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ì.. 15, 1946.
H. F.Ros1' ETAL
Filed Feb. 4, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
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i-\Q\3e Fablan Rosi’
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PèrHûrrjihas messen
Oct. 15, 1946.
Filed Feb. 4, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
0d» 15, 1946-
H. F. RosT Erm.
Filed Feb. 4, 1941
5 sheets-sheet s
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Par Har-T5 Ella Chlesson
12m, ATTN.
Oct. l5, 1946.
Filed Feb. 4, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
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Filed Feb. 4, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
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TArr-:s #PATENT oFF‘lca Í
Helge Fabian _ Rost, Djursholm, Karl Harry
Thunell, Nockeby, Stenl Daniel Yigrem-Stock- -
holmyand Per Harry Elias Claesson, Jakobs
berg, Sweden
Application February 4, 1941, Serial No. 377,344
in Sweden January 10, i940
is claims.' (ci. 25o-1.54)
time.> required for adjustment of the. sound lag.
The present invention generally relates to a
'- device'. for ñre control devices for artillery and
the like and hasreference in particular tol ap
paratus for automatic continuous determination
of direction and distance in space of stationary
or movable objects by means of directed waves
and preferably ultrashort radio waves.
The invention is particularly suitable for anti
aircraft defense, irrespective of whether a plane
is visible -from the place of observation or, for
example, is invisible due to the fact that it is
ñylng above the clouds or in the dark or behind
smoke screens.
corrector, of the position comparatonßthe> aim
ing of the search light, lighting same and search- .
ing for the target, it will be clear that there re
main' but a few seconds to obtain distance meas
urements and for iiring and aiming the guns.
Valuable time’is thus lost in operating and ’sad
`J‘usting all these instruments and the anti-air- _
craft artillery- often has lnot -even ~time to ñre a ’
single shot at the attacking air'fo'rces.
and the whole antiaircraftvdefense can 'be con- '
siderably simpliñed and cheapened. At the same
time the efñciency of the air defence will be con
The invention is also suitable for use on vessels
at sea to spot objects on land, at sea or in the air.
The invention is also suitable to act as an anti
aircraft alarm for remote indication at a central
siderably increased.
According to the present invention direction
spots on fluorescent- screens for instance, on
se 4which the battery commander can simultaneously
server can immediately, automatically and con
observe the distances and side and elevation an
' y tinuously be indicated or observed, as it the-ob
jects in reality were visible.
The invention according to its general scope l
can be -put to a multitude of diñerent uses of
- .
According to the present invention a general
locating device is used which makes possible the
direct observation of targets- by means of light
. iire control command.
l and distances of which are invisible to an ob
Much -
' valuable time is saved by the present invention
gles ofthe objects in the air with respect to the
place of observation. This observation is inde
pendent of the weather, of clouds, smoke screens
and thel like and can equally well .be made at
which the following application to antiaircraft
night as in day time.
defense is but one example; "same will be more Y
’ Such a device causes no appreciabletime delay
and as soon as an aircraft comes within the field
closely described hereafter.
For air defense the main object of the inven
of actionof the device, the aircraft can continu
. tion is to rapidly locate enemy aircrafts and to`
>ously be observed with respect to‘direction as
well'as to distance.
In brief, the present invention comprises a de
simultaneously prepare and direct the antiair
craft guns against such aircraft.
vHeretofore many` expensive instruments have I . vice for locating and following objects in space
been necessary forA each _antiaircraft battery,
by'means vof rotatable transmittingand receiv
such as sound- detectors, sound-lag correctors, 35 ing means pointing in substantially the same di
_position comparators, searchlights as well as vari
rection for the transmission and reception of
ous transmission and remote control systems,
directed radio Waves reflected from the object.
The transmitting and receiving‘means are pro
which instruments are used at night in addition
to the- following regular artillery instruments:
vided with driving means for' rotating them in
Range and direction iinders, instruments for the 40 one or more planes.- According to the invention,
measuring of angle of elevation, side angle,'inspecial directing means are coupled to said driv
ing means ‘and adapted to vautomatically turn
struments for measuring the velocities of said
angles 4and also theaccelerations of the same
angles, several of 4'which instruments are included
' in a complicated central control instrument.
f Heretofore, airplanes and other aircraft were
spotted bymeans of a sound locator arranged to
listen to the motor’ or propeller sound emitted
from an aircraft. Its greatest range under fa
vourable conditions is about 10 kilometers. At 50
normal velocities, for example at 360 km/hour, a -
._ bombing.v plane will travel a great part of said
' distance :before the sound isnoticed at the sound l -
4 locatorAv and same is adjusted for sure following
'of the-target.-
said transmitting and receiving means in pre
determined paths in saidv plane or in any of said
planes in order to systematically search out an
object in space`
Furthermore, amplifying and
distributing means are provided. Same are cou
pled tothe receiving means and‘to an electro
magnetic operating device and adapted to trans
fer received radio energy to said loperating de
vice.l The, latter is constituted for instance by
vcurrent direction sensitive indicating relays. At
the moment when-reilectedenergy from a located
object. is received by the receiving means, these
Wh‘en We further' consider .the 65 ‘relays actuate a switching device coupled-to
the same. The switching device serves to discon
short radio waves. 21 is a receiver of the same
nect said directing means from said driving
kind. Both transmitter and receiver are rotat-means, in order to establish control of said
able and mounted on a shaft 28 which'is driven
driving means for foliowlng'said object in ac
by a motor (not shown on the drawings). At the
cordance with the movements of said relays,
same time as the shaft 28 is rotated, the trans
whereby the amplifying and distributing means
mitter and the receiver are arranged to turn 90°
are adapted successively to receive and _amplify
from horizontal to vertical searching position and
amounts of radio energy from two somewhat di
vice versa. The turning takes place around the
verging directions in the same plane, correspond
center pin 29 by means of Worm gear 3l, shaft 30
ing to equal parts of the field of search. .As a 10 and motor 32. The shaft 30 and motor 32 are
result, two such successively received amounts
mounted on shaft 28 in known manner. The
whole structure is turned in such a way that the
energy diiference delivered to said relays in`or-_
transmitter and the receiver describe a spiral
der to indi ate the movements of said'obiect in
curve so that the whole or part of the sky can
space in ,c e direction or the other. in the re 15 be searched. The rapidity of the searching op
spective plane, depending upon which amount`
eration depends on the velocity of shaft 28 and
of radio energy, are transferred and the resulting
of energy is the greater.
