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Патент USA US2409438

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Oct. 15,' 1946.
_
M. F, Rall-AY ET AL
2,409,435
l INDICATING MECHANISM
Filed sept.. 15, 1943
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M. F. LKl-:TAY ET AL
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M. F. KETAY ET Al.
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Oct. 15, 1946.
I_Vl. F. KETAY E‘T AL
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Filed sept. 15, 1945
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Oct. 15, 1946.
M. F. KETAY ETAL
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Oct. 15, 1946.
M. F. KETAY ETAL
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.INDI-CATING MECHANISM
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M, F, KETAY ETAL
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Oct. 15, 1946.
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Patented Oct. 15, 17946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
>2,409,435
INDICATING MECHANISM
`Morris F. Ketay and Michael Sherman, Brooklyn,
N. Y., assignors to Bendix Aviation Corporation,
Teterboro, N. J., -a corporation-Lof Delaware
Application September 13, 1943, Serial No. 502,210
V9 Claims. (Cl. 'i3-388)
1
.
\
2
Fig. 19 is a sectional View on line lil-I9 of Fig.
This invention relates to indicating systems,
and particularly to provision of indications of the
12, illustratingïthe manner in which the scissors
`links are pivotally interconected;
speed and distance of travel of a maritime vessel.
An object of the invention is to improve upon
the “log” system disclosed in 1U. S. Patent
Fig. _20 is >a bottom plan view 0f the assembly
of Fig. 12;
Fig. 21 shows, on an enlarged scale, the upper
part of unit “B” as viewed from the front;
No. 1,968,539 to Rydberg, dated July‘31, 1934.
Another 4object of this invention is to provide
Fig. 21A is a fragmental view on an enlarged
means to maintain the »accuracy of the mecha
scale `of the `switch for controlling the power
nism in all tilted positions of the vessel, as from
positions of extreme inclination to that of “even 10 motor shown in Figs. 1 and 21;
Fig. 22 shows, also on an enlarged scale, the
keel” (no roll or pitch).
lower .part (bellows assembly) of unit “B”;
These >and other objects of the invention will
Fig. 22a shows va special wrench Ato facilitate
become apparent from inspection of the follow
installation andremoval of the bellows rod I4;
ing speciñcation when read with reference to the
accompanying drawings wherein is illustrated the 15 Fig. 23 shows a `special wrench to facilitate
installation and removal of thebellows cap |95;
preferred> embodiment of the invention. It is
Fig. 24 is a side elevational view ofthe as
sembly of Fig. -22 as it appears when viewed from
to be expressly understood, however, that the
drawings are for‘the purpose of illustration only,
the right-hand side of that ñgure;
vand are not designed as a deñnition of the limits
of the invention, reference being had to the 20
appended claims for this purpose.
Fig. 26 is a fragmental side view with parts in
section, of the left-hand portion of the “log”
mechanism;
lIn the drawings:
Figs. ->1 and la together show the invention
schematically;
Fig. 2 shows the unit master transmitter"‘B” 25
'of Fig. 1, as viewed from one side with housing
Fig. 25 is a top plan view of the assembly of
Fig. 22;
`
Fig. 27 is a front elevational view of the sub
assembly of` Fig. 26;
Fig. 28 is a longitudinal sectional view along
line `213--28 of Fig. 27;
Fig. 29 shows the rodmeter assembly, includ
for unit B;
ing control valve;
Fig. 4 shows the drive mechanismior‘the speed
Fig. 30 is an end View ofthe assembly of`Fig.
and distance indicating devices;
29 illustrating `the parts as they appear when
Fig. 5 is a fragmental sectional View showing
viewedirom the right-hand side of that ñgure.
