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Патент USA US2409381

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Oct. 15, 1946.
H. J. NICHOLS
.
SPOTTING PROJECTILES
Filed March 21, 1925
2,409,380
‘ I
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
2,it9,380
UNHTE'ED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE
2,409,380
SPOT'I‘ING PROJECTILES
PHarry J. ‘Nichols, Washingtomfl). .C.,. assignor t0
the United States of America, as represented by
the Secretary of the Navy
Application March 21, 1925, Serial No. 17,427
Renewed November 19,1925
24 Claims.
:1
This .invention relates to improvements in
method of and apparatus forspotting projectiles,
and it more speci?cally relates to double duty
projectiles which accomplish their purpose if they
‘reach their objective, and when they miss their
objective they-are made to .serve the important
,function of indicatingtheir point of impact upon
the surface of the‘ water such that it may be visible
long distances and for a substantial period of time
[after such impact to aid indirecting subsequent
projectiles to their objective.
-.In Patent No. 1,451,395, to Olaf M. Hustvedt
(Cl. 102—"60)
emerging througha plurality of holes’ or‘vvents
positioned "radially 'around thebase or skirt of
the windshield.
Other objects-will be inxpart obvious or in part
pointed out in connection with the accompany~
.ing‘tdrawing which. showsv two‘ of the various; Pos
sibleembodiments of the invention, and wherein
like parts are. denoted-by corresponding reference
‘characters.
Figure 1 is a longitudinal view of the frontend
of an armor-piercing ‘projectile embodying the
improvements and principles of the invention.
and Harry ‘J . Nichols, this type of projectile is de
Figure 2 is a similar view‘ of ‘at-target projectile
scribed and its objects and uses stated-at length.
*?ttedwith‘a windshield adapting it-ior use z’asia
In this previous patent, the arrangement proposed 15 spotting projectile.
was inbrief to have an ejection charge positioned
:Referring .now to the‘ drawing in :detail, *and
v‘forwardly of a coloring chargewithin a chamber
‘more particularly vto Figure 1, ll designates the
ofthe projectile, said chamber-being closed rear
forward bodyportion- of’my improved projectile,
‘wardly by a removable baseplug and an igniting
containinglan explosive-chamber closed at the
means for the rejection charge‘ causing the color— .20 rearby a base plug-Landfuse,all of- the usualv con
:ing charge to be ejected rearwardly 'from .the
struction ‘ and requiring -no detailed showing or
projectile at the moment of impact. -While such
description.
construction, when provided‘with ‘a suitable-ig
The point "of “the *armor piercing ‘projectile - 4
niter or'fuse, accomplished the objects-of the in
may be protected by a cap 5, secured to the‘ body
vention, it'was'open to the objection that these "25 in'any desired'way, as for example by the hooks
parts. occupied most of the space in the projectile,
.6 engaging in' a ' recess extending about said pro
.so that the'proje'ctiles when so constructed, while
jectile near‘ithe base :ofitspoint. The cap :5‘is
‘valuable for ?re control, were of little value :as
surmounted ‘by a'windshield l, :of :any'de'sired
missles or explosive carriers.
shape to ‘bring the'completed ‘projectile to an
‘It is therefore one object of the present inven
external streamline form. ,This‘windshield '1 is
tion to improve on the method of spotting and
provided 'with'a cavityf8 containing'the coloring
construction of the projectile shownin the above
charge l9. The windshield may be secured to the
patent and. to provide a simple'method of. spotting
cap‘ orbody of the projectile, in any way, as vfor
and the preferred form of apparatusior prac
example bythetthreaded joint II] as shown. The
ticing said method which will enable the objects
windshield may be integral‘ with the’ cap, - or: even
of the spotting projectile to be realized in a re
the body, but forbest results should be strongly
liable manner without diminishing the usual ex
attached "to the projectile Isoas ‘not to be 'dis
plosive carrying capacity of the projectile.
lodged when the projectile'strikes the‘ water.
Another object of the present invention'is to
The windshield ‘lihas at its'front'end an aper
provide a construction which is particularly 40 ture ‘I! closed externallyzby a frangible disc 12,
adapted for use with armor-piercing.projectiles,
sealing'the cavityi?. This disc’l2 may be heldlin
whereby the armor-piercing projectile may func
place ‘by “soldering in’ a ‘recess as ‘shown, or .by
tion as a spotting projectile without sacri?cing
other suitable means,‘ or it may be integral with
any of its attributes as anarmor-piercing pro
the windshield,twhich 'may'be‘made thin at the
jectile.