the exactness of the picture that is desired,
According to another embodiment of the in
By means of collector rings on respective shafts
and iixedly arranged contact brushes, or vice
the target, for example an aircraft, and once 1o' 20 versa, connection of the integral moving electri
cated the device will closely follow said target so
cal'parts of a circuit to stationary parts ci' the
that at every moment its position and distance
device can be made.
from the point of observation can be observed
33 is an ampliiier for received radio waves. 34
and- read.
is a device comprising, for example, condensers
By means of Aa synchronous drive between the 25 of variable impedance for variable frequencies so
device and the guns of a battery, provided the
that more current is allowed to pass at high fre
necessary corrections of the shooting elements
quencies than at low ones. 35 and 4D are rectify
are made, the locating device and guns can be
ing devices. 36 is a condenser. 31-38 and
vention the device can also automatically locate
made to follow each other in such a Way that ‘
42--43 are potentiometers or circular resistances
with the necessary ahead-aiming-correction de 30 fixed
on the shaft 23. 4| is an amplifying de
pending upon the speed of the target, a perfect
hit upon _the target can be made. The artillery
menhave thus only to set the time fuse of the
projectiles to make them explode at the predeter
mined range.
vice connected to the baille plates of'cathode ray
tubes 39 and 46. 39 is a cathode ray tube with
plane fluorescentscreen and 4B is a cathode ray
tube with semi-spherical screen.
The device shown in Fig. 1, which is particu
vlarly adapted to locate aircrafts and the like, op
.The ‘invention will be 'readily understood on
‘reference yto the 1 accompanying drawings in
erates in the following way. While transmitter
and receiver 26 and 21 rotate on shaft 28they
turn at the same time more slowly about pin 29
paratus for locating aircraft, whereby distance 40 in vertical direction, and move, for example, from
and sideangle to the target can be observed on
horizontal to vertical position and back to hori
a fluorescent screen, while on another screen the
zontal position. It’ desired, the vertical movement '
elevation and side angles to the same target can
can .be limited to only a certain minor sector.
be observed.
Shaft 28 can- also be given a back and forth move
Fig. l2 is a diagram- showing. an automatic, in 45. -ment instead of a continuously rotating motion, if
dividual target locating and following device in
only a certain part of the sky is to be observed.
Fig. 1 d_iagrammatically shows an auxiliary ap
three dimensions together with instruments for
the determination of the exact distance to said .
’I_'he transmitter 26 emits preferably frequency
modulated ultrashort and directed radio waves'
target at any moment. The device is provided A which, in part, can be directly received by the'
Y with one transmitter and four receivers for ultra 50 receiver 21. If the emitted radio waves encoun
short radio waves.
Fig. 3 is a diagram showing a ytarget locating
device arranged to send'out a flat vertical cur
tain of radio waves and including four receivers.
ter on their way, for example an aircraft, they
are partly reñected bythe same and as a result,
the reñected waves canI be received by the re--l
ceiver 21. A beat frequency is thereby formed
Fig. 4 is an abbreviated diagram _showing a 55 between. the emitted and the reflected received
4general nre control post and an individual target , wave which frequency can be measured and is
locating and following `device according to Fig. 2'
proportional‘to the distance.
The obtained beat frequency is amplified in
Fig. 5 illustrates a modification of the device
the ampliñer 33whereafter the amplified current
Iaccording to Fig. 2, comprising one receiver but 60 lis divided.- >one part flowing via the frequency
two parabolic reflectors or the like to receive re
sensitive amplifying device 34 and rectifier 35 to
flected radio waves.
the potentiometers 31 and 38 and the deilecting
Fig. 6 is a variation of Fig. 1 for general locat
plates of the cathode ray tube 38.
ing of aircraft and the transmission oi' alarm
The other part of the amplified-current flows «
or Fig. 3.
signals to a remote control central station as soon 65 .via rectiñer 4l) and the amplifying device 4| to
. as an aircraft enters the range of the locator
device, said alarm signals to be sent over existing
lines, for example telephone ~lines without mate.
rially interrupting'normal service over said lines.v
the baille plates of cathode ray tubes 39 and 46.
Upon receipt of a reflected wave a deflected
electron ray 41 of cathode ray tube 39 will pro-duce a light spot on the fluorescent screen,
Fig. 7 is a diagram showing several fire con
whereby the distance from the center of said
trol districts connected to the fire control central
screen is proportional to the distance to the air
station, where a lamp signal is located at the
craft. The side direction of the latter is directly
exact spot of the map, that corresponds to the
given with reference to a certain known coordi
location of the particular locator device.
« In Fig. 1 26 is -atransmitter for directed ultra
nate system, because, due to the potentiometers
75 31 and 38 and the deflection plates the corre
- 2,409,448
sponding light spot always falls in the same di
echo is produced. 'I'his
echo >is received by receivers 50-53, which by
' an’object in space an
rection towards which the receiver 21 is directed.
