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Патент USA US2409433

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Oct. 15, 1946‘
W. H. HUNTER
' 2,409,433‘
DUGT THROTTLE
Filed Sept. 10, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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‘I w. H,- HUNTER
‘2,409,433
DUCT THROTTLE
Filed Sept. 10, 1945 "
‘
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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' [85f
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
2,409,433
"UNiTED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,433
DUCT THROTTLE
Willson H. Hunter, Akron, Ohio, assignor to The
B. F. Goodrich Company, New York, N. Y., a
corporation'of New York
Application September 10, 1943, Serial No. 501,785
8 Claims.
(01. 138-45)
2
This invention relates to closure apparatus for
the end of a passage and especially to apparatus
for throttling flow at the intake end of a duct
part of this speci?cation, and in which like nu
merals are employed to designate like parts
throughout the same,
for ?uids.
The invention is applicable especially to the
ends of conduits for closing, wholly or partially,
such ends while maintaining desirable ?ow con
'
ditions in and around the conduits despite the
throttling action. It is useful especially in air
craft in connection with air intakes for ventila 10
tion and for the engine cooling and fuel supply
systems, including radiator ducts, which hereto
through.
especially when mounted at the intake end of a
30
tions of the stagnation point of the air?ow.
Principal objects of the invention are to pro
?ed construction of the apparatus, parts being
broken away,
,
In the drawings, with reference ?rst to Figs.
1 and 2, the invention is applied to an aircraft
structure comprising a fuselage [0 having an en
closed compartment II for the pilot, a pair of
wings l2 and I3, an empennage M, a spinner l5
and a propeller l6 rotatively driven by an engine
unit disposed within the fuselage.
An air intake duct ll for the carburetor of the
sage, to provide for controllably altering the area
diately at said end, to provide for throttling the
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the aircraft,
Fig. 3 is a front view of a duct shown in Fig.
engine fuel supply system is mounted adjacent
the engine Within the fuselage Ill, and includes
vide an inflatable throttle for an end of a pas
?ow of ?uid through the intake end of the con
duit while promoting smooth flow around the out
side of and through the conduit at the end, and
away,
Fig. 7 is a sectional View on an enlarged scale
showing the attachment of a margin of the ap
paratus to a wall of the duct.
Prior expedients such as ?aps at the intake end
portion of the radiator duct have not been satis
factory owing to turbulent flow of air through
and around theoutside of the duct, especially at
high speeds. A contributing factor to this di?i
culty has been the inability of the frontal sur
and the contour of an end of a conduit imme
embodying the invention, parts being broken
Fig. 5‘is a longitudinal section of the radiator
duct of Fig. 1, the in?atable throttle being shown
in an in?ated condition, parts being broken away,
Fig. 6 is a view like Fig. 5 but showing the
20 throttle in a de?ated condition, and
a problem.
face to serve aerodynamically in the best man
ner and especially to accommodate shifting posi
of air through the intake ends of ducts, the ap
paratus being constructed in accordance with and
Fig. 4 is a View like Fig. 3 but showing a modi
Such expedients as flaps have not been .
duct, because of the resulting turbulent flow
through the duct at the region of the intake end.
Also, the ?ow past the outside surface of the duct
has been adversely affected, and icing has been
provided with apparatus for throttling the ?ow
1, parts being broken away,
fore usually have had mechanical devices such
as ?aps for controlling the flow of ?uid there
aerodynamically e?icient nor Wholly satisfactory,
‘
Fig. l is a plan view from above of an aircraft
an intake end portion 18 of the duct adjacent
35
the spinner I5 projecting from thevbottom sur
face of the fuselage H! in a manner to receive air
frontally. Other locations for the intake end
portion l3 such as at the leading edges of the
Wings l2 and 13 or the sides or top surfaces of
to provide simplicity of construction, convenience 40 the fuselage Ill may be utilized, if desired.
of manufacture, and'efiectiveness of operation.
For cooling the engine of the aircraft, a duct
Further objects are to provide for reducing the
2! including a radiator 2.2 is mounted on the
aerodynamic losses at the intake end of a duct
bottom surface of the fuselage it, as shown in
in an aircraft structure, to provide for an effec
Figs. 1 and 2, the radiator 22 being interconnected
tive diffusion zone within the duct adjacent the
by suitable fluid conduits (not shown) with the
intake end for minimizing turbulent ?ow of ?uid
engine. Other locations on the aircraft such, for
therein, to provide for e?ectively throttling the
example, as the leading edges of the Wings may
?uid ?owing through the duct while at the same
be used for disposition of the radiator duct, if
time maintaining the desired flow conditions at
desired.
the entrance to and around and in the duct, and
The throttling apparatus of the invention may
to provide effectively for preventing ice accumu
be substantially the same in construction and op
lation at the intake end of the duct.
eration whether it be for the radiator duct, or the
These and other objects and advantages will
ventilating duct. Accordingly, it need be de
be apparent from the following description.
scribed in detail with reference to only one of
Y‘ In the-accompanying drawings, which form a
these applications and'the application to the ra
2,409,433
3
diator duct is chosen for illustrative description.
