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Out:o 15, 1946.
c. s. BULL
2,409,417
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed May 29, 1944 ‘
'
I
I'NVENTOR. -
[5900]‘ 55970” ?z/u
’
BY.
19 7-1-0 mwsy
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
2,409,417
UNITED STATES PATENT orrics
ELscrRoN DISCHARGE ncvicr
CabotSeaton Bull,_>Hillingdon, England, assignor,
to Electric and Musical Industries Limited‘.
Application May 29, 1944, Serial No. 537,354;
In Great Britain June-21, 1941
5 Claims.
‘
(Cl. 315-a-6)
1.
2
My invention relatesv to high frequency electric
circuits and to electron discharge devices employ
there is provided an electron discharge device
comprising means for providing an electron beam
and a pair of hollow resonators through which
said beam can be caused to pass, in succession,
said resonators being so coupled together that
noise currents set up by the passage of an elec-i.
ing hollow resonators for use in such circuits.
It has been proposed to use such a hollow reso
nator as a tuned circuit and control electrode in
a conventional triode, a screened grid or similar
valve. In such a case the input signals, are fed
tron through the ?rst resonator are reduced or
to the hollow resonator and the aperture in the
substantially neutralized by the noise currents
hollow resonator which may or. may not be pro
set up by the passage of that electron through
vided with agridthrough which the beam passes, 10 the second resonator.
In order that the said invention may be clearly
serves. to control the flow of electrons in much
understood and readily carried into effect, the
the sameway asthe control grid in a conven
tional valve.
'
same will now be more fully described with ref.
erence to the drawing accompanying, the speci»
I have found, however, that the stream of elec
trons passing through the grid or aperture gives 15 ?cation, in which:
Figure 1 is a schematic longitudinal section‘ of ,
rise to a noise which is not encountered in the
a triode electron discharge device for operation
conventional type of valve. The electrons passe
in accordance with the present invention;
ing from the cathode towards the grid or aper
Figure 2 illustrates a modi?cation of Figure 1,
ture induce a charge on the interior surface of
the hollow resonator, and once the electrons pass 20 and
Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6 illustrate the application
through the grid or aperture they have little or
of the invention to tetrode and pentode type elec
nofurther in?uence on the resonator with the
tron discharge devices.
result that the induced charge discharges in an
The device according to the invention shown ,
oscillatory manner. This discharge which is set,‘
in Figure 1 comprises a cathode ‘I, an anode 8 ~
up by each electron constitutes‘a noise power inv
and a hollow resonator 9 which constitutes the
the circuit and consequently the noise-to-signal
input circuit and will normally be tuned to reso
ratio is not so good as with the conventional ar
nateiat a suitable frequency depending upon the
rangement of electron discharge device.
frequency of the signals to be applied to the
It is an object of the present inventionhto pro
device. The hollow resonator 9 has the cross
vide a high frequency electric circuitincluding
section shown, and is of toroidal form and the
an electron discharge device having arcontrol
electrode in which undesired effects arising
from the high frequency operation are reduced.
aperture through which the electrons pass from 1
the cathode l to the anode 8 is covered by a grid
l0 although in some cases this grid may be omit
an improved electron discharge device in which 35 ted. For the purpose of reducing noise current
induced in the resonator 9 by the passage of the
a hollow resonator is employed as the input cir
beam, a further hollow resonator II is provided, '
cuit with an electron discharge device with a view
one wall of which is common with the wall of
to reducing oreliminating the noise that is gen
the resonator 9 containing the grid lll. With
erated due to the passage of electrons through
such an arrangement an electron leaving the
the resonator.