It should be clear that instead of the potentiomàv
eters shown in the drawings may be used any*other known device to- obtain synchronous move
' ment between the cathode ray and the receiver
means of» collector devices 55-58 are successively
connected to the amplifier 6|, each one during
V4 of a vturn of shaft 50.
62 is a rectifier device. 63--51 are partly insu
without departing from the scope of the inven
lated collector rings transposed 541 of a revolution
with respect to each other and adapted to let cur
rent» pass to the condensers 68, 69 or 10, '|| at the
In order to obtain the elevation and side angles
to a certain aircraft, orin order that the battery
commander may know at least if an aircraft or
same moment when `the corresponding collector
rings 55-59 make their contacts. The receivers
other target is situated at the given distance high
52 and 53 correspond to condensers 69 and 68
in the sky or on the horizon, we use the cathode
respectively. 12 and`13 are amplifying devices.
ray tube 46. Tube 46 is provided with a semi-14 and 15`are polarized relays, each provided with
spherical ñuorescent screen. By means of the 15 'two windings and contacts 8|, 82, 83 and 84, 85,
potentiometer-s 42 and 43 connected to the de
86 respectively; If condensers 68 and 59 receive
ñection plates of the tube 46, a light spot is ob-. ' equal charges, they discharge equally through the
tained showing the side angle of the target or
windings of relay-14, but in opposite directions.
of the receiver 2l.
so that the relay isjnot actuated. If, however.
By combining with said potentiometers a p0
the target‘is v»not located symmetrically with re-`
tentiometer 44 arranged in combination with Vthe
>spect to receivers -52 and 53, one condenser will
axis or` pin 29 the electron ray of tube 48 can be
moved so that it will always point in exactly-the
receive more energy than _the other. As a result, -
due to discharge through relay windings ‘|4 relay
same direction as the receiver 21.
armature 82wil1 be moved to one side or the other.
In certain cases it will be suii'lcient if only 25 The same is true with respect to receiver 50 and
tube 46 is used for the purpose 'ofobtaining both
5|, condensers 1I- and l0, respectively, and the
polarized relay 15.
side and elevation angles, While the` distance could
at any moment ,be read on a frequency and dis
If thus condensers 68 and 59 thus obtain equal
tance indicating instrument which in'sucli a case ' charges through receivers 52, 53', due to refiection
should be connected instead of the frequency 30 of waves from a target it means that each receiver
sensitive device 34.
‘receives an equally -large amount of energy re
flected from said target.' Accordingly, the target
must be located exactly ahead and'syinmetrically
According to a modification of the present in
vention, general orientation with reference to the
target can be achieved by using only the spheri
cal tube 46.
On the screen of the latter an ap
proximate indication of the distance can be ob
tained. In such a case tube 39 and potentiom
eters 3l and 38 are not needed. ~ The condensers
with respect to transmitterv 59 and receivers 52
and 53.
' 79 is a relay that _operates as soon as one of
polarized relays l5 or lä‘closes one of its contacts.
Elements | to'25 are contacts controlled by relay
35 are charged proportionally to the beat fre
79. Relays 8l and 88 are pole changing' relays
quency when an echo is received; said condenser 40 adapted to turn shaft 'il by means of motor '54
can be connected for a short moment in series
in one directionor the other. Similarly, relays
with the deflection plates of tube d5 by means
90 and 9| are pole changing relays. Shaft |03
of rapid (electron) relays that can be actuated by
is driven by motor I8 over worm gear 92. 0n said
the received amplified echo current. In such a
shaft are mounted contact wheel 93 with cam 94
way an extra deflection of the cathode ray can 45 and contact wheel 98 with cam 9,9 which cams
be obtained which extra deflection indicates the
approximative distance to the target looked for.
Measurement of the radial velocity of the target
operate their make contacts 95--97 and H10-H12
imi is a frequency meter which serves to indi
is carried out by means of a distance indicating
cate when the receivers are pointing directly at
instrument, for example, by means of the rectified 50 the target. §05 is a precision frequency meter.
beat frequency. If, for example, in Fig. l such
to be read when the ‘target is located exactly in
an instrument with series-connected condenser
the common axis of the transmitter and the
is disposed in parallel with the frequency sensitive
receivers. l0_6 is a break contact adapted to free
device 34, an indication of the variation of poten
the device for searching out another target as
tial is obtained. _inasmuch as the deñection of 55 soon as the first target‘is located or shot down.
>said instrument is proportional to zii/dt of the
Instead of the relays '15, 8l and 88 an electron
current through the said- condenser, and the dis
relay device can in known manner be utilized and
tance is a certain function of the common poten
connected between the amplifier 13 and the mo
tial, a means of measuring the radial velocity of
the target is obtained.l
tor 56 to drive said motor at a variable speed pro- -
60 portional to the speed of the target so that the
- In Fig. 2, element 59 is a directed short wave
transmitter and receivers are always pointing
exactly at the target no matter in which direc»
klystron or a velocity modulated tube. 50, 5|, 52
>tion same is moving. Two gas filled electron re
and 53 are four receivers symmetrically arranged
lays may be provided, one corresponding, for ex
with respect to the transmitter. , The transmitter 65 ample to receiver 50 and the other one to receiver
aswell as the receivers are arranged to rotate or
5|. -These electron relays are` lconnected in
oscillate about the vertical shaft l‘15, driven by
known way in opposite directions and the motor
motor 18. On said shaft there is mounted a hori
54 in bridge connection, so that no current will
zontal shaft ll, driven by motor 54 about the shaft
pass through the motor winding when equal'cur
of which both transmitter and receivers can ro 70 rent passes thorugh the electron relays in oppo
tate or swing forth and back. In this manner,
site directions, while current will pass through
the locatorl device performs a spiral movement
the winding in one or the other direction, de_
transmitter, for example a magnetron tube, a
for searching both in horizontal and vertical di
pending upon which electron relay is traversed
rections in a manner similar to that described in
by the larger current. In this manner a variable
Fig. 1. When the transmitted wave encounters 75 speed of the motor 54 can be obtained to respond
to the speed of the target.
axis of the receivers.
