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Oct. 15, 1946.
Filed Sept. 28, 1944 ì
2,409,389 '
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
Clarence R. Bingham, Oklahoma. City1 Okla., `as
ksignor to Phillips Petroleum Company, a corpo
ration of Delaware
npplicationseptember 28, 1944', .Se'rlal‘Na 556,208
s claims. (o1. ctc-csail
`This `invention relates tothe conversion of hy
drocarbons in the presence of aluminum vhalide
catalysts. In particulary embodiments it relates
to -aikylation of alkylatable.hydrocarbons- by `re
presence of aluminum halidecatalysts one of the
mîdlàjor` products -is diisopropyl, although struc
turally this >product is not “ethyl isobutane” even
though it is a hexane. However, in many in
action 'with alkylating reactants in the presence 5 stances structural addition products are obtained,
of _liquid hydrocarbon-aluminum halide com-'
as. when ethylene reacts with benzene to form
plexes as catalysts. In one specific vembodiment l ethylbenzene or when isopropyl alcohol or an iso
propyl` halide reacts with benzene to form iso
it relatesto the reaction of isobutane and ethyl
ene toproducediisopropyl.`
The commercial practice of suchY alkylation
Aluminum halide catalysts have been used in 10
processes presents `numerous problems which are
numerous processes for the conversion of hydro
not ,found in laboratory operation and which
carbons,l including decomposition or cracking of
higli-boiling hydrocarbons, isomerization of low
often cannot be foreseen. on the basis of results
boiling hydrocarbons, and alkylation ci alkylat»
able hydrocarbons, including both isoparafl‘ins,
‘normal para?lins, ,cycloparaiïins and aromatic
obtained in laboratory runs.` ‘Y One of the :great
est diuîculties experienced in commercial opera
tions is the efficient use of equipment while se
hydrocarbons. In such processes these catalysts
` curing, atthe same time, uniform operation over
an extended period of time. It is particularly im
have been used as such,_suspended inor dissolved
portant to have uniform catalyst activity >during
in a reaction mixture, suspended on solid supports
such asactive carbon, Activated Alumina or alu 20 an extended period of operation, such as one last
ing for several Weeks, in order that uniform vol
minous‘materials such as bauxite, active silica,
umesìiof materials may be treated and uniform
and various clays such as fuller’s earth, kiesel
reaction efliuents may be available for treatment
guhr, etc., >and 4as separate liquids _in the form oi'
complexes with organic and inorganic compound-s,
in separating equipment having a fixed size and
The more usefulof the liquid complexes are those 25 operated `at maximum eiiiciency. I `have found
formed With `parailîln'ic hydrocarbons, lespecially
>those formed with more »or lesshighly lbranched
normallyv liquid paramn hydrocarbons boiling in
the `boiling ranges of those fractions’generally
identi-ned asgasoline and kerosene. In many in-v
stances i-t is desirable to have present» a small
amount of :a hydrogen halideJ sometimes `cnly
about 0.1 to about l to 5 perrcent by Weight». This
that an aluminum halide-hydrocarbon complex
maybe used as a catalyst in commercial opera
tions- for the alkylation of hydrocarbons and sat
isiactorzily> uniform catalyst activity may be es
tablished and maintained, and at the same time a
number of. relatively small reactors may be used
to treat large quantities o_f material, by the spe
ciiic method of combining groups of reactors
and catalyst settlers, and by combining all of the
material may be present _as aresult of side=reactions, such as when water is present in a charge (1': 01 used catalyst before itis returned back to the
individual reactors, in a Vmanner which will be
stock, when an organic halogen compound is
more `fully and completely disclosed in connection
present in a charge stock, when some interreac
tionvbetiveen the aluminum halide and hydro
carbon takes» place, or when a hydrogen halide isy
with the accompanying drawing.