the roller assembly of Fig. 4;
Fig. .31 is a view showing the opposite end;
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken along line~6--6
Fig. 32 `is a view showing the handle fixture
.35
of Fig. '7;
secured to the `sea rodof Fig. .29, _the view being
Fig. rI is a sectional view taken along line 1-1
taken at righi-,angles to that view;
of Fig. 4 ;
broken away;
`
Fig. 3 shows one of the rubber'shock mounts
Fig. 8 is an end View of the roller carriage of
Fig. 4;
Fig. 33 is a sectional view taken along line
33-33of Fig. 29;
Fig. 34 is a fragmental top_plan View of the end
Fig. 9 is a longitudinal sectional View of the 40
of the _sea rod of Fig. 29, showing the forwardly
roller carriage taken on line 9-9 of Fig. 8;
disposed Pitot orifice in the Ysea rod;
Fig. 10 shows the drive motor and gear‘train
Fig. 3.5 is a diagrammatic showing of hydrau
for the assembly of Fig. 4;
Fig. 1l is a sectional view taken on line H-II
of Fig. 10;
` lic connections between the rodmeter and loer
45 units;
Fig. 36 is a `diagran'irnatic view showing the
stream lines about the hull of the ship;
Fig. 37 is a diagrammatic showing ofthe rela
Figs. 13, ‘14 and 17 are sectional views taken
tionships between the »Pitot -coemcient and the
along the vrespective section `lines indicated in
50 ¿speed for two Vdifferent log installations;
Fig. 12;
`
`
Fig. 38<is a Ídiagram showing-the elîect of the
Figs. 15 and 16 are Íragmental‘plan views Aof
“A” adjustment upon-the Pitot coefficient;
‘the roller lcarrying ends of the mainforce `arm
Figs. 39 -and 40 are diagrams showing various
and the auxiliary balance ,arm 4shown in Fig. V12;
relationships between L.the measured distance and
Fig. -18 :shows‘a 'testing procedurel‘forzthe arm
55 >the log indicated distance; and
assemblies of Fig. 12;
Fig. 12 is a front elevational view^of the main
force and balance arm assembly;
4
ó
Fig. 41 is a diagram showing the eiïect of the
“B” adjustment upon the Pitot coeñicient.
In Figs. 1 and la the complete system is shown
balance arm I8 returns to its neutral position,
whereupon contact 25 again cuts oiï current Ilow
to power motor 45. Pointer 21 then indicates the
schematically as including a rodmeter A, a mas
new (reduced) speed.
ter transmitter-indicator B, and receiver indi
The functioning of the apparatus is, as pre
viously mentioned, based upon the measurement
cators C, D and E.
The master transmitter
indicator B isv mounted above the ship’s bottom
y
of the pressure in a Pitot tube created by the pre
2, but below the ship’s waterline (see Fig. 35),
vailing speed. The relation between the pressure
and consists of a series of electro-mechanical
' and the speed is expressed by the following for
linkages and a bellows assembly 5, I I, I3 which is 10 mula:
divided into two chambers by means of dia
P=K1J2
phragm I2. A rod I4 moves with the diaphragm
I2, to which it is attached.
where P is the pressure, K a coeñicient (herein
after called the “Pitot coefiicient”) and v the
^
The upper part of the bellows chamber is con
nected with the sea (indicated at I, Fig. 1) 15 speed of the ship.
If the Pitot opening should move in absolute
through the static line -I containing control valve
ly undisturbed Water, the Pitot coeíl‘icient K
3SI, and through static openings 4, one on each
would have a value equal to 1. Actually, the
side and one ñush with the bottom of rodmeter
water surrounding the hull of a moving ship is
A, the latter extending through the ship’s bot
disturbed. The stream lines will diverge and con
tom, indicated at 2 in Figs. 1 and 35.
20 verge, as shown on Fig. 36, the angles varying
rThe outer part of the bellows chamber is con
with the speed of the ship. Also, the depth of
nected with thesea through the Pitot or dynamic
the layer of water that is dragged along with the
line 6 containing control valve 382, and the Pitot
ship Varies at different places of the hull and
oriñce 3 of rodmeter A. Due to equalization of
static pressures acting thereon, through lines 6 25 varies with the speed of the ship. The degree of
disturbance varies in an inverse ratio with the
and "I, diaphragm I2 will remain stationary when
distance from the hull, until it is at a certain
the ship is at rest.
