ì.. 15, 1946. H. F.Ros1' ETAL 2.4054 SELF-TRACKING RADIO DIRECTION AND DISTANCE DEVICE Filed Feb. 4, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 :9566/8/59 H91 87 39 CENDYHL l/VSTRUMMT' /4/ ng. 4. \NVENTO1€$ i-\Q\3e Fablan Rosi’ WGH HQYT Thome“ «Sien Dcmw. Yi ren PèrHûrrjihas messen MM Oct. 15, 1946. H. F. RosT ETAL 2,409,448 SELF-TRACKING RADIO DIRECTION ANDYDISTANCE DEVICE Filed Feb. 4, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 0d» 15, 1946- H. F. RosT Erm. 2,409,448 SELF-'TRACKING RADIO DIRECTION AND DISTANCE DEVICE Filed Feb. 4, 1941 5 sheets-sheet s È « R w i l Nâwmw?ì. «fmt v @Quì. ` \V,|'ëven Par Har-T5 Ella Chlesson ‘L‘ 12m, ATTN. Oct. l5, 1946. H. F. RosT ETAL 2,409,448 SELF-TRACKING RADIO DIRECTION AND DISTANCE DEVICE Filed Feb. 4, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 ru. A lNvQNTolES IY-àel eFoblom R05* uw? Harry@ Thyme“ shnDun ej V| ren Fër Horrj ìllas oesson L QH \ ATTY. H. F. ROST EI'AL 2,409,44ë SELF-TRACKING RADIO DIRECTION AND DISTANCE DEVICE Filed Feb. 4, 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTORS He ige 53H an R051“ atented ci. E514@ 2,409,448 TArr-:s #PATENT oFF‘lca Í 2,409,448v SELF-'mimmo ' y DISTANCE mimo nevica. n-mEc'rroN Helge Fabian _ Rost, Djursholm, Karl Harry Thunell, Nockeby, Stenl Daniel Yigrem-Stock- - holmyand Per Harry Elias Claesson, Jakobs berg, Sweden Application February 4, 1941, Serial No. 377,344 in Sweden January 10, i940 is claims.' (ci. 25o-1.54) time.> required for adjustment of the. sound lag. The present invention generally relates to a '- device'. for ñre control devices for artillery and the like and hasreference in particular tol ap paratus for automatic continuous determination of direction and distance in space of stationary or movable objects by means of directed waves and preferably ultrashort radio waves. The invention is particularly suitable for anti aircraft defense, irrespective of whether a plane is visible -from the place of observation or, for example, is invisible due to the fact that it is ñylng above the clouds or in the dark or behind smoke screens. corrector, of the position comparatonßthe> aim ing of the search light, lighting same and search- . ing for the target, it will be clear that there re main' but a few seconds to obtain distance meas urements and for iiring and aiming the guns. Valuable time’is thus lost in operating and ’sad `J‘usting all these instruments and the anti-air- _ craft artillery- often has lnot -even ~time to ñre a ’ single shot at the attacking air'fo'rces. and the whole antiaircraftvdefense can 'be con- ' siderably simpliñed and cheapened. At the same v time the efñciency of the air defence will be con The invention is also suitable for use on vessels at sea to spot objects on land, at sea or in the air. The invention is also suitable to act as an anti aircraft alarm for remote indication at a central siderably increased. According to the present invention direction ' spots on fluorescent- screens for instance, on se 4which the battery commander can simultaneously server can immediately, automatically and con observe the distances and side and elevation an ' y tinuously be indicated or observed, as it the-ob jects in reality were visible. The invention according to its general scope l can be -put to a multitude of diñerent uses of - . ’ According to the present invention a general locating device is used which makes possible the direct observation of targets- by means of light . iire control command. l and distances of which are invisible to an ob Much - ' valuable time is saved by the present invention gles ofthe objects in the air with respect to the place of observation. This observation is inde pendent of the weather, of clouds, smoke screens and thel like and can equally well .be made at which the following application to antiaircraft night as in day time. defense is but one example; "same will be more Y ’ Such a device causes no appreciabletime delay and as soon as an aircraft comes within the field closely described hereafter. For air defense the main object of the inven of actionof the device, the aircraft can continu . tion is to rapidly locate enemy aircrafts and to` >ously be observed with respect to‘direction as well'as to distance. In brief, the present invention comprises a de simultaneously prepare and direct the antiair craft guns against such aircraft. vHeretofore many` expensive instruments have I . vice for locating and following objects in space been necessary forA each _antiaircraft battery, by'means vof rotatable transmittingand receiv such as sound- detectors, sound-lag correctors, 35 ing means pointing in substantially the same di _position comparators, searchlights as well as vari rection for the transmission and reception of ous transmission and remote control systems, directed radio Waves reflected from the object. The transmitting and receiving‘means are pro which instruments are used at night in addition to the- following regular artillery instruments: vided with driving means for' rotating them in Range and direction iinders, instruments for the 40 one or more planes.