catalysts` are often conducted without` theÍ knowl
edge or appreciation that'minor amountsîof >a hy~
drocarbon andanvalkylating reactant in a ,con
An object .ofthis invention is to convert hydro
deliberately added. , ySince itisysubstantially lim 40 carbons in the presence of a `hydrocarbon-alu»
minum halide complex catalyst.
possible to effect complete. dehydration ofVV all
Another object of this invention is to effect an
equipment andmaterials, especially in acommer
cial process, conversions with aluminumhalide Valkylation reaction between an alkylatable- hy
drogen halidearepresent. _'
As _alkylating reactants vfor »use in alhylation
processes -for reaction with-alkylatable hydrocar
bons low-boilingoleñ-ns are generally used` VHow
ever, other alliiylating` reactants have` also been
proposed- such as alkyl halides and alcohols.
tinuous commercial process.
Still another. object Ofthis invention is to ób
tain. uniform reaction. in an alkylation process
Whileat the same time using a large number of
relativelyfsmall reactors'.
Still another object of this invention is to re
act isobutane and ethylene to produce high yields
Otten the -products of the alkylation Will not -re
Otherobjects and advantages .of this invention
sult from structural addition'of the alkylating‘re
will become apparent, to `one skilled in the art,
actant to the alkylatable Ahydrocarbon. Thus,
when -isobutane is. reacted with ethylene. in „then 55 from the »accompanying disclosure and discussion.
of diisopropyl.
A preferred embodiment of my invention will
now be discussed in some detail in connection with
the accompanying drawing which forms a part of
this application, and which shows an arrange
ment of apparatus suitable for practicing the in
vention. While various features of the invention
will be discussed in connection with the reaction
of isobutane and ethylene to produce diisopropyl
in the presence of a liquid aluminum chloride
hydrocarbon complex as the catalyst, it is to be
understood that the invention can be applied tov
other reactants and to other liquid catalysts.
Referring now to the drawing, an isobutane
stream is passed to the process through pipe I0
and a mixture of isobutane and ethylene is passed
to the process through pipe I I. AS will be appre
ciated by those skilled in the art in-a commercial
and with a hydrocarbon to catalyst ratio within
the reactor of 3:2 and a flow rate of 1.25 gallons
of alkylate per gallon of catalyst per hour, the
ñow rate of alkylate should be such that 500
gallons of alkylate are produced per hour.
The catalyst itself is substantially insoluble in
hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons are not substan
tially soluble in it. It is preferred to have a vol
ume ratio of hydrocarbons to catalyst in the
reaction zone between about 9:1 and about 1:1
and the preferred ratio has been found to be
about 3:2. When the reaction mixture is main~
tained intimately admixed with the catalyst
under the preferred conditions the hydrocarbon
phaseis the continuous phase. Under these con
ditions the catalyst readily separates from the
a hydrocarbons and power requirements in order
to maintain a suitable intimate admixture are
by comparatively small amounts of other hydro- ‘
not excessive. However, when a greater amount
carbons. Such hydrocarbons, however, should be 20 of catalyst is used, it has been found that a phase
present in relatively small amounts, particularly
inversion may take place with the result that the
when they are also reactive under the reaction
catalyst phase is the continuous phase and the
plant these hydrocarbons will be accompanied
conditions. One rather typical composition for
c_ach of these streams will be presented in the
specific example given hereinafter. The alkyla
tion reaction is conducted in four reactors-I2,
I3,`I4, and i5-with reactors I2 and I3 being
operated in series and reactors I4 and I5 being
operated in series, the first said set of reactors
being operated in parallel to the second set of
reactors. More than two such sets of reactors
may, of course, be used if desired. Contents of
each reactor are intimately admixed by means
of a stirrer 20. The isobutane stream is passed
through pipes _i6 and I'l in two portions to the
bottom of each of reactors I2 and I4, which are
the primary reactors in each set. A catalyst
stream from a common catalyst source, such as
pipe 2l, is passed in two portions through pipes
22 and> 23 to the bottoms of reactors I2 and I4.