'
45 point so as to be readily pierced by the pressure
Another object is to eliminate the explosive or
of‘the water Qn'impact. Around the lower-edge
ejection charge, and fuse'or igniter, thereby sim
plifying the construction, increasing reliability
and decreasing cost of manufacture.
Broadly speaking, in the'apparatus sense the
‘invention provides a cap or windshield fora pro
jectile, adapted to contain a coloring charge,
which charge is dispersed into the surrounding
water-by the action ofa jet of Water entering the
windshield through an aperture at the pointand
or skirt-of ‘the windshield '1 ‘are a number of
radial vholes or vents-5i 3 closed by detachable plugs
or'discs M. These lplugs M are ‘mounted in
'counterbored portions of the vents by peening
the metal of the windshield"! lightlyaround their
periphery as shown, ‘or in any other desired
manner. The essentialrequirement
that-the
coloring charge :9 be ‘retained 'Within the cav
‘ity ‘{3 against ‘the ‘tendency of ‘set-back force .in
2,409,380
3
the gun and centrifugal force during flight to
throw the coloring material from the windshield
‘E. When the projectile strikes the water, the
vents it or equivalent must be capable of open
ing by internal pressure created by Water entering
at the point through the aperture l 5, thereby per
mitting the egress of the coloring charge.
On Figure 2 is shown a target projectile modi
?ed for use as a spotting projectile by being
?tted with a windshield embodying the principles
of the present invention. The parts are substan
tially the same as above described except the cap
5 of Figure 1 is omitted and the windshield se
4
pact, While the cap mushrooms against and facili
tates the piercing of the armor.
However the
primary object of this invention is to enable the
ready detection of the point of impact of pro
jectiles that miss their objective in order that
succeeding projectiles may be more accurately
directed to their objective through the informa
tion afforded for a substantial period by the ex
tensive volume of water colored and sprayed by
the impact of the projectile or projectiles that
miss their objective.
Projectiles usually strike the Water downwardly,
and at a high velocity, and the coloring charge
must be of substantial volume and must be dis
cured directly to the body of the projectile; the
same parts being designated‘by the same reference 15 charged instantaneously as otherwise the pro
characters with the addition of a.
.
From the foregoing description, in connection
with the accompanying drawing, the operation
jectile will penetrate the water to such depth’
that little, if any, appreciable trace of the coloring
will appear in the splash or upon the surface in
time to be of value. The force of the impacted
Water fractures the wall ‘I at the predetermined
and weakened places and areas represented by
of my improved projectile is as follows:
On striking the water, the disc [2, see Figure 1
(or lza), is pierced by the water pressure admit
the members l2 and I4, and instantly expels the
ting a jet of water into the cavity 8 (or 8a)
coloring charge from the fractured openings M
through the aperture H (or Ila). The entering
which are of an area equal or in excess of the‘
jet of water creates a high pressure within the
windshield ‘l forcing out the plugs hi (or Illa), 25 fractured water-entering opening l2. At sea
projectiles that miss their objectives impact in
thereby opening up the series of vents for the
the water, this invention affords unfailing means
egress of the water. The water carries the color
for detecting said point of impact for a substan
charge 9 (or 9a) through the vents l3, ejecting
tial period and from a substantial distance.
it into the water surrounding the projectile,
The front relatively blunt end of cap 5, form
which Water goes to make up the splash of the 30
ing the rear wall of the coloring charge retaining
projectile. The water entering through the aper
chamber 7. enables said chamber to be made of
ture H (or Ha) is under great pressure due to
substantial size in affording an e?icient stream
the relative velocity of vthe projectile and the
line effect to the pigment containing wind-shield
body of water into which it is plunged and
scours the coloring material .from the cavity 8 35 point of the shell.
The members l2 and I4 are moistureproof in
with great force, the tapering front end of cap
themselves and are provided with moistureproof
5, Figure l (or of shell end Ila of Figure 2), aids
mountings in their respective openings II and 13
in directing the colored water to the discharge
in order to normally prevent moisture getting into
openings l3 outwardly and rearwardly from the
projecting shell, This scouring action facilitates 40 and deteriorate or drain the pigment content of
chamber 1,.which is of importance due to the
the solution of soluble dyestuffs when used as
prevalence of moisture and the frequent long
the coloring material, thereby accomplishing the
storage required of the shells before being used.
coloring of the splash with great rapidity and
The members 12 and I4 each must not be rup
thoroughness.