»
distance nil. This latter distance, in turn, varies
With the ship in forward motion (or for an
with the speed of the ship. Therefore, the de
increase in speed), an extra pressure ("speed
pressure”) is created in the Pitot oriñce 3, caus 30 gree of disturbance at the point of the Pitot open
ing will vary with the diiîerent speeds of the
ing vdiaphragm I2 to rise due to unequal Pitot
ship (unless the Pitot tube were to be made long
static pressures. This movement is transmitted
enough to extend beyond the region of disturb
to the scissors mechanism by means of rod I4,
ance, but this is for practical reasons very seldom
and the scissors mechanism (see Figs. 12 and 14)
causes the main balance arm I3 to pivot clock
wise about its pivot shaft 95 (see Fig. 17), there
possible).
35
by causing electrical contact 26 to close a circuit
to energize actuator motor 45, the motor ener
gizing circuit being in several branches, includ
The Pitot coeñicient K in the above mentioned
formula therefore represents the reducing or cor
vrecting inñuence to compensate for the eiïect of
this variable disturbance factor on the speed
pressure.
ing the wires shown in Figures 1 and 21A as
proceeding from contact segments 2ûI-254 en
gageable by the contact element 20. Energiza
Experience has proven that the value of this
coefficient K (plotted against speed) may be rep
tion of these wires leading to the several wind
resented as a straight line, for example, A or B
(see Fig. 37). Of these, the line A represents the
ings of motor 55 produces rotation of said motor,
which rotates cam 25 clockwise (through me
chanical connections 4E, lil, I5, 42 and 22S-Figs.
45
'more common condition encountered in practice.
. To make it easier` to understand the calcula
main force arm 23 to pivot in a counter-clockwise
tions for the proper adjustment of the “log,” the
error of the log will, in the following, be expressed
direction to stretch main spring 23, causing main
as so many per cent (-l~ or _) of the true speed,
4 and 10). As this movement proceeds, it causes
instead of in the form of Pitot coefficient. Com~
paring the two ways of expressing the error of
their neutral position, thus eventually cutting
the log, it will be found that if the Pitot coeiñcient
olî current flow to motor 45, when the neutral
to which the log is adjusted is too low compared
position is attained. Rod ld and the attached
with the actual Pitot coeñicient of the ship, the
bellows are accordingly depressed by the cam ac
tion into their original positions and a certain 55 log will indicate too high a speed and a greater
distance than that actually travelled, giving a
amount of water is forced back into line 6. Main
positive percentage error. If, on the other hand,
force arm 23 however, remains in its new (spring
the log is adjusted for a Pitot coefficient that is
tensioning) position, and pointer 21, attached to
too high, then the percent of error will be nega
the shaft 22S of cam 25, whose angular position
tive.
'
reflects the angular position of arm 23, except 60
Without
adjusting
means,
the
error
of the ap
for the fact that the cam is given a contour to
paratus would, with a Variable Pitot coefficient,
convert the non-rectilinear relationship between
also be variable. This variation may gradually
bellows pressure and speed into a straight line
increasefrom
say 2% at low speeds to 6% at high
relationship on the indicator dial whereby the
speeds, or decrease from say 6% at low speeds to
latter may be provided with scale divisions of 65 2% at high speeds.
equal value, will then indicate the ship’s speed
The disclosed apparatus has three adjustments,
_on scale 25.
balance arm I S and Contact 22 to return toward
designated herein as “A,” “B” and “0.”
'
Upon a decrease in speed, the rod I4 moves
» The “C” adjustment (internally threaded sleeve
downward, allowing main balance arm I8 to
I6, Figs. 1, 12 and 14) relates only to the adjust
pivot in a counterclockwise direction. Contact 70 ment of the zero position of the mechanism, i. e.
20 then closes another circuit and starts the ac
to bring pointer 2'I to zero when the ship is at rest.
tuator motor 45 in the opposite direction, turn
ing cam 25 counterclockwise, which causes main
force arm 23 to pivot clockwise, reducing the
force transmitted through spring 28, until main
The adjustment “A” is for the adjustment of
the main spring 28 (Fig. 1) through increasing or
decreasing the number ofeffective windings of
the same. The adjustment “B” is for Ithe ad
‘2,409,435
justment of the regulating effect of the auxiliary
spring 2l (Fig. l) on the moment `exerted by
-auxiliary arm I9 upon'themain lever It. '
By means of adjustments “A” 4and "“B” Vthe
apparatus isset for the actual Pitot coeii’icientof
the ship, as determined by runningthe »shipove'r
a measured course.