- According to the invention, measuring of angle of elevation, side angle,'inspecial directing means are coupled to said driv ing means ‘and adapted to vautomatically turn struments for measuring the velocities of said angles 4and also theaccelerations of the same angles, several of 4'which instruments are included ' in a complicated central control instrument. f Heretofore, airplanes and other aircraft were is spotted bymeans of a sound locator arranged to listen to the motor’ or propeller sound emitted from an aircraft. Its greatest range under fa . vourable conditions is about 10 kilometers. At 50 normal velocities, for example at 360 km/hour, a - ._ bombing.v plane will travel a great part of said ' distance :before the sound isnoticed at the sound l - 4 locatorAv and same is adjusted for sure following ‘ 'of the-target.- said transmitting and receiving means in pre determined paths in saidv plane or in any of said planes in order to systematically search out an object in space` Furthermore, amplifying and distributing means are provided. Same are cou pled tothe receiving means and‘to an electro magnetic operating device and adapted to trans fer received radio energy to said loperating de vice.l The, latter is constituted for instance by vcurrent direction sensitive indicating relays. At the moment when-reilectedenergy from a located object. is received by the receiving means, these Wh‘en We further' consider .the 65 ‘relays actuate a switching device coupled-to 4 the same. The switching device serves to discon short radio waves. 21 is a receiver of the same nect said directing means from said driving kind. Both transmitter and receiver are rotat-means, in order to establish control of said able and mounted on a shaft 28 which'is driven driving means for foliowlng'said object in ac by a motor (not shown on the drawings). At the cordance with the movements of said relays, same time as the shaft 28 is rotated, the trans whereby the amplifying and distributing means mitter and the receiver are arranged to turn 90° are adapted successively to receive and _amplify from horizontal to vertical searching position and amounts of radio energy from two somewhat di vice versa. The turning takes place around the verging directions in the same plane, correspond center pin 29 by means of Worm gear 3l, shaft 30 ing to equal parts of the field of search. .As a 10 and motor 32. The shaft 30 and motor 32 are result, two such successively received amounts mounted on shaft 28 in known manner. The whole structure is turned in such a way that the energy diiference delivered to said relays in`or-_ transmitter and the receiver describe a spiral der to indi ate the movements of said'obiect in curve so that the whole or part of the sky can space in ,c e direction or the other. in the re 15 be searched. The rapidity of the searching op spective plane, depending upon which amount` eration depends on the velocity of shaft 28 and of radio energy, are transferred and the resulting of energy is the greater. . the exactness of the picture that is desired, According to another embodiment of the in By means of collector rings on respective shafts and iixedly arranged contact brushes, or vice the target, for example an aircraft, and once 1o' 20 versa, connection of the integral moving electri cated the device will closely follow said target so cal'parts of a circuit to stationary parts ci' the that at every moment its position and distance device can be made. from the point of observation can be observed 33 is an ampliiier for received radio waves. 34 and- read. ' is a device comprising, for example, condensers By means of Aa synchronous drive between the 25 of variable impedance for variable frequencies so device and the guns of a battery, provided the that more current is allowed to pass at high fre necessary corrections of the shooting elements quencies than at low ones. 35 and 4D are rectify are made, the locating device and guns can be ing devices. 36 is a condenser. 31-38 and vention the device can also automatically locate made to follow each other in such a Way that ‘ 42--43 are potentiometers or circular resistances with the necessary ahead-aiming-correction de 30 fixed on the shaft 23. 4| is an amplifying de pending upon the speed of the target, a perfect hit upon _the target can be made. The artillery menhave thus only to set the time fuse of the projectiles to make them explode at the predeter mined range. . vice connected to the baille plates of'cathode ray tubes 39 and 46. 39 is a cathode ray tube with plane fluorescentscreen and 4B is a cathode ray tube with semi-spherical screen. . The device shown in Fig. 1, which is particu vlarly adapted to locate aircrafts and the like, op .The ‘invention will be 'readily understood on ‘reference yto the 1 accompanying drawings in erates in the following way. While transmitter and receiver 26 and 21 rotate on shaft 28they turn at the same time more slowly about pin 29 paratus for locating aircraft, whereby distance 40 in vertical direction, and move, for example, from and sideangle to the target can be observed on horizontal to vertical position and back to hori a fluorescent screen, while on another screen the zontal position. It’ desired, the vertical movement ' elevation and side angles to the same target can can .be limited to only a certain minor sector. be observed. ^ Shaft 28 can- also be given a back and forth move Fig. l2 is a diagram- showing. an automatic, in 45. -ment instead of a continuously rotating motion, if dividual target locating and following device in only a certain part of the sky is to be observed. which: 7 . Fig. 1 d_iagrammatically shows an auxiliary ap three dimensions together with instruments for the determination of the exact distance to said . ’I_'he transmitter 26 emits preferably frequency modulated ultrashort and