This catalyst stream comprises used and fresh
catalyst as will be more thoroughly discussed
hydrocarbon phase the discontinuous phase,
which is not nearly so satisfactory. Under such
conditions it is quite difficult to obtain adequate
physical separation between the hydrocarbon
phase and the catalyst phase and a considerable
amount of power is required in order to ade
quately mix hydrocarbons and catalyst charged
to the reaction zone.
As the mixture of reactants and catalyst passes
up through the primary reactors it is thoroughly
admixed so that the catalyst is present in ex
tremely small particles. From the top of each
of the primary reactors this intimate admixture
is passed, through pipes v33 and 34, to the bottom
of the corresponding secondary reactor. At this
point the final two portions of the isobutane
ethylene mixture arev added, through pipes 35
and 36. rThe hydrocarbon-catalyst mixture is
also intimately admixed in the secondary reactors
I3'and I5 to effect suitable reaction. The result
ing admixtures are passed through pipes 31 and
38 to corresponding primary settlers 40 and 4I.
hereinafter. The isobutane-ethylene stream is
split into six portions. To the bottom of each
of the primary reactors I2 and I4 is added one 45 These settlers are preferably vessels set on a slope
of these portions through pipes 24 and 25. To the
with a solid bafiie plate 42 and 43 near the inlet
middle of each of the two primary reactors I2 and
and extending about halfway up in the tank.
I4 is added another portion through pipe 26 and
This baffle plate serves to distribute the incoming
2ï. A recycled portion of the hydrocarbon efflu
emulsion across the tank section, thereby tending
ents of the reaction is passed throughA pipe 30 50 to reduce the short-circuiting eiïect,` and also
and divided into two portions which are passed
serves as a retainer wall for the catalyst which
through pipes 3| and 32, each portion also being
settles out. The liquid catalyst which settles out
added to the bottom of the primary reactors I2
is removed through pipes 44 and 45 and combined
to form a common catalyst source in pipe 2|.
" A preferred reaction temperature for this con
A pipe 39 is provided joining efliuent pipes 31 and
and I4.
version is between about 50 and about 200° F.,
38 for use in case of emergency if one of the set-`
preferably about 80 to about 150° F. When alkyl
tling tanks 40 or 4I needs to be taken out of
ating hydrocarbons the activity of the catalyst
service. Ordinarily this` pipe 39 will not be used.
herein described is sufficiently high that even
From the top part yof settling tanks 40 and 4I
ethylene undergoes rapid reaction within this 60 a hydrocarbon mixture is passed through pipes
temperature range. Itis generally preferred to
46 and 4i and is combined in pipe 50. A sub
operate under a pressure such that the hydro
stantial >portion of this combined hydrocarbon
carbons are present in the reaction Zone substan
material is passed through pipe 5I to cooler 52
tially in liquid phase and in many instances the
and is returned to the reactors through pipe 30
hydrocarbon material will be kept in completely
as previously discussed. Since this combined
liquid phase under the preferred reaction condi
hydrocarbon material still contains a small
tions. The flow rate of reactants to the reaction
amount of entrained catalyst, generally, however,
not more »than about two or'three to about eight
zone is preferably expressed in terms of amount
or ten per cent of the total catalyst, the remain
of product produced, and when reacting isobutane
ing portion is passed to a secondary settler 53.
with ethylene to produce diisopropyl I prefer to
operate at flow rates between about 0.2 and about
Since the catalyst which is still present in the
1.5 gallons of total alkylate produced per gallon
hydrocarbon material is quiteñnely divided and
of catalyst present in the reactor per hour. Thus,
represents the finely divided particles present in
when reacting isobutane and ethylene in a reactor
the emulsion passed from the secondary vreactors
having 'a total internal volume of 1,000 gallons 75 through pipes 31 land 38, a >somewhat longer» seti
tling time is necessary in settler 5.3 than was‘used
cent .by‘weight-of `aluminum chloride, isa fluid
in either settlers door 4|. Catalyst `whichr‘sepa=~
ture with the catalyst removed through pipes l44
red-brown oil' having `a viscosity less `than `200
c'entistokes at 100° F., and is used as theactual
catalyst. v'The»high-aluminum chloride typecan
and l5.