Y
Figures 38 and 41 illustrate the inñuence-ofthe
adjustments “A” and"‘B” upon the mechanism,
from which it is observed that the effect of .the
“A” adjustment is constant at all speeds, whereas
‘the “B” adjustment maybe so carried out as .to
manifest either an increasing or decreasing action
as the speed increases.
`-positely‘tolthe moment of themain spring 28¢and
thereby reducingA the eiïect of the same `on` the
'mainleven
t
p
Likewise, if the adjustment “B” is set to thele'ft,
_the runner -32 will force the auxiliary lever 3| to
`the left, whereby the moment of Athe auxiliary
spring on the main lever will add‘to the moment
Jof the main spring on that lever.
`When the speed indicating hand 21 points to
zero, the-setting of the “B” adjustment on either
side of its Zero position d-oes not have any effect
on the roller, between the guides of the runner,
because the axisof the roller then coincides with
the axis of sector 32, but as soon as the hand
Fig. v3'? is a graph showingl the relationship be 15 leaves its Zero position, the increasing or decreas
ing effect of the auxiliary spring will increase with
tween-the Pitot coefücient and speed for two> dif
the speed, and the further to the left `or to the
ferent installations from which it is observed
right'the “B” adjustment is set, the greater «will
that a‘straight line ratio exists in both instances.
this effect be. Fig. 41 shows graphically the in
In most instances however, the relationship‘will
fluence of the “B” adjustment on the Pitot co
assume the form of line A, with the coeflicient
efficient. The line B represents the Pitot co
1
`efficient with the “B” adjustment set at zero. B1
VIn Fig. 39 the relationships between .the meas
shows the effect of the “B” adjustment set to the
ured mile `and the mile as indicated by the log
left. Bn shows the effect of the “B” adjustment
are illustrated, the‘left-hand diagram showing a
set still further to the left. Bm shows the effect
negative error, with the indicated mile shorter
of the “B” adjustment set to the right, and BIV
than the actual distance, the middle diagram
shows the effect of the “B” adjustment set still
showing the correct setting with Vthe indicated
further to the right. It is thus obvious that if the
and measured distances equal, and the right
Pìtot coefficient is increasing‘with the speed, the
hand diagram showing'a positive error.' Fig. 40
“B” adjustment Vmust be set to the left in order
30
diagrammatically shows the results `of several
to increase the moment on the main lever to bal
readings taken over a comparatively longmeas
increasing with the speed.
ured run.
At first, the “B” adjustment issupposed to be
set in its zero position. When thespeed-indicat
ance the increased moment of the force from the
bellows on that lever, and bring about'correct ,
indications.
If, on the other hand, the Pitot coefficient is
ing hand leaves zero, the sector 32 (Fig. 1) moves 35
decreasing with increasing speed, the “B” ad
downward and continues to descend until the pre
justment must be set to the right in order to de
vailing speed is reached. With the “13" adjust
crease the moment of the springs on the main
ment in the zero position, this movement will not
lever and balance the decreased moment of the
have any influence on the roller attached to the
arm 3l of the auxiliary lever AI 9 (Fig. `1) , the roller 40 force from the bellows.
`From what is stated above, it will be under
remaining in the same position during the whole
» stood that by meansof the “A” adjustment, a cor
time, as will behereinafter pointed out. There
rection can be performed which affects all indi
fore, the system will not be influenced by the aux
cations alike with a >constant percentage as the
iliary tension spring 2l, but only by the main
tension spring 28, and equilibrium will be obtained 45 speed increases, and by the “B” adjustment there
is effected a correction which aifects the indi
when the latter spring is moved into a position
cations with an increasing or decreasing per
for which its moment, (tension “a” times lever
centage as the vessel’s speed increases.
age “b”) is equal to .the moment of the force of
Motor 45, which drives the cam 25 through shaft
the bellows (“c” times “d”) on the same lever.