directed radio waves' target at any moment. The device is provided A which, in part, can be directly received by the' Y with one transmitter and four receivers for ultra 50 receiver 21. If the emitted radio waves encoun short radio waves. _ . . Fig. 3 is a diagram showing a ytarget locating device arranged to send'out a flat vertical cur tain of radio waves and including four receivers. ter on their way, for example an aircraft, they are partly reñected bythe same and as a result, the reñected waves canI be received by the re--l ceiver 21. A beat frequency is thereby formed Fig. 4 is an abbreviated diagram _showing a 55 between. the emitted and the reflected received 4general nre control post and an individual target , wave which frequency can be measured and is locating and following `device according to Fig. 2' proportional‘to the distance. The obtained beat frequency is amplified in Fig. 5 illustrates a modification of the device the ampliñer 33whereafter the amplified current Iaccording to Fig. 2, comprising one receiver but 60 lis divided.- >one part flowing via the frequency two parabolic reflectors or the like to receive re sensitive amplifying device 34 and rectifier 35 to flected radio waves. the potentiometers 31 and 38 and the deilecting Fig. 6 is a variation of Fig. 1 for general locat plates of the cathode ray tube 38. ing of aircraft and the transmission oi' alarm The other part of the amplified-current flows « or Fig. 3. , signals to a remote control central station as soon 65 .via rectiñer 4l) and the amplifying device 4| to . as an aircraft enters the range of the locator device, said alarm signals to be sent over existing lines, for example telephone ~lines without mate. rially interrupting'normal service over said lines.v the baille plates of cathode ray tubes 39 and 46. Upon receipt of a reflected wave a deflected electron ray 41 of cathode ray tube 39 will pro-duce a light spot on the fluorescent screen, 70 Fig. 7 is a diagram showing several fire con whereby the distance from the center of said trol districts connected to the fire control central screen is proportional to the distance to the air station, where a lamp signal is located at the craft. The side direction of the latter is directly exact spot of the map, that corresponds to the given with reference to a certain known coordi location of the particular locator device. « In Fig. 1 26 is -atransmitter for directed ultra nate system, because, due to the potentiometers 75 31 and 38 and the deflection plates the corre - 2,409,448 5 6 sponding light spot always falls in the same di K . echo is produced. 'I'his echo >is received by receivers 50-53, which by ' an’object in space an rection towards which the receiver 21 is directed. It should be clear that instead of the potentiomàv eters shown in the drawings may be used any*other known device to- obtain synchronous move ' ment between the cathode ray and the receiver means of» collector devices 55-58 are successively connected to the amplifier 6|, each one during V4 of a vturn of shaft 50. 62 is a rectifier device. 63--51 are partly insu without departing from the scope of the inven lated collector rings transposed 541 of a revolution tion. with respect to each other and adapted to let cur rent» pass to the condensers 68, 69 or 10, '|| at the ' In order to obtain the elevation and side angles to a certain aircraft, orin order that the battery commander may know at least if an aircraft or same moment when `the corresponding collector rings 55-59 make their contacts. The receivers other target is situated at the given distance high 52 and 53 correspond to condensers 69 and 68 in the sky or on the horizon, we use the cathode respectively. 12 and`13 are amplifying devices. ray tube 46. Tube 46 is provided with a semi-14 and 15`are polarized relays, each provided with spherical ñuorescent screen. By means of the 15 'two windings and contacts 8|, 82, 83 and 84, 85, potentiometer-s 42 and 43 connected to the de 86 respectively; If condensers 68 and 59 receive ñection plates of the tube 46, a light spot is ob-. ' equal charges, they discharge equally through the tained showing the side angle of the target or windings of relay-14, but in opposite directions. of the receiver 2l. , l , so that the relay isjnot actuated. If, however. By combining with said potentiometers a p0 the target‘is v»not located symmetrically with re-` tentiometer 44 arranged in combination with Vthe >spect to receivers -52 and 53, one condenser will axis or` pin 29 the electron ray of tube 48 can be moved so that it will always point in exactly-the receive more energy than _the other. As a result, - due to discharge through relay windings ‘|4 relay same direction as the receiver 21. armature 82wil1 be moved to one side or the other. In certain cases it will be suii'lcient if only 25 The same is true with respect to receiver 50 and tube 46 is used for the purpose 'ofobtaining both 5|, condensers 1I- and l0, respectively, and the polarized relay 15. ì ' side and elevation angles, While the` distance could at any moment ,be read on a frequency and dis If thus condensers 68 and 59 thus obtain equal tance indicating instrument which in'sucli a case ' charges through receivers 52, 53', due to refiection should be connected instead of the frequency 30 of waves from a target it means that each receiver sensitive device 34. ' ‘receives an equally -large amount of energy re ' flected from said target.' Accordingly, the target must