The radiator duct 2| comprises an intake end
portion 23, an exit end portion 24, and an inter
mediate portion 25 accommodating the radiator
22 therein. In case it is desired that the areas of
the intake and exhaust ends be simultaneously
varied in extent in throttling the flow of cooling
air through the radiator duct in accordance with
the requirements of the engine, the radiator duct
arrangement 2 I, as shown especially in Figs. 1 and
2, may be provided. Apparatus 2D is provided at
the intake end of the portion 23 for throttling the
flow of air therethrough and pivotally mounted
exit ?aps 26 are provided at the exit end of the
portion 24 for controlling the ?ow of air.
The apparatus 20 comprises a covering 30 in
cluding elastic material such, for example, as
resilient rubber or other rubber-like material dis
posed preferably throughout the perimeter of and
immediately at the intake end of the portion 23
in the manner shown especially in Figs, 3, 5, 6
4
by a suitable adhesive such, for example, as rub‘
ber cement. All fabric and rubber parts of the
covering 38 are united preferably by vulcanization.
For wholly enclosing‘ the intake end of the duct,
the covering is provided preferably in the form of
an upper structure 40 and a lower structure 4|,
each structure including an in?atable tube 32
as an independent unit which tubes may be con
nected as by ?exible conduits 42 and 43 with a.
suitable source of fluid under pressure for in?at
ing the tubes.
If the conduits 42 and 43 are joined together
the upper and lower tubes 32 may be in?ated sub
stantially simultaneously and to a like extent.
However, for in?ating the upper and lower tubes
independently of one another, the conduits 42
and 43 may be separately connected to the source
of fluid pressure, which arrangement facilitates
flexibility of control in varying the area and con
tour of the intake end of the duct at the will of
the operator.
In the operation of the throttling apparatus
20 under the condition of low speed of the air
craft and with the tubes 32 of the covering 30
and "I. The covering 33 includes an in?atable tube
or chamber 32 disposed at the intake end of the
duct portion 23 for advancing the surface of the
in a de?ated condition as shown especially in
covering immediately at said end across the duct
Fig. 6, and with the exit ?aps 23 of the duct 2|
toward the opposite inner wall, and a portion 3|
in the open position, the air meeting the frontal
extending from the in?atable tube 32 along the
surface ?ows about and through the intake end
outer wall of the duct portion 23, the portion 3|
of the duct, part of the air?ow passes over the
being attached at its margin to the outer wall.
The tube 32 may or may not be provided with a 30 surfaces of the portions 3| and about the ex
terior of the duct while the other part of the
fabric reinforcement to promote uniformity of
air?ow passes through the intake end over the
shape during in?ation. The covering 30 also in
surfaces of the in?atable tubes 32 and the trail
cludes a trailing portion 33 disposed at the inner
ing portions 33. The apparatus promotes smooth
wall of the intake end portion 23 and extending
into the duct from the in?atable tube 32 along the 35 passage of all this airflow. The air within the
duct passes through the radiator absorbing heat
inner Wall and terminating at or in advance of
from the radiator during such passage and dis
the front wall of the radiator 22 for providing a
charges from the exit end portion 24 into the
rearwardly ?ared diffusing zone of substantial
ambient airstream.
extent within the duct, when the tube 32 is in an
Under high aircraft speeds, it is desirable that
inflated condition, as shown especially in Fig, 5, 40
the frontal surface at the intake end of the duct
to promote smooth flow of air through the duct
be such as to be adapted aerodynamically to
portion 23. The trailing portion 33 is attached at
the changed conditions, especially in the respect
its margin to the inner wall. The throttling ap
of becoming suited to a relative shifting of the
paratus 20 is in?atable to various amounts of in
stagnation zone, so that objectionable turbulence
take opening and the arrangement is such that
will not develop despite such shifting. To this
under all conditions of inflation a rounded frontal
end the tubes 32 are in?ated to advance the
surface is presented which frontal surface may be
surfaces of the covering 30 immediately at the
accommodated to changing conditions of speed
intake end of the upper 40 and lower 4| struc
and shifting positions of the stagnation point
tures across the intake end toward the opposite
while maintaining good aerodynamic flow over i
inner wall to reduce the area of the duct por
such frontal surface and through the duct and
tion 23 immediately at said end. When the
around the outside of same under these changing
tubes 32 are in?ated, as shown especially in Fig.
conditions.