4l, also drives gears 35, screw 36, gears 3T and
50
The tension of the main spring, however, can
screw 3B, positioning carriage £61 and friction
be adjusted by screwing plug 29 (Fig. 1) into or
wheel 39 along the surface of disc 40, the latter
out of the spring, thereby varying the number of
being driven at constant speed by a synchronous
eiïective turns. This is adjustment “A.” >By de
motor lll a worm 48 and a worm gear E. The
creasing or increasing the number of effective
driving ratio of friction wheels ¿mand 39 thus
55
turns, the spring will be made stiffer or weaker.
varies directly as the distance from the point of
Thus if the system (when tested by running the
frictional Contact to the center of disc 4S; and
vessel over a measured course) should indicate
since
the follower 39 is driven by the sanremo-tor
too high, the main spring 28 must be stiffened
45 that positions the speed pointer 21, it follows
(“A” adjustment increased in numerical value)
that the distance from the frictional `contact point
so that the moment is increased to obtain correct 60 to the disc center varies directly as the ship’s
indications. The effect of such an adjustment is
speed. 'When follower 39 is therefore set sn that
graphically illustrated in Fig. 38. The line A rep
when the log indicates Zero speed, it is at the
resents a certain Pitot coefficient and the lines
. center of disc 40. Therefore, the mileage odometer
Ai and An represent, respectively, the new values
'l2 (shown in Fig. la as electrically and mechani
65
of Pitot coefficient when the number of effective
cally coupled to the follower 39 through differ
turns of the main spring is decreased orV increased,
ential'24 and synchronous units ‘55 and l0) will
it being observed that the `effects of the several
indicate
the distance travelled (nautical miles).
adjustments remain constant forall speeds. ,
The unit “C” (Fig. la) includes not only the
Now, if the adjustment B (screw 33, Fig. ‘1) is
set to the right of its zero position, the sector 32, 70 odometer 12 but also a speed dial I0 and pointer
68, operated b-y a self-synchronous motor 67 con
when moving downward will force the auxiliary
nected to a synchronous unit 48, the latter being
‘lever 3H (through its roller) to the right. The
shown in Fig. 1 as driven by gears 5| and 52,
auxiliary‘spring 2l will then be pulled to the right
which are in turn driven by power motor 45
and at‘the 'same time stretched, whereby it vwill
"throughconnections
4B, 41, ' I 5, ~42 and 220‘ewhich
-eXert a moment Aon `the -main 1lever acting -op
7
2,499,435
drive speed pointer 21 (see Figs. 4 and 26). The
arrowheads in the lower portion of Figure 1a
denote connections to sources of alternating cur
rent.
The units “D” and “E” (Fig. 1) are electrically
synchronized with synchronous generators 43 and
55, respectively.
.
8
>tion coupling (not shown) may be employed to
secure the rheostat arm to its shaft. Rheostat
60 is of such electrical value that when it has '
reached the maximum resistance position just re
ferred-to, induction motor 62 still supplies a small
torque to the transmitter 55. It will reach that
position, however, only at low speeds and small
loads, and under these conditions the speed of
the output shaft 8| is held to the speed of the
gear 42, which is fastened to that shaft and driven 10 input shaft 42 by the friction between driving
by a worm I5 on shaft 41 (Figs. 1 and 4). The
disc 40 and follower 39. At high speeds and large
latter is driven by power motor 45, through a
loads, however, the torque output of the induc
pinion I4I on the motor shaft meshing with a gear
tion motor 62 is adjusted to the load through the
46 on a worm-shaft 30; a worm |44 meshing with
above-described novel control of rheostat 60.