By connecting a
tachometer to the motor shaft the exact side or
elevation angle speed can be directly read on suit
able scales. In the same way the -relays control
l scales on shafts 18 and 11 or vbyl remote control
devices, the elevation .and sidel angles can at
any moment be observed and read, yor the guns '
of the battery can be synchronously driven, the
necessary shooting. element corrections being
made to compensate for wind„time delays, etc. so
that the guns will always be in position for a per
fect hit. Range finder |05 supplies the neces
sary data for set°ting the time fuse òf the projec
tiles. The present invention wastes no time and
the gunsare always ready to be fired at a target.
ling the other motor 18 can be replaced by elec
tron relays.
Instead of an electricvdrive air or oil can be
used in known wa'y as driving means in order to
obtain a smooth following action of the motors.
Thus a small turbine or other suitable device can
be used to turn the shafts, whereby the flow or
pressure of air can be replaced by valves elec
trically controlled by each pair of receivers in
Y similar way as above described.
Thé device according to Fig. 2,' which is m
By means of graduateî’i.
whether salme is visible or not. Besides, the pres
ent invention eliminates the expensive instru
15 ments for optical range ñnding, sound locator, in
tended automatically to locate and follow, for
example, an aircraft or group of airplanes, oper
struments for measuring of side and elevation
angles’ velocities, side and elevation accelera
tions as _well as searchlights.
In Fig. 3 element |01 is 'an ultrashort wave
erably limited to searching but a certain section 20 radio transmitter that can emit radio waves di
rected in a vertical plane. |08 and |09 are receiv
for instance in the direction from which an at
ers that can receive reflected vertical radio waves
tack is expected. In the latter case the device
in a vertical plane. I l0 and ||| are receivers sym
can swing to and fro and up and down a certain
metrically and diagonally placed withA respect
number of degrees in each direction.
The device is particularly intended to cooperate 25 to the other receivers |08 and |09 and adapted
to receive reflected _ultrashort waves of circular
with an antiaircraft battery for antiaircraft aim
or point shape. 'I'he transmitter and the re
ing, and the guns of said battery can be arranged
ceivers are turnably arranged around the verto synchronously follow the movements of the
4tical shaft 18 by means of motor 18. Said trans
searching and following device so that at every
ates in the following manner.
The device can
be used either to search the whole sky but is pref
moment the guns are aimed at the target with ' 30 mitter and receivers are also turnably arranged
suitable corrections, whether said target is visible
or not.
In this embodiment of the invention,
the shaft 16 is, for example, adapted to make 1/2
turn in one second, while shaft 11 performs 1/2
a turn in 5 seconds.
around the horizontal shaft 11 by means of motor
This embodiment of the invention is preferably
‘ intended to patrol a certain limited part of the
These movements can be 35 sky, for instance a sector Where an enemy at
directed by cam wheels 93 and 99, which emit
electric impulses to relays 90 and 9| and relays
81 and 88 respectively. When said relays are
tack can be expected. The transmitter |01 and
'I'heA following circuit is then closedz- Ground,
contact 83-8I, contact 2|-22 of relay 19, relay
9|, battery 80. Relay 9| isthus operated and
is closed causing` relay |39‘to`operate and obtainv
holding current. The circuit of relay |40 is then
the receivers |08 and |09 can thus patrol, for ex
ample, -a 30° broad belt by allowing the vertical
shaft 18 to rotate or by allowing it to swing to
alternatingly operated, the current to. motors 18
and 54', respectively, is changed so that oscillatory 40 and fro over a certain _part of the front. In the
construction shown in Figure 3, ||2 is a cam
movements are obtained.
y wheel with cam H3 -on shaft 18. If the shaft
When an object enters within the iield of ac
16 rotates to the left, the cam ||3 presses the
tion of the transmitter and the receivers, one of
spring ||4 and makes contact with springs ||5
the polarized relays 14 or 15 is operated, whereby
and H8. Relay l|40 is thus operated and current
relay l19 also is operated and receives holding
to motor 18 is reversed so that the motor rotates
current over the following circuitz" Battery 80,
in the other direction until cam || 3 meets spring
relay 1.9, its contact 2-3 and 4_5, contact 84
||4 from below and thereby interrupts the cur
and armature 85 of relay 15, ground.
rent torelay |40. 'I'he current is then again re
Thereupon, the oscillatory movements and
searching cease and after thev actuation of relay 50 versed to the motor 18 and so on._
As soon as an aircraft meets the waves emitted
19 the device is connected for manual or auto
from transmitter |01 and waves are reflected and
matic following operation of the now located tar
received- by receiver |08 or |09, the polarizedget. >If the located target is not exactly in the
relay 15 is operated in the same way as previously
center of the field of actionof the lfour receivers,
the polarized relay ‘14, for example, operates and 55 described in connection with Fig. 2. Relay |31
or relay |38 are thus operated, whereby a circuit
its armature 82 makes contact with contact 8|.