5, the portions 3| are stretched and moved rela
The covering 33 is mounted at the intake end in
a condition of tension between its attaching mar ‘.1 In tive to the wall of the intake end, these portions
3| presenting surfaces in continuation of the
gins, which margins may be attached to the inner
curved surfaces of the in?atable tubes 32 to the
and outer walls of the duct as shown especially in
airflow for promoting smooth ?ow of air about
Fig. 7. Since both margins may be attached in
the outside of and the end of the intake end por
like manner, the attachment of only the margin
at the outer wall need be described. The margin (in tion 23.
coincidental with the in?ation of the tubes 32
is reinforced by means of a metal bead or wire 35,
and movement of the portions 3|, the trailing
which may be ?at or oval or other suitable shape,
portions 33 are also stretched and ?exed away
preferably enclosed in a strip of fabric 35, all em
from the inner wall of the duct thereby de?ning
bedded in the rubber material of the covering 33
an inwardly ?ared diffusing zone of substantial
and the margin is secured to the outer wall of the
extent rearwardly along and within the intake
duct portion 23 by means of screws 3'! extending
end portion 23 of the duct thus promoting smooth
through such strip and into hollow threaded riv
?ow of air within the duct. Such an arrangement
ets 38 in the outer wall. The wire 35 is adapted
facilitates smooth flow of air about the outside
to bear against the screws 31 for maintaining the
desired tension in the covering 33. The margin 70 and through the intake end of the duct 23 despite
the shifting of the stagnation zone due to the
tapers beyond the wire 35 to a thin edge and
relatively high speed of the air?ow by virtue of
a cover strip 39 is positioned over the screws 31
the curved frontal surfaces of the covering 30 as
and extends to the edge of the margin for facilitat
presented by the in?atable tubes 32 and the
ing smooth flow of air thereover. The margins
may also be adhered to the inner and outer walls 75 portions 3| and by virtue of the diffusing zone
12,409,433
5
within the duct portion 23 extending from the
most constricted portion of the throttle to sub
stantially the front wall of the radiator 22.
A further advantage of the throttling appara
tus 20 is that of preventing the accumulation of
ice at theintake end of the duct through in
?ation and de?ation of the tubes 32 to break ice
formationsinto pieces for removal by the. ?ow
of air.
For some applications ‘the modi?ed construc
tion shown in Fig. 4 may be desirable. Such a
construction comprises a continuously annular
latter for reducing the area of said duct imme
diately at said end to effect said vthrottling of
?ow of air while presenting a curved surface at
said end to promote smooth ?ow of air around the
outside of and through said duct at said end and
while ?exing said trailing portion away from the
first said inner wall toward said opposite inner
wall for de?ning an inwardly ?ared diffusing zone
within said duct to promote smooth ?ow of air_
10 through the duct.
4. In a duct assembly for aircraft, in combina
tion, a duct having an intake end exposed to the
covering d5 substantially like the covering 30
outer air and an elastic covering disposed at said
but including a single in?atable tube 46 extend
for throttling the ?ow of air through said
ing continuously throughout the perimeter of 15 end
duct, said covering comprising a frontal portion
the intake end of the duct. Upon in?ation of
about said end and attached at a margin thereof
the tube 46, which in this case may be effected
to the outer wall of said duct, a trailing portion
through a single conduit, the area of the intake
extending along the inner wall of the duct and
end may be reduced substantially uniformly in ex
tent throughout the perimeter of and immediately 20 attached at the rear margin thereof to the latter
said wall, and an in?atable tube between said
at the intake end while promoting smooth ?ow
portions for advancing the surface of said cover
of air around the outside of and through the
ing immediately at said end across said duct
intake end of the duct in the manner described
toward an opposite inner wall of the latter for
hereinabove.