Rotation proportional to the speed of the ship
is transmitted to pointer shaft 220 (Fig. 26) by
a worm gear |46 carried by a shaft 44; and a gear 15
As heretofore noted, the main force and bal
|41 on shaft 44 which meshes with gear |49 on
ance arm assembly (Figs. l2 to 2l) consists of
shaft 41. The cam 25, fastened to the pointer
three levers: the main balance arm I8, the main
shaft 229 is so designed that in turning an amount
force arm 23, and the auxiliary Ibalance arm I9,
proportional to the ship’s speed, it restores to
which together form the equilibrating arrange
neutral the main force and balance arm assembly 20 ment. The main balance arm has a counter
23-I8--I9, thus moving contact arm 20 to neu
weight 94, which brings its center of gravity into
tral position and shutting off the power motor 45.
the center line of balance shaft 95 (Fig. 17) about
This speed indicating rotation is transmitted by
which it pivots on ball bearings 96. Counter
gear 5I (on the pointer .shaft 220) to gear 52, in
weight
94 is not intended to be moved from its
such a ratio that 240° rotation of the pointer shaft 25
position, as this would cause errors in readings,
220 results in 360° rotation of the gear 52, and
hence of the synchronous generator 48, which is
driven by said gear (Fig. 26).
uncorrectable by the adjustments provided.
Similarly, main force arm 23 carries a counter
weight 85 for balancing it.
The novel means for amplifying the torque
The moments acting on the main balance arm
available for operating the distance transmitter 30
I8, which maintain it in equilibrium, are pro
55 is best shown in Figs. 26, 27 and 28, and in
duced by:
cludes a differential 24 and a follow-up motor 62,
1. The force produced by the bellows and trans
each geared to transmitter 55. Motor 62 is con
mitted through the rod I4 to the main balance
nected to motor 55 by means of a pinion 63, a gear
64, a pinion 65, and gear 66 fixed to the shaft 35 arm I8 (see Fig. 12) ;
2. The force produced by the main spring 28
of motor 55. A bevel gear 235 on the shaft of
acting through an anchor screw |02 on the rock
transmitter 55 meshes with a gear 223 carried
er bearing 98, attached to the upper end of the
by a sleeve 6I journalled in one arm of a pedestal
main balance arm I8 (see Fig. 17); and
80. Rotation proportional to distance travelled
3. The force produced by the auxiliary spring
is transmitted from disc 39 to the differential 24 40
2| acting on spring holder 99 and anchor screw
through the universal joint 42. With the trans
|00 attached to the upper right portion of the
verse spindle of differential 24 stationary, the
main balance arm (Figs. l2 and 13).
two differential gears 53, 54 transmit (with a
The top of the rod I4, as shown in Fig. 14, has
reversal of direction) the rotation of input gear
a cap |0I receiving a pin 299 to which are pivotal
-56 to output gear 51. Through bevel gears 223
ly attached the arms 300 of the scissors arrange
and 235 (Fig. 28), and a hollow shaft 6I, output
ment, which scissors arrangement also includes
gear 51 drives the distance transmitter (syn
chronous generator) 55.
arms 30| disposed on either side of the pivot
member 91 (Fig. 14), which in turn is slidably
A rheostat 60 controls the torque output of mo
tor 62, and is operated by a shaft 233 extending 50 received in the bracket 25| extending. laterally
from the main arm I8. The corresponding arms
from the spider of differential 24, which carries
the gears 53 and 54. When the reaction of the
300 and 30| of the scissors are pivotally connected
to each other within the depending leg 241 of
load on the distance transmitter 55 exceeds the
friction of rheostat 69, the output gear 51 of the
the bracket 25|. A tension spring I1 acts upon
differential revolves more slowly than the input 55 the ends of the scissors elements, and the joint
gear 56, and the spider of the differential rotates,
thus formed is adapted to exert a constant pres
turning shaft 238 and rheostat S0 in such a
sure urging fulcrum |05 of cap IOI into into en
direction as to decrease the resistance, causing
gagement with its seat in bearing member 91.
the follow-up motor 62 to supply additional
The latter and fulcrum |05 convert vertical move
torque to the unit 55. Similarly, when the out 60 ment of the rod I4 (in either direction) into a
put gear 51 revolves faster than the input gear
swinging movement of the main balance arm I8
56, the differential shaft 23S turns rheostat 60 in
about its pivot shaft 95 (see Fig. 17). For each
such direction as to increase its resistance, caus
turn of the micrometer thimble I5, the microm
ing a decrease in the torque supplied to the unit
eter barrel |03 moves upward against micrometer
55 by follow-up motor 62. Thus, the differential 65 spring |04 a distance of 0.1 inch, which is trans
24, in combination with motor 92, functions as a
mitted to the main lever at the pivot 91, thereby
power amplifier and keeps the input and output
providing a zero adjustment, called the “C” ad
gears revolving at synchronous speeds without
justment. The number of turns, as well as frac
overloading the integrating mechanism.
