said headpiece and an opening inthe region of the neck for admitting the wearer’s body, said suit at the opening comprising amargin of sub stantially water-tight material relatively soft and flexible as compared to said material of the torso portion and puckerable into a multiplicity portion in a contracted condition, 4. A flotation suit including a headpiece open at the face thereof and a, torso portion of sub stantially VWater-tight flexible material and hav ing an opening defined by said headpiece and said torsofportion for admitting the wearer’s body, the headpiece comprising a neck covering open at the front providing continuity of open front in said torso portion, neck covering and head tionable in edge-on relation against the wearer’s piece and having fullness at the back for freedom neck for presenting a substantially continuous 50 of movement of the wearer’s head, said suit at sealing surface across the flat, folds by virtue of the opening comprising a margin across and the yieldability and closely folded condition of terminating at the forward margins of the open said relatively soft and flexible material, a draw front of said neck covering, said margin compris string disposed in said margin and secured to ing a multiplicity of substantially flat elements of each side of the headpiece at the ear region there a substantially water-tight material (relatively of for thus puckering and positioning the latter, soft and flexible as compared to the material of and means for detachably securing together said the torso portion and adapted to lie in overlap outside portions of the suit in a manner to en ping relationship and in extensive contact, one close said exensible portion in a contracted con with another, the edges of said elements being dition. 00 collectively positionable against one another in 2. A flotation suit including an integral head edge-on relation to the wearer’s neck beneath piece and torso portion having flexible walls of the lower jaw to present a substantially continu vsubstantially water-tight material and includ ous sealing surface across the edges of the ele of overlapping and contacting flat folds and the bent edges of the folds being collectively posi ing separable outside portions at the front there ments at the neck of the wearer, and means in of, said torso portion having an extensible front 65 association with said elements for thus position portion within said outside portions in the region ing said margin in the overlapping and contact of said headpiece and an opening in the region ing relationship of said elements. of the neck for admitting the wearer’s body, said 5. A protective suit comprising a body covering suit at the opening comprising a margin of soft, including a portion of relatively heavy flexible iiexible and substantially water-tight material material and a second portion of lighter and more puckerable into a plurality of overlapping and flexible material than that of the first said por contacting flat folds positionable -against the -tion and said covering having an opening therein defined by the first and second said portions for wearer’s neck in the fleshy region beneath the admitting the wearer, said second portion being of lower jaw to present a substantially continuous substantial fullness to facilitate entry of the sealing surface across said folds by Virtue ofthe 2,409,367 7 wearer, the margin of the opening at said second portion comprising a third portion of mate rial of still greater flexibility as compared to that of the material of the first and second said por tions, and means in association with said margin neath the jaw and along Ythe same, said means being disposed at each side of the headpiece and being secured thereto in a manner such that under the contraction by said means said mate rial will be drawn against the neck upward toward for holding the margin against the wearer and for gathering said second portion and said third portion in against the wearer. 6. A protective suit comprising a headpiece, a the head downward toward the jaw. 9. A notation suit comprising a headpiece hav ing an open face, a torso portion having ñexible torso portion having flexible walls, said suit hav ing an opening therein defined in part by said torso portion and in part by said headpiece for admitting the wearer, the margin of said torso portion at the opening comprising soft flexible material adapted by virtue of its softness and ñexibility to be pressed against the wearer’s neck the head and the headpiece will be drawn upon walls of substantially water-tight material, said suit having a front opening therein deñned in part by said torso portion and in part by said headpiece for admitting the wearer, said opening providing a continuously open front through the torso portion, the neck region and the face of the headpiece, the margin of said torso portion to present a substantially continuous sealing sur at said opening comprising soft flexible sheet face along said margin conforming to the neck, material contractible in a multiplicity of close and means extending along said margin for thus folds to present a substantally continuous sealing pressing said material against the wearer’s neck, 20 surface along said margin conforming to the neck said means being disposed at each side of the by virtue of the yieldability and closely folded headpiece and being secured thereto in a manner condition of said sheet material, and means in such that under the action of said means said cluding a draw-string extending along said material will be drawn against the neck upward margin for thus contracting said sheet material toward the head and the headpiece will be drawn 25 against the wearer’s neck immediately beneath upon the head downward toward the neck. ì the jaw and along the same, said draw-string be '7. A protective suit comprising a headpiece, a ing secured to each side of the headpiece in a torso portion having flexible walls, said suit having manner such that under the contraction by said an opening therein deñned in part by said torso means said sheet material will be drawn against portion and in part by said headpiece for admit 30 the neck upward toward the head andthe head ting the wearer, the margin of said torso portion piece will be drawn upon the head downward at the opening comprising soft flexible material toward the jaw. contractible to present a substantially continuous 10. A protective suit including an integral head sealing surface along said margin conforming to piece and torso portion and having an open face the neck, and means extending along said margin in the headpiece and a front opening deñned by for drawing said material against the wearer’s the headpiece and the torso portion and including neck immediately beneath the jaw and along the the open face of the headpiece for admitting the same, said means being disposed at each side wearer, said opening providing a continuously of the headpiece and being secured thereto in a open front through the torso portion, the neck manner such that under the action of said means region and the face of the headpiece, the margin said material will be drawn against the neck of the torso portion at said opening comprising upward toward the head and the headpiece will soft flexible material across and terminating at be drawn upon the head downward toward the the forward margins of the open face of said head `law. piece and puckerable into a multiplicity of sub 8. A protective suit comprising a headpiece, a stantiallyr flat folds in overlapping relationship, torso portion having flexible walls, said suit having said folds being in contact with one another sub an opening therein defined in part by said torso stantially throughout their width and collectively portion and in part by said headpiece for admit presenting a succession of bent edges positionable ting the wearer, the margin of said torso portion in edge-on relation to the neck of the wearer to at the opening comprising soft flexible sheet 50 present a substantially continuous sealing surface material contractible in a multiplicity of close across said bent edges of the folds by virtue of the folds to present a substantially continuous seal yieldability and closely folded condition of said ing surface along said margin conforming to the material, and means in association with said folds neck by virtue of the yieldability and closely folded for thus positioning and puckering the margin. condition of said material, and means extending 55 along said margin for thus contracting said mate CHARLES W. LEGUILLON. rial against the wearer’s neck immediately be CARROLL P. ICRUPP.