be `added during a continuous ‘ run» in> :small
rates out ispassed through pipe `5t ‘for admix-`
A liquid hydrocarbon material substantially
free from catalyst and containing unreacted
hydrocarbons andalkylate is passed` from settler
»53 thro-ugh pipe 55 toïseparating means »60. Gen
erally it will ber desirable to wash this hydro
carbon material with an' alkaline solution, to
amounts tol-the recirculated» catalyst‘inorder to
maintain Acatalyst activity. i Catalyst s activity,
however,` can “be maintained in other ways, >as: by
adding aluminum halide directly to `recirculated
catalyst or by dissolving aluminum halidein one
of the streams charged to the reaction zone. The
liquid complex should not lie-‘contaminated with
remove any Vacidic materials which may be pres
water or other reactive, oxygen-containingk com
ent, before the material »is subjected to fractional
distillation. A diisopropyl fraction is Aseparated
In‘making the original batch of catalyst 'kero
and removed through pipe `62 las a product ofthe 15
sene ` or other hydrocarbon may be added-through
process. ’Unreacted isobutane is separated and
pipe 10 to a catalyst preparation vessel ’Hand
returned tothe process through pipe 63.- 'Normal
an aluminum halide such _as aluminum` chloride
butano, which will include that initially accom*
panying the‘char-ge »stock- and any normal ïbutane
may be added through pipe 12. These materials
formed byisomerization :during `the alkylation 20 may be intimately admixed by means of a stirring
process, `may be separated and discharged through
mechanism 13. After the process has been `start
pipe 64. One or more other alkylate fraction
may also be recovered, as through pipe 65. `Any
undesired light gases may be discharged through
ed the activity of the recirculated catalyst `may
be 'maintained by passing a‘ portion of the recir
culated catalyst through pipe 'M to Vessel “ll
25 wherein aluminum chloride, 'either as such vOras-a
Aluminum chloride ‘is the halide which will
most generally be used in ythe »practice of my
invention althoughit is Anot outside of the broad
high-aluminum chloride complex `such as previ
hydrous aluminum halidewiith `a paranin hydro
carbon, or paraflinic hydrocarbon fraction, at
terial may be added through either of pipes 10
or 112. In such instances it is often not neces
sary to add` hydrogen halide to the reaction sys
tem. However, if it is found desirable at. any
ously discussed, may be intimately _mixed 'with
it. The resulting fortified catalyst is passed
through pipe 'l5 Vandireturned to pipe 2|-`wherein
est concepts of my invention to i use other
aluminum hal-ides, particularly aluminum bro 50 it is mixed with the recirculated‘catalyst. `Since
mide. While aluminum fluoride generally‘does
such `treatment tends to increase the total vol
urne` of catalyst available it will >generally be
not givesatisfactory results, vmixed halides such
found necessary to maintain 'a desired'volume of
as AlClzF, AlClFz, AlBraF, and the like, `may-often
be usedv successfully» Liquid hydrocarbonsalu
catalyst by withdrawal of material from pipe“
minum halide catalysts are. generally’ prepared
`through pipe 16. 'When it 'is desired to usel a hy
drogen halide in preparing the catalyst suchma
by reacting a relatively pure and substantially an
~al temperature between about 1510 «and» about 230°
F. Usually, butnot always, it isidesirable to .ef
lrect thelproduction of the Acatalystbytadding dur
ingits tori-nation Aa small amount of a hydrogen
time to add a hydrogen vhalide to the reaction
system, any desired portion may' be added
halide and to lmiX' vigorously the hydrocarbon
through pipe 1T! lto the catalyst present in pipe 2 i.