tions of turns, can be observed on the scale pro
Should the arm of rheostat 60 reach the limit 70 vided, and the whole arrangement locked by
of its motion before synchronism is attained, ad
ditional load is applied to the integrating mech
means of a stop screw threaded into a boss |96
(Fig. 12). The stop screw is threaded into sleeve
anism, but before slipping can occur between the
|03 and bears against the shank of screw I4' so
disc 40 and follower 39, the rheostat arm slips
as to lock the two parts against relative rotation.
on its driving shaft. Any suitable type of fric 75 The “C” adjustment changes the effective length
2,409,435u l
101'
It should. be» particularly observed that at zero
speed the axis of rollers |26 coincideswith the
axis of segment 32. Accordingly, the latter may
be adjusted at zero speed without increasing or
decreasing the stress in either the main or
of: the» rod I4 connectingthe bellows-,to the mainv
balance arm I8.
Themain spring 28 is attached to the 1main
force arm: 23 through axle |28 on ball bearings
|69;` Theforce produced by the main spring 28
upon the main balance arm I3 depends upon the
auxiliary tension springs. Leadscrew :aß engages
position of the main force arm 23` which pivots
on ball bearings I I I carried by-balance shaft IIB,
along its guides.
under the action of thev main cam upon ball bear-`
ing roller 42 (Fig. 12), which is kept in contact
a nut |54 on the slide and propels the latter
Contact arm. 2i) holding. slide contact |32 is
10y
with the cam by a force load spring 28.
The adjustment ofthe main spring 28 is effecti
ed‘ by turningy the spring thirnble 29 fastened to
the spring adjustment screw Ill, whereby the
number of effective windings of the spring is
increased or decreased. Thel number of turns
can be read off on the thimble scale (Fig. l2)
and' fractions‘of turns on the rim of the thirnble
fastenedto‘the main balance arm through the
contact pivotV |34 and the contact arm support
5.36. Spring 6.3.1 vkeeps the proper` pressure atl
the-.contact surfaces at all times. The action of
the contacts and the power motor are described
hereinafter.
Spur gearV titl (Fig. lo) on the shaft of power
motor. 55 meshes with gear 45, turning wormv |44.
carried by a shaft 371i. As shown in Fig. 11., worm
wheel` |45 isy on a shaft 44 which also carries av
itself. This is called the “A” adjustment, and af spur gear |41, the latter meshing with a gear
20
fects' the log indications by the same percentage
|49, which, as shown in Fig. 4, is mounted upon
at' all` speeds. Referring to Figs. 12 and 1.4, a
and operates the worm shaft 4T.. Worm shaft 41
dependingbracket 241 carried by a side arm 25|
>drives worm I5, which in turn drives worm wheel
formed on lever i8 cooperates inv guiding rela
42, the latter being keyed to shaft 220, as is also
tionsliip` with> the sides of scissors elements 350
the cam 25, as shown best on. Fig. 26. Bevel gear
and 3|l|1 to prevent bodily rotation of theV latter
35 on the drive shaft ill drives another bevel
ab outta .vertical axis;
gear which turns lead screw 35, meshing with
The upper end- of the auxiliary spring` 2| is
follower nut. |54 (Fig. 6). When the speed of
attached; tothe top of the auxiliary‘balance arm
the ship increases, this follower nut, together
la: (Fig;.13‘> by means of spring force hub |22
gear sector and roller guide |56, is driven
mountedzinball bearings> |23. The auxiliary bal 30 with.
downwardly along slide shafts `|58 (Fig.` 7).
ance arm I9: is` forlnshaped so as to straddle
balance arm Ißf and pivots on' ball bearings 95
(Fig. 17) about balance shaft 95', the latter being
journalled in the frame inl bearings |01. An
arm. 3f carriedby the upper end` of the auxiliary
balance arm isiprovided at its outer end with two
Since thevslidel llt and cam 25 are permanently
interconnected by shaft 4l and the associated
gearing, it is» apparent that for any given angular
., position of cam 25 theslide IIS` will assume a
predetermined position along its guides.