be located exactly ahead and'syinmetrically According to a modification of the present in vention, general orientation with reference to the target can be achieved by using only the spheri cal tube 46. On the screen of the latter an ap proximate indication of the distance can be ob tained. In such a case tube 39 and potentiom eters 3l and 38 are not needed. ~ The condensers with respect to transmitterv 59 and receivers 52 35 and 53. , . ' 79 is a relay that _operates as soon as one of polarized relays l5 or lä‘closes one of its contacts. Elements | to'25 are contacts controlled by relay 35 are charged proportionally to the beat fre 79. Relays 8l and 88 are pole changing' relays quency when an echo is received; said condenser 40 adapted to turn shaft 'il by means of motor '54 can be connected for a short moment in series in one directionor the other. Similarly, relays with the deflection plates of tube d5 by means 90 and 9| are pole changing relays. Shaft |03 of rapid (electron) relays that can be actuated by is driven by motor I8 over worm gear 92. 0n said the received amplified echo current. In such a shaft are mounted contact wheel 93 with cam 94 way an extra deflection of the cathode ray can 45 and contact wheel 98 with cam 9,9 which cams be obtained which extra deflection indicates the approximative distance to the target looked for. Measurement of the radial velocity of the target operate their make contacts 95--97 and H10-H12 respectively. . imi is a frequency meter which serves to indi is carried out by means of a distance indicating cate when the receivers are pointing directly at instrument, for example, by means of the rectified 50 the target. §05 is a precision frequency meter. beat frequency. If, for example, in Fig. l such to be read when the ‘target is located exactly in an instrument with series-connected condenser the common axis of the transmitter and the is disposed in parallel with the frequency sensitive receivers. l0_6 is a break contact adapted to free device 34, an indication of the variation of poten the device for searching out another target as tial is obtained. _inasmuch as the deñection of 55 soon as the first target‘is located or shot down. >said instrument is proportional to zii/dt of the Instead of the relays '15, 8l and 88 an electron current through the said- condenser, and the dis relay device can in known manner be utilized and tance is a certain function of the common poten connected between the amplifier 13 and the mo tial, a means of measuring the radial velocity of the target is obtained.l ` ` tor 56 to drive said motor at a variable speed pro- - 60 portional to the speed of the target so that the - In Fig. 2, element 59 is a directed short wave transmitter and receivers are always pointing exactly at the target no matter in which direc» klystron or a velocity modulated tube. 50, 5|, 52 >tion same is moving. Two gas filled electron re and 53 are four receivers symmetrically arranged lays may be provided, one corresponding, for ex with respect to the transmitter. , The transmitter 65 ample to receiver 50 and the other one to receiver aswell as the receivers are arranged to rotate or 5|. -These electron relays are` lconnected in oscillate about the vertical shaft l‘15, driven by known way in opposite directions and the motor motor 18. On said shaft there is mounted a hori 54 in bridge connection, so that no current will zontal shaft ll, driven by motor 54 about the shaft pass through the motor winding when equal'cur of which both transmitter and receivers can ro 70 rent passes thorugh the electron relays in oppo tate or swing forth and back. In this manner, site directions, while current will pass through the locatorl device performs a spiral movement the winding in one or the other direction, de_ transmitter, for example a magnetron tube, a for searching both in horizontal and vertical di pending upon which electron relay is traversed rections in a manner similar to that described in by the larger current. In this manner a variable Fig. 1. When the transmitted wave encounters 75 speed of the motor 54 can be obtained to respond 2,409,448 , _ . 8 to the speed of the target. axis of the receivers. By connecting a tachometer to the motor shaft the exact side or elevation angle speed can be directly read on suit able scales. In the same way the -relays control l scales on shafts 18 and 11 or vbyl remote control devices, the elevation .and sidel angles can at any moment be observed and read, yor the guns ' of the battery can be synchronously driven, the necessary shooting. element corrections being made to compensate for wind„time delays, etc. so that the guns will always be in position for a per fect hit. Range finder |05 supplies the neces sary data for set°ting the time fuse òf the projec tiles. The present invention wastes no time and the gunsare always ready to be fired at a target. ling the other motor 18 can be replaced by elec tron relays. y - Instead of an electricvdrive air or oil can be used in known wa'y as driving means in order to obtain a smooth following action of the motors. Thus a small turbine or other suitable device can be used to turn the shafts, whereby the flow or pressure of air can be replaced by valves elec trically controlled by each pair of receivers in Y similar way as above described. Thé device according to Fig. 2,' which is m u By means of graduateî’i. whether salme is visible or not. Besides, the pres ent invention eliminates the expensive