interrupted so Athat said relay can no longer oper
motor 18 receives current and rotates in a cer-. 60 ate and remains without current. Motor 18 now
continues to rotate in one or the other direction
as long as relay-15 isy operated in one or the other
direction. When the aircraft is located directlyl
closes its contact 82--83,v relay 90 is operated in- ,
in front of the transmitter |01 and receivers |08 "
stead and motor 18 receives oppositely directed
current until` the target is encountered directly 65 and |09, vthe rotor is shortcircuited and the motor
in the axis of the four-receivers. When this con
While the relay v|39 is operated its contacts
dition is 'reached the armature of relay 14 re
| |---|2 are closed, andthe fmotor 54 is sirnu1ta-~v
turns to its normal position and relay 90 is de
neously started.l As a result.A receivers- ||0 and
energised. 'I'he rotor of motor 18 is thereby
shortcircuited and immediately stops. ` In similar 70 || I, which together with transmitter |01 and re
ceivers- v|08-_|09 lperformed a back and forthv
way the polarized relay 15, relays 81, 88 and
movement around the »horizontal shaft 11, start
motor 54 are operated.
tain direction. _
On the other hand, if the polarized relay 14
As soon as the target changes its course, the
respective relays are put in play so that the tar
get will be steadily loçatedexactly in the common 75
hunting the target in vertical direction, in the
same manner as above described for shaft 15.
As soon as the aircraft is located in the center
of the field of action `of the receivers, the move
28 and 21 are respectively a transmitter and 'a re
ment ceases and by means of the relays the d_e
ceiver which are horizontally and vertically mov
vice is caused to exactly follow the movements
able as shown in Fig. l.
-- v
of the aircraft in similar way‘ as has been de
The movements can be made continuous or os
scribed in connection with Fig. 2.
5 cillating as shown in Fig.- 3, movement in a ver- '
'In Fig. 4 elements 26 and 21 are transmitting
tical plane `is obtained by means ofcam wheel
and receiving means. Elements 39 and 46 are
- .||1, contacts ||9-I2| vand relay |6|, while move
cathode ray tubes for general purposes as shown
ment in a horizontal plane is produced by means
in Fig. 1. |4| is a central instrument for one or . ' of cam wheel H2, contacts ||4--||_5 and relay
more batteries. |05 is a precision frequency
|62. 33 is an amplifier and |51 is a high passv
meter, on which the range for the setting ofthe
filter Vto'eliminate disturbances that -may be Y
projectiles can be read. 49-53 are transmitter
caused by flying birds within a range of, for-ex- .
and receivers, respectively, as shown in Fig. 2 for
ample, 200 meters. |59 is a frequency and dis
individual searching and following of the target.
.tance meter. |56 is a rectifying bridge device ar-` _
|43 are antiaircraft guns which are preferably in
ranged in known way. >|60 'isla relay to vbe op
synchronism with the said individual searching'
erated by the rectified and »amplified beat fre
' and following. devices. >Correction of the line of _ quency. current. | 13 is an alternating current
departure of the projectiles from the respective 1 source adapted to» send signaling current over,
guns in order to hit the target, compensation for '
for example, a telephone station line to the near-
wind, letc. are carried. out in known. manner. '
In Fig. 5 elements |45 and |53 are two reñectors.
est central exchange |14.
signal current source |13 is higher than that nor
mally_ used
on 'the telephonel line. |15 is- a recti-`
from transmitter 49 in Fig. 2.. .Instead of four
fying device. |16 is a relay and |11 isa, glow lamp '
different receivers, as'shown in Fig. 2, „it is here « valve to operate relay |16 .only when a high v_olt
proposed to use -only one receiver |44 with a dipole 25,' age current from generator |13 is received. I 80
| 52. |46 and |55 are small refiectorsplaced in.
is a slowlyacting relay and | 8| is a still more
slow acting relay provided with a condenser |82
ther foci of reflectors |45 and |53. From these foci
received waves-are reflected through .the holes |41
» for the specialpurpose describedA hereafter. |84
and |54 against reflecting screens |48A and | 56
is a generator for. producing an alternating lvolt
'which-are so located as .to reflect the waves to
age higher than that ordinarily used at the cen
the dipole |52. Element |50 is a metal disc pro
tral station.
vided with a hole |5|. The disc is driven by a
If the signal has to be relayed over still an
motor |49. Each time the hole ofthe disc passes,`
other (|94)> or several other central'oflices, an
reflected Waves from the reflecting screen |46 and
ordinary trunkline between said offices can be
`|56 are allowed to act on the dipole |52 according 35 -used for the purpose. In thesame manner the
to the wave energy received in the reflectors |45
vsignal can be relayed over any numberoi‘ central "
offices without materially disturbing normal
service as shown between oilices |14 and |94.
Insteadof two reflectors, as shown, the device
can be provided with four reflectors which to
In the central oiiice |94, element |85 represents
gether with a single dipole can be used instead 40 a rectifying device. |86 is a. relay and |81 is a
of the four complete receivers shown in Fig. 2.
glow lamp valve. |89 is a very slow acting relay
Exceptlfor these changes, the condensers 10-1I
including a condenser |90. |95 is a relay in the
and 68-59 in‘Fig. 2 are charged in similar man
antiaircraft central command.
|96 is a small
ner as previously described and the polarized re
lamp placed on a map of the `region and corre
lays are operated, depending upon whether more 45 spending to the center of the patrol zone of the
energy is received in any one of the reflectors
locator device 26-21. The device operates in the
than in the others.
following manner. It' while searching through .
According to another embodiment of the inven
the sky the frequency modulated waves emitted
tion the receivers in Figs. 2, 3 and 4 and 5 are re
by the transmitter 26 encounter aircraft, waves y
placed by a single receiving reflector close -to the ‘50 are reflected and received by receiver 21. The
focus of which four individual receiving dipoles _ waves are amplified in amplifier 33 and after pass
are symmetrically -arranged in such a Way that
ing through a high pass filter the current is rec
one pair of dipoles are placed at right angles to
tifled in rectifying device |58 and actuates relay
the other pair of dipoles. In this case the trans
|60 while at the same time Ithe beat frequency and
mitting reflector should be provided with two 55 distance can be read or observed on frequencyv
dipoles at right angles to each other, so as to
obtain the reflected waves in the proper plane to
actuate the respective dipoles of thereceiving re
fiector. The receiving dipoles are then connect
ed in the same way as the individual` receivers
|09--| || shown in Fig. 3. In this case a fire con
trol device of relatively small size is provided
consisting of but one transmitting and one re
meter |59 or on a cathode ray tube as shown in
Fig. 1.