Thus the movement of roller guide |55 is pro
ball bearings |25A that ride between two guides
portional to speed variation, and causes the “BP
carried'. by sector 32:, which by means of the “B”`
correction- to be automatically effective upon the
adjustment are madel to rotate the auxiliary
balance arml through an angle proportional to 40 actionof contact arm 2|), so as to out off current
flow to motor. 45 at the proper point in the move
the` speed of the ship, introducing an auxiliary
ment
of. speedV pointer 21.
moment, whichy affects the readings by a con-`
At, the upper end of the lead screw shaft` 35 ‘
starrt. rate of increase or decrease of percentage
isa bevel. gear drive 3.1 which turns center lead
as the speed` increases. This “B” adjustment is
screw 38', journalled inframe It?. (Fig. 8). The
45
effected' by rotation. of knob 3‘3.
latter slidably supports a guide rod. I'IIJ which
Rotation of knob 33, by hand, turns- a worm
in turn-supportsfa pair of arms |24 and |25. As
H4 which rotates gear sector 32 and roller guide
seen in Fig. 9, armv |24 has a nut portion |21
i513 about pivot |55, changing the angle‘the roller
meshing with lead screw 38. Arm |25 is forked,
guide makes with the lead screw 35, a measure
of which is indicated on “B” scale 34 by pointer 50 so'as to straddlefarm |24 and. roller 39 is jour
nalled in the two legsthereof as seen in Fig. 5.
täl? (Fig. fl). As seen in Figs. 4, 6, and 7, guide
Thelegsare alsolprovided with adjustable stop
|58 has a high side and a low side for coacting
screws |23 whichv cooperate with limit switches
engagement with the two> rollers |25., without`
|81,` |82, and. |83. A spring I'II acts upon por
lost motion. Sector 52 is carried by a slide IIB
which is guidedfor movement on a pair of bars- 55 tions of arms |24V and |25» so as to constantly
urge the roller toward the disc.
or rods |55. The latter are so located that a
To sum up, the following devices are driven
radius from shaft B5 will bisect guidesv |55, when
by. the» power motor `45: the main shaft 41 and
neutral position. Therefore when the guide
cam 25 and pointer shaft 222, the screw spindle
is in its neutral position, movement of the slide
ofl the runner of the “B” adjustment, and
will not produce movement of auxiliary arm’ I9. 60
the‘screw spindle 33 of the distance transmitter
If? the roller guide is rotated-clockwise from thev
which moves the friction wheel 39 across the
zero position> (guide parallel to lead screw), the
face of the constant speed disc 45.
auxiliary balance arm is rotated clockwise, in
Follower roller 35` (Fig. 5) is pinned to the
troducing a moment opposing that of the main
forcev arm, causing the log to indicate for aV 65 universal joint 42 which rotates on ball bearings
mounted. in the legs of forked arm |25. Spring
constant` speedv pressure av higher speed than
|.ll` (Fig. 8) keeps the proper pressure between
that obtained with the roller guide parallel to
follower roller` 39 and driving disc 4E). Joint 42
the lead screw. Similarly, counterclockwise rota
provides sufficient endwise lost motion or play to
tion of the roller guide from its Zero position
produces for a- constant speed pressure a lower>
speed indication than that obtained with` the
roller guide parallel to. the lead screw. This
“B” adjustment, as noted, affects the log indica
tions by a constant rate of increase or decreaseÁ
in percentage as the speed increases.
permit roller 39 to move from the center to the
periphery. of disc (lâ. The` disc is driven at con
stantspeed. by. synchronous motor 4|, through
a- w-orm S anda worm gear 9„which provide the
desired speed of rotation of disc 40 as heretofore
75 pointed out. (Fig. 1). Motor` 4| isrconnected to
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