It will thus be seen that the present invention 45 tured by the force of discharge from the gun,
and must be of such character and construction
provides a simple and practical projectile or an
as to disrupt only by impact with water or other
attachment for a projectile adapted to accom
body, as otherwise the supplemental purpose of
plish among others the objects herein set forth.
indicating the point of impact of a double duty
Many different forms and constructions of
50
shell, which forms the primary purpose of my
apparatus may perform the functions of my most
invention, would be unattained, as in the instance
certain and efficient method of spotting the im
of‘ the color ejecting fuse not functioning of my
pact point on water of a projectile and of making
said prior patent single purpose shell.
any usual type of projectile serve the added func
What I claim is:
tion of spotting when it misses its objective.
1. In combination with a projectile, a wind
Without further analysis, the foregoing will so 55
shield at the forward end thereof provided with a
fully reveal the gist of this invention that others
normally closed aperture on the front of said
can, by applying current knowledge, readily adapt
windshield and a plurality of vents towards the
it for various applications without omitting cer
rear thereof, said Windshield containing a color
tain features that, from the standpoint of the
ing charge adapted to be ejected on impact with
60
prior art, fairly constitute essential character
the
water.
istics of the generic or speci?c aspects of this
2. In combination with a projectile, a conical
invention, andZ therefore, such adaptations should
windshield secured to the forward end thereof
and are intended to be comprehended within the
provided with a chamber containing a charge
meaning and range of equivalency of the following
65 of coloring material, a normally closed aperture
claims.
in the front end of said Windshield and a plu
In the type of shell shown in Figure 2 the point
rality of normally closed vents at the rear of said
of-impact indicating chamber la is secured di
windshield, said closures being broken on impact
rectly about the point'of the shell, while in the
with the water whereby the coloring charge is
armor piercing type of shell shown in Figure 1v
, said chamber '5 is indirectly secured about the 70 ejected through said vents.
3. In combination with a projectile, a wind
point of said shell by being secured to the softer
shield
secured to the forward end thereof, an
metal cap 5 which is directly secured to the shell.
aperture at the front of said windshield, a disk
When shell It strikes armor members l2, 1 and
closing said aperture, a plurality of vents near
Ill crush and eject the large volume of coloring
matter into a huge cloud about the point Q4‘- im
75 the rear of said windshield, disks closing said
= 2,409,380
'5
vvents, a - coloring charge within ‘the windshield,
said disks adapted to be removed onimpactiwith
‘the Water whereby thecoloring charge isvejected
"through/the vents bylthe jet of water entering
the ' aperture.
'4. A spotting projectile including a body por
tion, a closed chamber associated with said body,
a coloring charge ?lling-said chamber; and means,
including a rearwardly tapering part ‘of said
chamber, for rearwardly ejecting s-aidcharge by
the impact of said projectile upon water.
5. A projectile having at its forward end-a rela
tively large chamber ‘or cavity-?lled with a water
volume: carried :by. said .cprojectilei and ?lled with
coloring material; an opening. inithefron‘t; of said
chamber-and extending into‘the cavity in said
chamber; a plurality of openings about them
riphery of sai'dchamber and extending into the
cavity of said chamber; and means fornormally
sealing said-openings with said chamber :full :of
‘coloring material.
13. As a new article of manufacture for ~f?re
' control1 for water~bordered targets, a wind-shield
for projectiles :provided with coloring _ matter and
adapted to impact with waterand provided with
means whereby said matter may beejected di
vsoluble coloring charge,'means for retainingsaid
rectly-by the force with which said wind-shield
charge in said chamber during the ?ring and 15 may be impacted with water.
?ight of the projectile; and means whereby, upon
14. As a newlarticle of =manufacture for J?re
impact upon water, of said projectile, water enters
control ‘for water-bordered targets, an attach
said chamber and discharges said charge and
ment for projectiles provided with vcoloring 'mat
colors the splash of and water surrounding said
ter and adapted to impact with water, means for
impact.
20 normally preventing the separation of said matter
6. A projectile having at its forward end a
from said attachment, and means whereby said
chamber or cavity ?lled with a water-soluble
matter may be ejected directly by the force with
coloring charge capable of coloring the splash
which said attachment may be impacted.
produced by the impact of the projectile with a
15. As a new article of manufacture for ?re
body of water and means whereby said coloring 25 control for Water-bordered targets, a hollow coni
charge is released on impact with the water and
cal attachment for projectiles having a portion
completely scoured from the chamber by passage
substantially at its point adapted to be fractured
of water from the tip of the projectile rearwardly ‘
by the water impact of a projectile provided with
through the releasing means.