instru 15 ments for optical range ñnding, sound locator, in tended automatically to locate and follow, for example, an aircraft or group of airplanes, oper struments for measuring of side and elevation angles’ velocities, side and elevation accelera tions as _well as searchlights. In Fig. 3 element |01 is 'an ultrashort wave erably limited to searching but a certain section 20 radio transmitter that can emit radio waves di rected in a vertical plane. |08 and |09 are receiv for instance in the direction from which an at ers that can receive reflected vertical radio waves tack is expected. In the latter case the device in a vertical plane. I l0 and ||| are receivers sym can swing to and fro and up and down a certain metrically and diagonally placed withA respect number of degrees in each direction. The device is particularly intended to cooperate 25 to the other receivers |08 and |09 and adapted to receive reflected _ultrashort waves of circular with an antiaircraft battery for antiaircraft aim or point shape. 'I'he transmitter and the re ing, and the guns of said battery can be arranged ceivers are turnably arranged around the verto synchronously follow the movements of the 4tical shaft 18 by means of motor 18. Said trans searching and following device so that at every ates in the following manner. The device can be used either to search the whole sky but is pref moment the guns are aimed at the target with ' 30 mitter and receivers are also turnably arranged suitable corrections, whether said target is visible or not. In this embodiment of the invention, the shaft 16 is, for example, adapted to make 1/2 turn in one second, while shaft 11 performs 1/2 a turn in 5 seconds. around the horizontal shaft 11 by means of motor 54. This embodiment of the invention is preferably ‘ intended to patrol a certain limited part of the These movements can be 35 sky, for instance a sector Where an enemy at directed by cam wheels 93 and 99, which emit electric impulses to relays 90 and 9| and relays 81 and 88 respectively. When said relays are tack can be expected. The transmitter |01 and 'I'heA following circuit is then closedz- Ground, contact 83-8I, contact 2|-22 of relay 19, relay 9|, battery 80. Relay 9| isthus operated and is closed causing` relay |39‘to`operate and obtainv holding current. The circuit of relay |40 is then the receivers |08 and |09 can thus patrol, for ex ample, -a 30° broad belt by allowing the vertical shaft 18 to rotate or by allowing it to swing to alternatingly operated, the current to. motors 18 and 54', respectively, is changed so that oscillatory 40 and fro over a certain _part of the front. In the construction shown in Figure 3, ||2 is a cam movements are obtained. y wheel with cam H3 -on shaft 18. If the shaft When an object enters within the iield of ac 16 rotates to the left, the cam ||3 presses the tion of the transmitter and the receivers, one of spring ||4 and makes contact with springs ||5 the polarized relays 14 or 15 is operated, whereby and H8. Relay l|40 is thus operated and current relay l19 also is operated and receives holding to motor 18 is reversed so that the motor rotates current over the following circuitz" Battery 80, in the other direction until cam || 3 meets spring relay 1.9, its contact 2-3 and 4_5, contact 84 ||4 from below and thereby interrupts the cur and armature 85 of relay 15, ground. ` rent torelay |40. 'I'he current is then again re Thereupon, the oscillatory movements and searching cease and after thev actuation of relay 50 versed to the motor 18 and so on._ As soon as an aircraft meets the waves emitted 19 the device is connected for manual or auto from transmitter |01 and waves are reflected and matic following operation of the now located tar received- by receiver |08 or |09, the polarizedget. >If the located target is not exactly in the relay 15 is operated in the same way as previously center of the field of actionof the lfour receivers, the polarized relay ‘14, for example, operates and 55 described in connection with Fig. 2. Relay |31 or relay |38 are thus operated, whereby a circuit its armature 82 makes contact with contact 8|. interrupted so Athat said relay can no longer oper motor 18 receives current and rotates in a cer-. 60 ate and remains without current. Motor 18 now continues to rotate in one or the other direction as long as relay-15 isy operated in one or the other direction. When the aircraft is located directlyl closes its contact 82--83,v relay 90 is operated in- , in front of the transmitter |01 and receivers |08 " stead and motor 18 receives oppositely directed current until` the target is encountered directly 65 and |09, vthe rotor is shortcircuited and the motor stops. in the axis of the four-receivers. When this con While the relay v|39 is operated its contacts dition is 'reached the armature of relay 14 re | |---|2 are closed, andthe fmotor 54 is sirnu1ta-~v turns to its normal position and relay 90 is de neously started.l As a result.A receivers- ||0 and energised. 