Relay |60 upon being operated closes its con-v
tacts |-2 and 3_4, whereby signal alternating
60 current from generator |13 is transmitted Íover a
telephone line connected to central oilice |14.
In said ofñce the signal is rectified in rectifying
device |15 and the signal is received by relay |16
ceiving reflector for directed waves of which the
which latter is operated and closes its contacts
latter is provided with two or four dipoles sym 65 |18--|19. Relay |80'is thus operated and ln its '
metrically placed in pairs and at rightangles
around the'focus as above described. The device
. for searching out and following the target will
thus have an appearance more or less as `that '
shown at the top of Fig. 1.
Fig. 6 represents an embodiment of the inven
tion according to which the searching or.v hunt
ing device is utilized to immediately report to a
district or other antiaircraft command the ar
The voltage , of - the '
. intended to collect ultrashort _radiowave's reflected .
and |53.
turn operates slow acting relay |8|.~ When relays
|80 and |8| are thus operated they disconnect the
telephone line from its normal exchange connec
tions and disconnect an outgoing trunkline to
70 central office |94, while said trunkline is simul
taneously disconnected from its normal central>
equipment.> In these operations alternating sig-`r
nal current is impressed on said trunkline at cen
.tral' oillce |14 by means of generator |84. Said
rival of‘aircrafts within a certain defense zone. 75 relayed signal current is rectified in central of-`
flce |94 by rectifying device |85 and relay |88 op
erates. closing its contacts |9 I-I 92.
When said contacts are closed, slow acting re
transmitter adapted to emit a highly directive
beam of radio waves, receiving means comprising
directional scanning means adapted to scan in
slightly diverging directions to receive the waves
reflected by said object when hit by said direc
tive beam of radio waves, means for orientating
lay |89 is operated and while disconnecting the
incoming trunkline from office |94 the said trunk
line is directly connected to a junction line lead
said receiving means in at least one plane, said
ing tothe ñre control command, where relay |95
vis operated, lighting signal lamp |98 on a map.
orientating means comprising driving means, a
In order not to disturb normal operation of
distributing device coupled to the receiving means
telephone and trunk lines, glow lamp valves |11 10 and to the saidL driving means, a single amplifier
and |81 at central oiñce |14 and |94, respectively,
and a rectifier interconnected between the receiv
ing means and said distributing device to amplify
are connected in series with the respective relays
and rectify the received radio energy, said distrib
|16 and I 86.
uting device being adapted to counter-direct two
If normal signaling current on said lines-is, for
example, 80 volts, the voltage of the special signal 15 successively received- amounts of radio energy
from two slightly different directions in a certain
generators |13 and |84 is set at 120 volts. The
plane of a field of scanning, said two amounts of
valves |11 and |81 are set so as not to operate
energy corresponding to two oppositely located
for the_lower voltage, but as soon as the high
equal parts of the saidv field, said distributing
voltage signal current is received relays |16 and
|86 are operated during the time when relay 20 device directing the resulting difference of the
received radio energies to said driving means to
|60 is operated at the patrol station. Inasmuch
operate same in one or the other direction in
as direct connection between the patrol station
and the i'lre control command is needed only
said plane, depending upon which of the said two
during the short time that waves are reflected
amounts of energy is the major one, in order to
from the air.' that is, for example every time 25 automatically follow the object.
2. A system for locating and following an object
when the locator device during its searching op
in space comprising, in combination, a single
erations encounters an airplane in the sky, the
transmitter adapted to emit a highly directive
normal telephone connections are very little
beam of radio waves, receiving means compris
' In order to securely get a short signal relayed 30 ing directional scanning means adapted to scan
in slightly diverging directions to receive beams
all the way to the fire control command over
transmitted by said transmitter and Ireflected by
several central offices, slow acting relays |80 and
saidobject, driving means adapted to orientate
| 8| and |89 are connected to the circuits. Relay
said receiving means in a plurality of planes in
|80 disconnects the signaling current after a
few seconds, if only a short impulse is originally 35 order to bring said object into the directional
limited field of scanning of said scanning means,
transmitted. Relays |8| and |89, on the other
a switching device electrically connected to said
hand, act more slowly due to the condensers |82
driving means, said switching device controlling
and |99. Said relays can be arranged to discon
said driving means and being controlled by the
nect after many seconds, depending upon the
capacity of the condensers. This latter feature 40 receiving means in accordance with the reflected
radio energy received by said receiving means,
is convenient, if there is an observer at the patrol
whereby said switching device will automatically
station who has to verbally report to the fire
switch the driving means from locating the object
command the direction and distance of the lo
to following the object, when radio energy from
cated aircrafts within the particular zone.
In such a case the observer can press a switch 45 the located object has been received by said re
ceiving means, a distributing device coupled to
button and connect a telephone |98 directly to the line for short verbal communication during
an air raid. The relays | 8| and |89 will then be
operated a sufliciently long time to make short
verbal reports, whereafter the lines are auto 50
matically restored to normal.