said attachment and adapted to enclose coloring
7. A projectile comprising a body portion, 30 matter in said hollow, means near the base of said
means for‘ carrying a coloring charge with said
attachment adapted to be fractured by said im
projectile during its discharge and flight; and
pact, and means upon the base of said attachment
means whereby, upon impact of said projectile
for removably securing the same to a projectile.
with water, impacted water courses through said
16. As a new article of manufacture for ?re
?rst named means and discharges said coloring 35 control for water-bordered targets, a hollow coni
charge.
cal attachment for projectiles having a plurality
8. A spotting projectile consisting of any type
of fracturable portions some of which are disposed
of projectile having a substantial chamber in its
about the base of the attachment and at an angle
body portion, a water soluble coloring matter ?ll
to at least one of said portions which faces toward
ing said chamber; means at the front of said 40 the front, said hollow being adapted to enclose
chamber for admitting Water thereto only upon
coloring material and said portions being adapted
impact of said projectile with water; a plurality
to be fractured by the impact with water of a
of outlet means whereby said Water and coloring
projectile provided with said attachment, and
matter are discharged and means for normally
means upon the base of said attachment whereby
sealing said last two named means.
9. A projectile having a hollow portion carried
thereby with coloring material ?lling said hollow
portion, an opening leading from the front por
tion of said projectile into the cavity of said hol
low portion; a plurality of openings leading from
the outer surface of said projectile into the cavity
of said hollow portion; and means whereby said
openings are normally sealed and whereby upon
impact of said projectile with water the force of
impacted water enters said front opening and '
discharges said coloring material.
10. A projectile having a hollow portion carried
thereby with coloring material ?lling said hollow
portion; and means whereby said hollow portion
may be ruptured at a plurality of predetermined
points solely by the force of impact of said pro
jectile.
11. In an armor piercing spotting projectile, the
combination of said projectile having a sheath of
relatively softer metal surrounding its point; an
element having a chamber of substantial volume;
means for securing said element to the front of
said sheath; coloring material ?lling said cham
ber; and means for ejecting said coloring material
from said chamber and coloring impacted water
solely by the force of impact with water of a
vi
" the same may be secured upon the front portion
of a projectile.
17. A projectile provided with a hollow frangi
ble windshield, a charge of coloring material ?ll
ing the interior of said windshield, said wind
shield being adapted to be broken by impact with
water and said material to be intermingled with
the impacted water.
18. A. projectile having at its forward end a
chamber, a charge of water soluble coloring ma
terial ?lling said chamber, and means whereby
upon impact with water the force of such impact
directly projects the coloring material into the
impacted Water.
19. In combination with a projectile, a wind
shield at the forward end of the projectile, a
charge of colorinrr material within said wind
shield, and means whereby only a force of impact
of the projectile with water releases the coloring
material from the windshield and commingles the
coloring material with the impacted water out
wardly and rearwardly of the windshield.
20. A projectile comprising a body portion,
' means for carrying a coloring charge with said
projectile during its discharge and flight, and
means whereby solely the force of impact of the
projectile with water separates the coloring
charge from the projectile and commingles the
same with the impacted water.
projectile bearing said element.
12. In an armor piercing spotting projectile, the
combination of said projectile having a sheath of
21. In a spotting projectile, a sheath of metal
relatively softer metal; a chamber of substantial 75 adapted to surround and be secured to the nose
2,409,380
of a projectile and having a chamber of substan
tial volume therein, a substantial volume of color
ing material in said chamber, means for normally
retaining said material in said chamber, and
means whereby upon impact with water of a pro
jectile provided with said instrumentalities the
force of said impact will directly remove coloring
material from said chamber and color the im
pacted water.
22. As a new article of manufacture for pro
jectiles adapted to impact with Water, an attach
ment for such projectiles comprising an element
having a cavity therein of substantial volume
adapted to be borne upon the nose of such pro
jectile, coloring material ?lling said cavity, at least
portions of the Wall of said cavity being adapted
to be ruptured and the coloring material pro
jected into impacted water solely by the force of
impact with water of a projectile bearing said
attachment.
23. As a new article of manufacture for pro
jectiles, a hollow element attachable to a pro
jectile, with coloring material ?lling said hollow,
the wall forming said hollow containing said
coloring material having separate portions frac
turable by the impact of a projectile bearing said
element.
24. As a new article of manufacture, a hollow
attachment for the nose of projectiles, said hollow
being ?lled with coloring material, a wall of said
hollow attachment having a plurality of separate
fracturable portions, some of which are at an
angle to at least one of said portions which faces
toward the front.
HARRY J. NICHOLS.
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