‘
A further object of the invention is to provide ‘
According to one feature of the invention, an
electric circuit arrangement vis provided compris
ing an electron discharge device‘having at least va
cathode and an anode and a control electrode for
cathode l and passing through the grid It leaves
a negative charge on the side of the grid clos-_
ing resonator ii and gives rise to an oscillatory
discharge or noise current. On passing through
electrons passing between said cathode and said 45 grid it! and ‘resonator ll, this electron will give‘
rise: to a further oscillatory discharge in- a sim
anode, and including; means so connected and
disposed as to be capable of deriving high fre-.
ilar manner, the two resonators beingcoupled
‘together; so that the energy derived from the
quency energy from electrons in the space be
electron in ‘the space within the second, resonator
tween said controlelectrode and said anode, {the
is applied to the (first resonator 9 in such manner
arrangement being such that said energy will set
that the resultant noise current therein is re- .
up effects at said control electrode which wholly
duced or completely neutralized so that no noise
or- partly neutralize undersired high frequency
voltages are set up. on said control electrode due
effects occurring at said control electrode due to
to. the passage of electrons between the anode
the. passage of said electrons.
According to a further feature of the invention, 5,5 - and thecathode, The coupling between the reso
2,409,417
3
4
nators 9 and II in the example shown in Figure
and although the output from the devices de
1 is effected by the provision of a pair of coupling
scribed is taken from the anode 8, it will be ap
loops I2 and I3 connected in series with the
preciated that, if desired, the beam of electrons
source of input signals, the loops being reversed
passing through the hollow resonator Il may be
with respect to each other. In the arrangement 5 caused to pass through a further hollow resona
shown in Figure 2 of the drawing, however, the
tor from which an output can be obtained.
input signals are applied to the resonator 9 via
Where the device is employed for mixing oscilla
a separate coupling loop I 4 and the two reso
tions the electron beam, after leaving the resona
nators 9 and II are coupled together by the re
verse coupling loop I5, as shown. It will be un
tor I I, may pass to a further system of any suit
10 able form by which oscillations of a di?’erent fre
derstood that although the second resonator
quency can be applied to the beam so as to pro
serves to neutralize the noise currents in the in
put resonator, it does not itself control the beam
duce resultant oscillations of the different fre
quency.
current directly because, due to the attraction of
While I have indicated the preferred embodi
the anode 8, any electron which passes through 15 ments of my invention of which I am now aware
the grid I0 will proceed to said anode. The sec
and have also indicated only one speci?c appli
ond resonator would, however, tend to neutralize
cation for which my invention may be employed,
any velocity modulation in the beam so that this
it will be apparent that my invention is by no
arrangement would be unsatisfactory in a circuit
means limited to the exact forms illustrated or
operating with velocity modulation of the elec 20 the use indicated, but that many variations may
tron beam.
be made in the particular structure used and the
It will be appreciated from a consideration of
purpose for which it is employed without depart
the construction shown in Figures 1 and 2 that
ing from the scope of my invention as set forth
the two resonators 9 and I I, since they have a
in the appended claims.
common wall, will be maintained at the same di 25
rect current potential. This, however, is not nec
essary and is undesirable in some cases, since it
does not permit the two resonators to be main
tained at different direct current potentials.
Thus, ‘the construction shown in Figure 3 may
be employed, from which it will be seen that the
resonator II is formed separately from the res
onator 9. The space between the resonators may
What I claim as new is:
1. An electron discharge device having a cath
ode for supplying a beam of electrons and a col
lector for receiving said electrons, and a pair of
cavity resonators surrounding the electron path
between the cathode and the collector and
through which the beam of electrons successively
passes, and a reversed coupling loop extending
between said resonators whereby noise currents
be ?lled with dielectric material, if required, for
set up by passage of the electron beam through
constructional reasons, leaving, of course, a suit 35 the ?rst resonator are reduced or substantially
able gap in the dielectric near the grids for the
neutralized by the noise current set up by the pas
passage of electrons. With such an arrangement
sage of the electron beam through the second
it will be appreciated that the resonators may
resonator.