The high pass ñlter |51 can suitably be arranged
to cut off all beat frequenciesl which correspond
to distances shorter than, for example, 200 meters
so that the flight of birds and the like in front of 55
the wave emitting device do not cause false
the receiving means in series with said switching
device with respect to the said driving means, a
single amplifier and rectifier interconnected be
tween the receiving means and said distributing
device to amplify and rectify the received radio
energy, said distributing device adapted to coun
ter-direct two successively received amounts of
radio energy from two slightly different directions
in a certain plane of the field of scanning corre
the said iield and to direct the resulting difference
of the received radio energies to said driving
sponding to two oppositely located equal parts of
Fig. 7 shows a map with signal lamps |96 lo
means to operate same in one or the other direc
cated at places corresponding to the locator cen
ters 21 or automatic control devices as shown in 60 tion in said plane, depending upon which of the
said two amounts of energy is the major one.
Fig. 6. Each section of a fire control command
whereby the object is automatically followed with
can be provided with any number of such patrol
the center line of the said transmitter and said
centers, which, if desired, may overlap, so that a
receiving means always pointing at the object.
certain zone of the country is completely covered.
3. The system claimed in claim 1, in which the
If an aircraft tries to fly over said zone, a lamp 65
receiving means consists of two pairs of receivers,
will glow for each section which the aircraft
, passes so that the presence and the flight direc
tion of the aircraft can be observed on the map
at a glance.
,f Having now particularly described and ascer
tained the nature of our invention and in what
manner the same is to be performed, we declare
that what we claim is:
the' respective pairs being arranged in two planes
at right angles to each other, each receiver of
such a .pair being adapted to receive energy from
equal opposite parts of the ñeld of scanning.
4. The system claimed in claim 1, in which the
drivingy means consists of an electrical motor pro
vided with a polarity’ reversing means to drive
the motor in one or the other direction by chang
l. 'A system for locating and following an object
in space comprising, in combination. a single 75 ing the polarity of the field coil of the motor.
5. The system claimed in claim 1, in which the
`follow .the obiect: indicating means-:coupled 'to- -
distributing device comprisesa polarized relay.
the same being sensitiveto change‘sin the direc
„tion of the current and actuated by the result
'ing diiference between two successive amounts>
'the vertical and horizontal shafts-to continuously 'Í 5
« indicate the side and elevation angles to- said
objects, respectively, anda frequency meter cou- ‘
pledito said receiving means .and`provided with
of radio energy >received from two opposite equal ' a scale graded _to continuously indicate> thel dfs
parts of the field o'i' scanning, wherebysaid driv-v .
11. System for'locating'and'followingïanïobiectj I
ing means are turned' in one direction or the other.
> 6. The system claimed in claim 1,‘in_ which said ' in space,y comprising, -in combination' "a'fsingl'e
distributing device comprises a circuit, two
equally sized condensers in said circuit, at least
one pair of make- and break-contacts intercon
nected between the receiving means and the con
transmitter adapted to emit a highly'directive4 - 1 ^
beam of radio~- waves, receiving meansv compris-v.
`ing directional scanning means adapted> to scanv '
' in` slightly diverging directions'l and to receive>
densers. and a polarized'relay provided with two
windings of opposite direction. each winding con
nected in parallelto onel of said condensers, saidv .l
make-. and break-contacts being adapted to al
ternatingly connect the said receiving 'means to '
beams transmitted and Areflected by said-object
located in' space, means for orientating said vre- ,
ceiving means in two planesv at right vang'lesto
i ‘ ’
another and _comprising a horizontal and 'averti->
call shaft,> driving meansto turn said shafts, ,said '
receiving means being'coupled thereto in said,
7. The system claimedin claim 2. in which 20 planes, a distributing device for distributing radio
energy, said distributing device being Vcoupled' to '
said distributing device comprises a polarized re
lay, the same being sensitive to changes in the s
the receiving means and to the said driving' means.
said condensers and to said polarized relay.
a circuit, said distributing device -being 'disposed
direction of Athe current, and in which the device
for switching from locating the object to follow
in said circuit, a single amplifier and rectifier
ing the object consists of a relay -device operable 25 interconnected between the receiving means and
by said polarized relay.
said distributing device to amplify and rectifyv «
`8. The> system claimed'in> claim l, in vwhich ,
the transmitter is a rotatable, ultrashort radio
the received radio energy, said distributing deev ' .
vice being adapted to counter-direct two amounts i
of radio energy received successively from _two
ceiving means being directed'in substantially the 30 slightly different directions in aV certain plane of s
a field of scanning corresponding to .twovoppoe
samel direction and being synchronously and >au
tomatically rotatable in two'planes at rightangle
sitely located equal parts of the’saidfleldÍand
to direct the resulting difference rof Vthe received.
A wave transmitter, and said transmitter and re
toeach other.
radio energies to the said driving means to op- '
9. The system claimed in' claim 1, in which the
receiving means consists of a single directional 35 erate same in one or the other direction in said i
plane, depending upon lwhich of 'the saidjtwo
ultrashort radio wave receiver, a rotating screen
disposed in front of the latter, said screen being
amounts of energy is the major one,'to»au_tomati`
provided with an eccentrically located hole and
cally follow the object, and indicating >>means ,
adapted to divide and scan the ñeld of scanning,
coupled tothe vertical and horizontal shafts to 'Y
whereby successively reflected energy from an 40 continuously indicate the side and elevation an'-vr '
object in diñerent opposite equal parts of the field
of scanning is alternatingly passed to - the re
ceiver and to the said driving means.
l0. System for locating and following van object
in space comprising, in combination, a single
transmitter adapted to emit a highlyv directive
beam of ultrashort frequency modulated radio
waves, receiving means lcomprising directional
gles to said object respectively.
12.` In a system as claimed in ‘claim'1'1„»a pair
of tachometers, each being provided with'a read
ing scale graded in angle speed per second, one
tachometer being coupled to each' of said lhori-l - zontal and vertical shafts to continuously'jmeas
ure the side and elevation 'angle' speed ,respec
tively of said object.