Variations may be made without departing 25 reducing the area of said duct immediately at
said end to effect said throttling of flow of air
from the scope of the invention as de?ned in
and for altering the contour of said frontal por
the following claims.
tion while maintaining the desired aerodynamic
I claim:
contour of said portions to promote smooth ?ow
1. Apparatus for throttling the ?ow of air
of air around the outside of and through said
through the intake end of a duct for an aircraft
duct.
structure, said apparatus comprising a cover
5. Closure apparatus for the end of a walled
ing including a frontal portion positionable about
conduit for ?uid, said apparatus comprising a
said end and a trailing portion for the wall of’
covering for extending about said end and in
said duct at said end, and trailing portion ex
tending into said duct along an inner wall of 35 cluding marginal portions for attachment to the
inner and outer walls of said conduit, and in?at
the duct, and inflatable means for advancing
able means for advancing the surface of said
the surface of said covering immediately at said
covering immediately at said end toward an op
end and along said trailing portion toward an
opposite inner wall of said duct in a manner
posite inner wall of said conduit in a manner to
to effect said throttling of flow of air through 40 effect throttling of ?ow of ?uid through said
conduit at said end.
said duct at said end and said means being effec
6. Closure apparatus for the end of a walled
tive for altering the contour of said frontal por
conduit for ?uid, said apparatus comprising a
tion While maintaining a desired aerodynamic
contour of said frontal and trailing portions to
covering for an inner wall of said conduit at said
promote smooth ?ow of air around the outside
end, and in?atable means for advancing the sur
face of said covering immediately at said end
of and through said duct at said intake end.
toward an opposite inner wall of said conduit in
2. Apparatus for throttling the flow of air
a manner to effect throttling of flow of ?uid
through the intake end of a duct, said apparatus
through said conduit at said end, said covering
comprising a covering for the wall of said duct at
said end, said covering comprising a frontal por 50 including a ?exible covering portion extending
from said in?atable means into the conduit along
tion positionable about said end and having a
the ?rst said inner wall, said portion being ?exed
margin for attachment to the outer wall of said
in graduated degree by virtue of the in?ation of
duct and an inflatable tube at the inner wall of
said means away from the adjacent ?rst said
the duct at said end advancing the surface of
inner wall toward said opposite inner wall for
said covering immediately at said end across said
promoting smooth ?ow of fluid through the con
duct toward an opposite inner wall of the latter
for reducing the area of said duct immediately
duit at said end.
at said end to effect said throttling of flow of
7. Closure apparatus for the end of a walled
air while presenting a generally curved frontal
conduit for ?uid, said apparatus comprising a
surface at said end to promote smooth flow’ of 60 covering for an inner wall of said conduit at said
air around the outside of and through the duct
end, and an in?atable chamber at said end in a
at said end.
position for in?ation thereof in a direction across
3. Apparatus for throttling the flow of air
said conduit for advancing the surface of said
through the intake end of a duct, said apparatus
covering immediately at said end toward an op
comprising a covering including resilient rubber
posite inner wall of said conduit to effect throt
like material for disposition throughout the per
tling of flow of ?uid through said conduit at
said end, said covering including a ?exible cov
imeter of and about said end of the duct, said
covering comprising a frontal portion for attach
ering portion extending from said in?atable
ment to the outer wall of said duct, a trailing
chamber into said conduit along the ?rst said
portion for disposition along the inner wall of 70 inner wall and terminating at a margin for at
said duct and having a rear margin for attach
taching said covering to the ?rst said inner wall
ment to the latter said wall, and an in?atable tube
of the conduit, said portion being ?exed by vir
between said portions for advancing the surface
tue of said in?ation of said chamber away from
of said covering immediately at said end across
the adjacent ?rst said inner wall toward said
said duct toward an opposite inner wall of the 75 opposite inner wall a gradually decreasing extent
‘2,409,433
7
8
toward said margin for promoting smooth flow
the duct toward an opposite inner wall of the
through the conduit at said end.
8. In a duct assembly for aircraft, in combina
tion, a‘ duct having an intake end facing gen
erally in a direction of flow of air, a covering
immediately at said end, under inflation, for el~
fecting throttling of flow of air through said duct
at said end, said part of said covering being moved
attached to the wall of said duct at said end,
and an in?atable passage in said covering be
across said duct away from said inner wall
toward said opposite inner wall at a zone closely
latter in a manner to reduce the area of said duct
adjacent said inflatable passage by virtue of said
inflation of the passage providing a continuous
'said passage within said duct along an inner 10 outer surface in continuation of the outer sur
face overlying said passage to promote smooth
wall of the duct at said end in movable relation
flow of air through the duct at said end.
to said inner wall, said in?atable passage being
constructed and arranged to advance said surface
WILLLSON H. HUNTER.
of said covering immediately at said end across
neath the outer surface thereof at said end, at
least a part of said covering extending beyond
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