'I'he rotor of motor 18 is thereby shortcircuited and immediately stops. ` In similar 70 || I, which together with transmitter |01 and re ceivers- v|08-_|09 lperformed a back and forthv way the polarized relay 15, relays 81, 88 and movement around the »horizontal shaft 11, start motor 54 are operated. v tain direction. _ On the other hand, if the polarized relay 14 As soon as the target changes its course, the respective relays are put in play so that the tar get will be steadily loçatedexactly in the common 75 hunting the target in vertical direction, in the same manner as above described for shaft 15. As soon as the aircraft is located in the center of the field of action `of the receivers, the move 28 and 21 are respectively a transmitter and 'a re ment ceases and by means of the relays the d_e ceiver which are horizontally and vertically mov vice is caused to exactly follow the movements able as shown in Fig. l. -. v -- v of the aircraft in similar way‘ as has been de The movements can be made continuous or os scribed in connection with Fig. 2. 5 cillating as shown in Fig.- 3, movement in a ver- ' 'In Fig. 4 elements 26 and 21 are transmitting tical plane `is obtained by means ofcam wheel and receiving means. Elements 39 and 46 are - .||1, contacts ||9-I2| vand relay |6|, while move cathode ray tubes for general purposes as shown ment in a horizontal plane is produced by means in Fig. 1. |4| is a central instrument for one or . ' of cam wheel H2, contacts ||4--||_5 and relay more batteries. |05 is a precision frequency |62. 33 is an amplifier and |51 is a high passv meter, on which the range for the setting ofthe filter Vto'eliminate disturbances that -may be Y projectiles can be read. 49-53 are transmitter caused by flying birds within a range of, for-ex- . and receivers, respectively, as shown in Fig. 2 for ample, 200 meters. |59 is a frequency and dis individual searching and following of the target. .tance meter. |56 is a rectifying bridge device ar-` _ |43 are antiaircraft guns which are preferably in ranged in known way. >|60 'isla relay to vbe op synchronism with the said individual searching' erated by the rectified and »amplified beat fre ' and following. devices. >Correction of the line of _ quency. current. | 13 is an alternating current departure of the projectiles from the respective 1 source adapted to» send signaling current over, guns in order to hit the target, compensation for ' for example, a telephone station line to the near- wind, letc. are carried. out in known. manner. ' In Fig. 5 elements |45 and |53 are two reñectors. est central exchange |14. 2o signal current source |13 is higher than that nor mally_ used on 'the telephonel line. |15 is- a recti-` ` from transmitter 49 in Fig. 2.. .Instead of four fying device. |16 is a relay and |11 isa, glow lamp ' different receivers, as'shown in Fig. 2, „it is here « valve to operate relay |16 .only when a high v_olt proposed to use -only one receiver |44 with a dipole 25,' age current from generator |13 is received. I 80 | 52. |46 and |55 are small refiectorsplaced in. is a slowlyacting relay and | 8| is a still more slow acting relay provided with a condenser |82 ther foci of reflectors |45 and |53. From these foci received waves-are reflected through .the holes |41 » for the specialpurpose describedA hereafter. |84 and |54 against reflecting screens |48A and | 56 is a generator for. producing an alternating lvolt 'which-are so located as .to reflect the waves to age higher than that ordinarily used at the cen the dipole |52. Element |50 is a metal disc pro tral station. . . vided with a hole |5|. The disc is driven by a If the signal has to be relayed over still an motor |49. Each time the hole ofthe disc passes,` other (|94)> or several other central'oflices, an reflected Waves from the reflecting screen |46 and ordinary trunkline between said offices can be `|56 are allowed to act on the dipole |52 according 35 -used for the purpose. In thesame manner the to the wave energy received in the reflectors |45 vsignal can be relayed over any numberoi‘ central " offices without materially disturbing normal l service as shown between oilices |14 and |94. Insteadof two reflectors, as shown, the device can be provided with four reflectors which to In the central oiiice |94, element |85 represents gether with a single dipole can be used instead 40 a rectifying device. |86 is a. relay and |81 is a of the four complete receivers shown in Fig. 2. glow lamp valve. |89 is a very slow acting relay Exceptlfor these changes, the condensers 10-1I including a condenser |90. |95 is a relay in the and 68-59 in‘Fig. 2 are charged in similar man antiaircraft central command. |96 is a small ner as previously described and the polarized re lamp placed on a map of the `region and corre lays are operated, depending upon whether more 45 spending to the center of the patrol zone of the energy is received in any one of the reflectors locator device 26-21. The device operates in the than in the others. , following manner. It' while searching through . According to another embodiment of the inven the sky the frequency modulated waves emitted tion the receivers in Figs. 2, 3 and 4 and 5 are re by the transmitter 26 encounter aircraft, waves y placed by a single receiving reflector close -to the ‘50 are reflected and received by receiver 21. The focus of which four individual receiving dipoles _ waves are amplified in amplifier 33 and after pass are symmetrically -arranged in such a Way that ing through a high pass filter the current is rec one pair of dipoles are placed at right angles to tifled in rectifying device |58 and actuates relay the other pair of dipoles. In this case the trans |60 while at the same time Ithe beat frequency and mitting reflector should be provided with two 55 distance can be read or observed on frequencyv dipoles at right angles to each other, so as to obtain the reflected waves in the proper plane to