13. In a system for locating and followingv an
scanning means adapted to scan in slightly di- 50
object in space comprising, in combination a sin
verging directions and to receive beams trans
gle transmitter adaptedto _emit a highly direc'
mitted by said transmitter and reflected lby said
tive beam offrequency moduated- radiowaves,
object located in space, to cause a beat frequency receiving means adapted- toscan'in'slightly di-V
between said transmitted and reflected received
verging directions and to receive beams trans--`
waves. means for orientating said receiving means
in two planes at right angles to one another, said 55 mitted by said transmitter and reñected- by said
object once located in space, to cause a'beat fre- l f
orlentating means comprising a' horizontal and
quency between said transmitted and reflected
a vertical shaft, driving means to turn said'shafts
received waves, means for'orientating saidvre- "
and receiving means coupled thereto in said
ceiving means in at least onefplane, said orientat
` planes,- adistributing device coupled to the re
ceiving means and to the'l said driving means, a 60 ing- means comprising driving means, an -electric
circuit, said distributing device disposed'in said
energy distributing device coupled to the receiv- l y
circuit, a single amplifier and rectifier intercon
nected between the receiving means and said dis
tributing device to amplify and’rectify the re
ing means and to the said driving means. a cir
diiîerent directions in a certain plane of a ñeld
ofyscanning corresponding to two oppositely lo
" cated equal parts `of the said field and to direct
the resulting difference of the received radio en
ergies to said driving means to operate same in
one or the other direction in said plane depend
» vice being adapted to counter-direct two .amounts
cuit, said vdistributing device being disposed in'
said circuit, a single amplifier and lrectifier in
ceived radio energy, said distributing device being 65 terconnected between the receiving >means `and
said distributing device to amplify and rectify
_ _adapted to counter-direct two successively re
the received radio energy, said ldistributing de- .
ceived amounts `of_ radio energy from two slightly
of radio energy received successively from` two
slightly different directions in a certain‘plane
of a field of scanning- corresponding to two op- ‘
positely located equal' parts of the said ñeld, and
to direct the resulting difference of the received
radio energies to said driving means to operate
ing upon which of the said two amounts of en- '
ergy is the maior one, in order to automatically 75 same in one orïthe other direction in said >plane
_depending upon which of the said two amounts
of energy is the greater, until the center axis
of energy is the major one, to automatically fol
of the said transmitting and receiving means,
low the object. and a frequency meter coupled to `
at every moment, is exactly pointing at the cor- y
said receiving means, said frequency meter being
provided with a graduated scale for continuously
responding object.y
16. A system for locating and following objects
in space comprising rotatable transmitting and
' indicating the distance to said object.
14. In' a system for locating and following of
objects in space by means of rotatable transmit
ting and receiving means pointing in substan
tially the same direction for the transmission and
'the reception of directed radio waves reflected
from said objects, the combinationof driving
means adapted to rotate the transmitting and
receiving means in at least one plane, impulse
transmitting means coupled to said driving means
VY'and adapted to automatically transmit electric»
impulses .to said,v driving means to turn said trans
mitting and receiving means in predetermined,
compulsory paths in at least one plane in order
to systematically locate an object in space, and 20
controlling means coupled to said receiving means
and adapted to successively transfer amounts of
receiving means pointing in substantially the
same direction for the transmission and reception
of directed radio waves reflected from the ob
ject, driving means for rotating said transmit
ting and receiving means in at least one plane,
directing means coupled to said driving means
and adapted to automatically turn said transmit
ting and receiving means in predetermined paths
in order to systematically search for -an object
in space, an electromagnetic operating device,
amplifying and distributing means coupled to
said receiving means and to said electromagnetic
operating device and adapted to transfer radio
energy to the latter, said electromagnetic oper
ating device being adapted to control said driv
ing means, and being controlled in its move
ments by said amplifying and distributing means,
a switching device coupled to said electromag
radio energy from two opposite'directions of a
certain plane Within a limited field of search to
said driving means for driving in one or the other 25 netic operating device, said switching device being
adapted to disconnect said directing means from
direction, and a switching device coupled to and
said driving means, said electromagnetic oper
. governed by said controlling means upon recep
ating device actuating said switching device at
tion of reflected energy, said switching device
being adapted to disconnect said directing means
from said driving means and to couple said con
trolling means to said driving vmeans for con
the moment when reflected energy from a located
30 object is received in the receiving means in or
der to disconnect said directing means from said -
trolled driving and following of an object at the
moment when an amount of reflected energy has
been received in the receiving means.
15. The system claimed in claim 14, in which 35
said receiving means> is adapted to successively
driving means and establish control over said
driving means for following said object in ac
cordance with the movements of said electromag
netic operating device, said amplifying and dis
tributing means serving successively to receive
receive radio energy from two substantially par
and amplify amounts of radio energy from two
somewhat diverging directions in the same plane
`device comprising a circuit -`including said dis
corresponding to equal parts of the field of search,
tributing and receiving means; said amplifying 40 and to transfer two such successively received
and distributing means being coupled between
amounts of radio energy and'deliver the resulting
the receiving means and the said' controlling>
energy difference, if any, to said electromagnetic
means, said distributing means comprising means
‘operating device, in order to indicate and follow
the movement of said object in space in one di
to counter-direct two >successively received
amounts of radio energy from two oppositely 45 rection or the other in the respective plane, de
located equal parts of the ñeld of search and to
pending upon which amount of energy is the
deliver the resulting energy difference to the
said controlling means in order to automatically
, allel directions in the corresponding plane, said
' turn thetransmitting and the receiving means inv
one or the other direction in the corresponding 50
plane, depending upon which of the said amounts
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