`and 4alur-n-inurn halide until the ‘ resulting .complex
By maintaining total emulsincation in all of
>the reactors in such a catalytic alkylation proc
contains .in »combination from about 5G to about T0
per »cent by weight of aluminum halide. fSatis
factory fluid complexes have-been prepared from
fav-ariety of paraffin hydrocarbons'including nor
mal heptane, isooctane, »a parañinic .alkylate‘ l`.frac~
tion resulting from reaction »of isobutane and
butylenes, and boiling `above 350” F., an oleflnic
polymer fraction ï'boiiing- i-nV the upper part :of the
gasoline range, and kerosine. nnr essential re--
fquirement for the» preparationof agood catalyst
-appears to be the use of a-»suiiiciently powerful
mixing to maintain the aluminum halide and the
intimate contact during the pe
riod the Vcatalyst is being prepared. In the ini'.
tial stage individual particles of aluminum halide
ess, and allowing no settling of catalyst until.` the
reactor effluents `enter the settling tanks. the
catalyst phase system has been consolidated into
what may be `considered a single control unit,
inasmuch as the catalyst pumped back into the
reactors from the settling tanks is uniform in
composition. , Therefore, the level of `activity of
the* catalyst phase is the same, for all practical
purposes, in .all parts‘of the system at any given
instant. Activity determinations may .be made
on catalyst sampled at any point in the catalyst
recycle system, and this will establish definitely y
the condition of the catalyst >in all parts of the
system. ySuch an arrangement is markedlyrdifg
’appear to become -coated with a layer of ¿sticky 60 ferent'from a system wherein each reactor and
its settler are separate from ’the other .reactors
and settlersfor in which a settler‘isi-madeintegral
complex and if‘the mixing power is not »great
`enough such particles tend to accumulate vand/'or
‘agglomerate'to form a viscousmass which settles
to the bottom of thereaction vessel and-‘further
formation of the desired complex> is inhibited or
prevented, `since unreacted »aluminu-m‘halide no
longerhas access tothe hydrocarbon phase. Two
general types of catalyst have been prepared.
’These 'may be ~characterized as high-aluminum
halide and low-aluminum halide types. `When
preparing a catalyst with- aluminum `chloride the
high-aluminum chloride type contains 80 vto 85
'per cent by weight of aluminum chloride vand is
with each reactor proper with allowance "being
made for return of the catalyst directly Irom‘the
settler to the reactor. When any vsample `taken
‘from the system shows theV catalyst to be below
the- desired activity level, a predetermined quan
tity of the catalyst phase will be withdrawn from
the catalyst recycle line, and an equivalent
amount» of fortilied catalyst addedat that point.
Catalyst withdrawal and addition may be either
a batch or a continuous process.
It Will be appreciated that the drawing vist a
schematic representation oi process flow, and of
*a* -yellow ‘highly viscous material'. ‘Thel low
‘aluminum chloride‘type` containsÍ about -55- per 75 equipment-whichmay be used in lconducting `my
invention upon a commercial basis. Various spe
ciñc pieces of equipment such as alkylation con
primary settling zone, having a sufficient size to
provide a settling time vof about 5 minutes, which
tactors, fractional distillation columns, pumps,
control valves, heaters, coolers, 'catalyst cham
cent of the dispersed catalyst. The resulting hy
bers, and the like are well known to those skilled
in the art and suitable equipment can be `readily
assembled for any specific application of` my in
vention, by one so skilled, by following the teach
portion is cooled and recycled, in thevamount
ings contained herein.
As an example of the operation of my inven
tion, an isobutane feed stock is charged to the
_apparatus illustrated in the drawing through
pipe Ill. This stream has the composition shown
in the accompanying table and is-charged in a
continuous stream in the amount indicated. An
isobutane-ethylene mixture is prepared by-using
a liquid isobutane stream, from the same source
as the isobutane feed, as an absorption liquid in
is sufficient to permit removal of about 95 per
drocarbon mixtures are combined, and a lmajor
shown in the table.