actuate the respective dipoles of thereceiving re fiector. The receiving dipoles are then connect ed in the same way as the individual` receivers |09--| || shown in Fig. 3. In this case a fire con trol device of relatively small size is provided consisting of but one transmitting and one re meter |59 or on a cathode ray tube as shown in Fig. 1. Relay |60 upon being operated closes its con-v tacts |-2 and 3_4, whereby signal alternating 60 current from generator |13 is transmitted Íover a telephone line connected to central oilice |14. ' In said ofñce the signal is rectified in rectifying device |15 and the signal is received by relay |16 ceiving reflector for directed waves of which the which latter is operated and closes its contacts latter is provided with two or four dipoles sym 65 |18--|19. Relay |80'is thus operated and ln its ' metrically placed in pairs and at rightangles around the'focus as above described. The device . for searching out and following the target will thus have an appearance more or less as `that ' shown at the top of Fig. 1. - Fig. 6 represents an embodiment of the inven tion according to which the searching or.v hunt ing device is utilized to immediately report to a district or other antiaircraft command the ar . The voltage , of - the ' . intended to collect ultrashort _radiowave's reflected . and |53. , turn operates slow acting relay |8|.~ When relays |80 and |8| are thus operated they disconnect the telephone line from its normal exchange connec tions and disconnect an outgoing trunkline to 70 central office |94, while said trunkline is simul taneously disconnected from its normal central> equipment.> In these operations alternating sig-`r nal current is impressed on said trunkline at cen .tral' oillce |14 by means of generator |84. Said rival of‘aircrafts within a certain defense zone. 75 relayed signal current is rectified in central of-` » 2,409,448 ll flce |94 by rectifying device |85 and relay |88 op erates. closing its contacts |9 I-I 92. When said contacts are closed, slow acting re 12 transmitter adapted to emit a highly directive beam of radio waves, receiving means comprising directional scanning means adapted to scan in slightly diverging directions to receive the waves reflected by said object when hit by said direc tive beam of radio waves, means for orientating lay |89 is operated and while disconnecting the incoming trunkline from office |94 the said trunk line is directly connected to a junction line lead said receiving means in at least one plane, said ing tothe ñre control command, where relay |95 vis operated, lighting signal lamp |98 on a map. orientating means comprising driving means, a In order not to disturb normal operation of distributing device coupled to the receiving means telephone and trunk lines, glow lamp valves |11 10 and to the saidL driving means, a single amplifier and |81 at central oiñce |14 and |94, respectively, and a rectifier interconnected between the receiv ing means and said distributing device to amplify are connected in series with the respective relays and rectify the received radio energy, said distrib |16 and I 86. uting device being adapted to counter-direct two If normal signaling current on said lines-is, for example, 80 volts, the voltage of the special signal 15 successively received- amounts of radio energy from two slightly different directions in a certain generators |13 and |84 is set at 120 volts. The plane of a field of scanning, said two amounts of valves |11 and |81 are set so as not to operate energy corresponding to two oppositely located for the_lower voltage, but as soon as the high equal parts of the saidv field, said distributing voltage signal current is received relays |16 and |86 are operated during the time when relay 20 device directing the resulting difference of the received radio energies to said driving means to |60 is operated at the patrol station. Inasmuch operate same in one or the other direction in as direct connection between the patrol station and the i'lre control command is needed only said plane, depending upon which of the said two during the short time that waves are reflected amounts of energy is the major one, in order to from the air.' that is, for example every time 25 automatically follow the object. 2. A system for locating and following an object when the locator device during its searching op in space comprising, in combination, a single erations encounters an airplane in the sky, the transmitter adapted to emit a highly directive normal telephone connections are very little beam of radio waves, receiving means compris disturbed. 4 ' In order to securely get a short signal relayed 30 ing directional scanning means adapted to scan in slightly diverging directions to receive beams all the way to the fire control command over transmitted by said transmitter and Ireflected by several central offices, slow acting relays |80 and saidobject, driving means adapted to orientate | 8| and |89 are connected to the circuits. Relay said receiving means in a plurality of planes in |80 disconnects the signaling current after a few seconds, if only a short impulse is originally 35 order to bring said object into the directional limited field of scanning of said scanning means, transmitted. Relays |8| and |89, on the other a switching device electrically connected to said hand, act more slowly due to the condensers |82 driving means, said switching device controlling and |99. Said relays can be