be maintained at di?erent direct current poten
2. An electron discharge device having a cath
tials and that, if desired, the resonator II may 40 ode for supplying a beam of electrons and a col
be maintained at a high positive potential so that
lector for receiving said electrons, a ?rst resona~
the ?eld produced due to the high potential ap
tor positioned adjacent said cathode and pro
plied to the resonator II will serve to draw elec
vided with a grid through which the electrons
trons from the cathode, even though the grid I0
pass, and a second resonator surrounding the
is at a negative potential. Thus, the resonator 4.5 electron path between said ?rst resonator and
II can e?ectively perform the function of the
said collector, and a reversed coupling loop ex
screen-grid of a conventional valve. If desired,
tending between said resonators whereby the
as shown in Figure 4, the aperture in the resona
noise currents set up by the passage of the elec
tor II may be provided with a grid I‘! or, alter
trons through the ?rst resonator is reduced or
natively, as shown in Figure 5, the aperture in the 50 substantially neutralized by noise current set up
resonator remote from the aperture adjacent the
by the passage of said electrons through the
grid I0 may be provided with a grid I8. In a
second resonator.
further form of the invention as shown in Figure
3. An electron discharge device including a
6, the resonator II is formed in two parts Ila
cathode for supplying a beam of electrons, and a
and Ilb, which are capacitatively coupled to~ 55 collector for receiving said electrons, and a ?rst
gether through the medium of the peripheral
resonator surrounding said cathode and through
?anges I9—I9', which may be separated by air or
which said electron beam is directed, and a sec
vacuum or by a dielectric substance it" if a
ond resonator surrounding the electron path be‘
higher capacity is required. In this case the
tween said ?rst resonator and the collector and
aperture in the portion I I?) may be provided with 60 having a common wall with said ?rst resonator,
a grid 20 and the portion II a provided with a
said common wall being provided with an aper
grid 2i and if the portion IIa is maintained at
ture and grid extending across said aperture, and
a low potential, such as cathode potential, the
a reverse coupling loop extending between said
grid 2I can serve to prevent secondary electrons
resonators whereby noise currents induced in the
leaving the anode 8 so that the device can be 65 ?rst resonator are substantially neutralized by the
made to function similarly to a conventional
same noise currents induced in said second reso
pentode valve.
'
nator.
In all the arrangements shown in Figures 2 to
4. An electron discharge device having a cath
63, inclusive, of the drawing, coupling means such
ode for supplying a beam of electrons and a col
as loop I5 is required and in Figure 1 loops I 2 and 70 lector for receiving said electrons, a ?rst resona
I3 are required between the two resonators 9
tor adjacent said cathode and through which the
and II.
electron beam passes, and a second resonator
The devices described may be employed for any
surrounding the electron path between said ?rst
suitable purposes, such as for ampli?cation, de
resonator and said collector, said resonators hav
tection or mixing of high frequency oscillations 75 ing aligned apertures through which the beam of
2,409,417
5
r
6
electrons successively passes, a reverse coupling
electrons successively passes, a reverse coupling
100p extending between said resonators whereby
loop extending between said resonators whereby
noise currents set up by the passage of electrons
noise currents set up by the passage of electrons
through the ?rst resonator are reduced by noise
through the ?rst resonator are reduced by noise
currents set up by the passage of electrons
currents set up by- the passage of electrons
through the second resonator, said second resona
through the second resonator.
tor comprising two parts, one of which is adapted
5. An electron discharge device having a cath
to have a positive voltage applied thereto and the
ode for supplying a beam of electronsand a col
second of which is adapted to have a lower volt
lector for receiving said electrons, a ?rst resona
tor adjacent said cathode and through which the 10 age applied thereto to function as a suppressor,
the two halves of said second resonator being ca
electron beam passes, and a second resonator sur
pacitively coupled together.
rounding the electron path between said ?rst
resonator and said collector, said resonators hav
CABO'I' SEATON BULL.
ing aligned apertures through which the beam of
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