The remaining portion of
thev combined mixtures passess to a secondary
setling zone, which has a suñicient size to pro
vide a settling time of about 30 minutes. The
catalyst which settles out from each of the three
settling zones is combined, a portion (about 14
volumes per day) is discharged from the system
through pipe 16, another portion is passed to a
catalyst make-up vessel 7l, where it is fortified
by the addition of fresh solid aluminum chloride.
The resulting fortified catalyst is blended with
the major part of the catalyst in pipe 2I to form
a demethanizer to which is charged, as a gas, an
a source of catalyst supply, with a uniform cat
eiliuent stream from a process for converting an 20 alyst of high activity for the whole system. The
ethane-propane mixture to ethylene. This iso
Abutane-ethylene mixture has the composition
hydrocarbon eiiiuent from the secondary settler,
in an amount shown in the table, is washed with
aqueous sodium hydroxide and passed to sepa
rating means 6E) for separation and recovery of
portions and the isobutane-ethylene stream is 25 various fractions. This net hydrocarbon effluent
split into six equal portions. To the bottom of
has the composition shown in the table. Except
each of reactors I2 and,I4 is passed one of the
for a small amount of entrained catalyst, the hy
isobutane portions, one of the isobutane-ethylene
drocarbon recycle passing through pipes 5I and
shown in the table and is charged in the amount
shown. The isobutane is split into two equal
portions, one-half of the recycle passing through
30 has the same composition.
pipe 3U, and about 6,150 volumes per day of a 30
It is to be appreciated that various modifica
liquid hydrocarbon-aluminum chloride complex
tions of my invention can be practiced without
catalyst from pipe 2I. To the middle of each of
departing from the teachings and spirit of the
the primary reactors I2 and I4 is charged an
disclosure, or from the scope of the claims. The
other one of the six portions of the isobutane
ethylene portions. As the hydrocarbon-catalyst
mixture passes upwardly through these reactors
Isobutane IsobutaneNet
feed pipe ethylene ei‘liuent
feed pipe ll pipe 55
Volume/day _________ ._
Comp., mol percent:
6, 363
3, 318
9, 156
140, 000
lighter _________ _ _
10. 4
4. 5
Ethylene. _ _
35. 3
1. 2
Ethane___.Propylene. .
" 13.2
3. l
5. 7
Isobutane ........ _ .
N. butane _
2. 9
5. 3
Diisopropyl ............................ . .
8. 6
Other 05+ ............................. _ .
5. 2
100. 0
it is intimately admixed by the efficient stirrer 2t.
lThe proportions of the materials charged insure
that the liquid hydrocarbon mixture is'in the
continuous phase, with finely divided particles of
the liquid catalyst complex, having a maximum
particle diameter between about l0 and 20 mi
crons, dispersed throughout. The reaction tem
peratureranges up to about 125°.F.»a's a maxi
claims are not to be unduly limited by limita
tions shown in the specific examples.
I claim:
1. An improved process for reacting ethylene
and isobutane to form diisopropyl, which .com
prises conducting said reaction in two sets of re
actors having two reactors in each set, passing
a portion of an isobutane feed to the bottom of
the first reactor of each set, passing a portion of
an isobutane-ethylene feed to the bottom of each
of said reactors and also to an intermediate point
-` of the first reactor of each set, passing from a
common catalyst source a portion of a liquid
aluminum chloride-hydrocarbon complex catalyst
to the bottom of the first reactor of each set in an
amount not greater than that which will permit
said catalyst to be the dispersed phase in the
resulting admixture, maintaining an alkylation
temperature in each said reactor, passing an in
timate hydrocarbon-catalyst admixture from the
top of the first reactor of each set to the bottom
sit CPI of the second reactor of the respective set, flow,
ing the contents of each reactor from bottom to
top and effecting a vigorous stirring of the con
tents of each said reactor to establish an inti
mate admixing of the contents thereof, passing
the eiiluents of each second reactor to a corre
mum, and the volume of cooled recycle is such
sponding primary settling zone to separate a liquid
4vthat the overall temperature rise is not more
than about 15 to 20° F. Under these conditions
hydrocarbon material containing a minor amount
liquid phase operation isassured with a pres
of entrained catalyst from the bulk of the ad
sure not, greater than about 40G-420 pounds per
mixed catalyst, combiningthe hydrocarbon elilu
square inch gage. From the top of each ofthe 65 ents of each primary settling zone and combining
primary reactors, the reacting admixture passes
the catalyst effluents of each primary settling
to the bottom of the Acorresponding secondary
zone, passing at least a portion of said combined
reactors, I3 and I5, with one of the remaining
hydrocarbon eii‘luents to a secondary settling zone
two portions of the isobutane-ethylene charge
wherein substantially all of the remaining en
being added just as it enters the secondary re' 70 trained catalyst is separated fromthe effluents,
actor. Each of the primary and secondaryre
removing from said secondary settling zone a
actors has a capacity of about '72 volumes. The
hydrocarbon material- and recovering therefrom
upñowing material is also intimately admixed
a diisopropyl fraction as a product of the proc
in the secondary reactors, and Vpasses from the
ess, removing also from said secondary settling
top of each secondary reactor to a corresponding 75 zone liquid catalyst, and combining said liquid
catalyst with the aforesaid combined catalyst
eliiuents to form a uniform catalytic material as
uid hydrocarbon material containing a minor
amount of entrained catalyst from the bulk cf
the aforesaid common catalyst source.
the admixed liquid catalyst, combining the hy
2. In a process for reacting an alkylating re
actant and an alkylatable hydrocarbon in tbe
presence of a liquid alkylation catalyst under al
kylation reaction conditions, the improvement
drocarbon eiiiuents of each primary settling Izone
and combining the catalyst efliuents of each pri
mary settling zone, cooling a portion of said com
bined hydrocarbon eiliuents and passing saine to
the bottom of the iirst reactor of each said set,
passing a further portion of said combined hy
which comprises conducting said reaction in at
least two series of reactors having two reactors
in_each set, passing an alkylatable hydrocarbon 10 drocarbon eiiluents to a secondary settling zone
and removing therein substantially all of said en
feed to the bottom of the first reactor of each
trained catalyst from the hydrocarbon efliuents,
set, passing a mixture of alkylatable hydrocarbon
recovering an alkylate product from the resulting
and alkylating reactant to the bottom of each
hydrocarbon eíiiuents, admixing said separated
of said reactors and also to an intermediate point
of the ñrst reactor of each set, passing from a 15 catalyst with the aforesaid combined catalyst
common catalyst source a portion of a liquid al
effluents to produce a common catalyst source as
lrylationrcatalyst to the bottom of the iirst re
actor of each set in an amount not greater than
that which will permit said catalyst to be the dis
aforesaid, and adjusting the catalyst contained
in said common catalyst source to maintain a
desired catalytic activity by withdrawal of a por
persed phase in the resulting admixture, passing 20 tion thereof as spent catalyst and by addition of
an intimate hydrocarbon-catalyst admixture
from the top of the iirst reactor of each set to the
bottom of the second reactor of the same set,
ñowing the contents of each reactor from bottom
to top and effecting a vigorous and'intimate mix 25
ing of the contents of each said reactor, passing
fresh catalytic constituents.
3. The process of claim 2 in Which said alkyl
atable hydrocarbon is a low-boiling isoparaiiin,
said alkylating reactant- is a low-boiling oleñn,
and said liquid catalyst is a liquid hydrocarbon
aluminum chloride complex.
the eiiluents of each second reactor to a corre
sponding primary settling zone to separate a liq
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