arranged to discon said driving means and being controlled by the nect after many seconds, depending upon the capacity of the condensers. This latter feature 40 receiving means in accordance with the reflected radio energy received by said receiving means, is convenient, if there is an observer at the patrol whereby said switching device will automatically station who has to verbally report to the fire switch the driving means from locating the object command the direction and distance of the lo to following the object, when radio energy from cated aircrafts within the particular zone. In such a case the observer can press a switch 45 the located object has been received by said re ceiving means, a distributing device coupled to button and connect a telephone |98 directly to the line for short verbal communication during an air raid. The relays | 8| and |89 will then be operated a sufliciently long time to make short verbal reports, whereafter the lines are auto 50 matically restored to normal. The high pass ñlter |51 can suitably be arranged to cut off all beat frequenciesl which correspond to distances shorter than, for example, 200 meters so that the flight of birds and the like in front of 55 the wave emitting device do not cause false the receiving means in series with said switching device with respect to the said driving means, a single amplifier and rectifier interconnected be tween the receiving means and said distributing device to amplify and rectify the received radio energy, said distributing device adapted to coun ter-direct two successively received amounts of radio energy from two slightly different directions in a certain plane of the field of scanning corre alarms. the said iield and to direct the resulting difference of the received radio energies to said driving » sponding to two oppositely located equal parts of Fig. 7 shows a map with signal lamps |96 lo means to operate same in one or the other direc cated at places corresponding to the locator cen ters 21 or automatic control devices as shown in 60 tion in said plane, depending upon which of the said two amounts of energy is the major one. Fig. 6. Each section of a fire control command whereby the object is automatically followed with can be provided with any number of such patrol the center line of the said transmitter and said centers, which, if desired, may overlap, so that a receiving means always pointing at the object. certain zone of the country is completely covered. 3. The system claimed in claim 1, in which the If an aircraft tries to fly over said zone, a lamp 65 receiving means consists of two pairs of receivers, will glow for each section which the aircraft , passes so that the presence and the flight direc tion of the aircraft can be observed on the map at a glance. r ,f Having now particularly described and ascer tained the nature of our invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, we declare that what we claim is: the' respective pairs being arranged in two planes at right angles to each other, each receiver of such a .pair being adapted to receive energy from equal opposite parts of the ñeld of scanning. 4. The system claimed in claim 1, in which the drivingy means consists of an electrical motor pro vided with a polarity’ reversing means to drive the motor in one or the other direction by chang l. 'A system for locating and following an object in space comprising, in combination. a single 75 ing the polarity of the field coil of the motor. 2,409,448 , . » 13 . 5. The system claimed in claim 1, in which the `follow .the obiect: indicating means-:coupled 'to- - distributing device comprisesa polarized relay. the same being sensitiveto change‘sin the direc „tion of the current and actuated by the result 'ing diiference between two successive amounts> 'the vertical and horizontal shafts-to continuously 'Í 5 « indicate the side and elevation angles to- said objects, respectively, anda frequency meter cou- ‘ pledito said receiving means .and`provided with -- of radio energy >received from two opposite equal ' a scale graded _to continuously indicate> thel dfs parts of the field o'i' scanning, wherebysaid driv-v . 11. System for'locating'and'followingïanïobiectj I ing means are turned' in one direction or the other. > 6. The system claimed in claim 1,‘in_ which said ' in space,y comprising, -in combination' "a'fsingl'e tancetosaidobject. distributing device comprises a circuit, two equally sized condensers in said circuit, at least one pair of make- and break-contacts intercon nected between the receiving means and the con . ` -- -v - ' ' transmitter adapted to emit a highly'directive4 - 1 ^ beam of radio~- waves, receiving meansv compris-v. `ing directional scanning means adapted> to scanv ' ' in` slightly diverging directions'l and to receive> densers. and a polarized'relay provided with two windings of opposite direction. each winding con nected in parallelto onel of said condensers, saidv .l make-. and break-contacts being adapted to al ternatingly connect the said receiving 'means to ' beams transmitted and Areflected by said-object located in' space, means for orientating said vre- , ceiving means in two planesv at right vang'lesto i ‘ ’ another and _comprising a horizontal and 'averti-> call shaft,> driving meansto turn said shafts, ,said ' receiving means being'coupled thereto in said, 7. The system claimedin claim 2. in which 20 planes, a distributing device for distributing radio energy, said distributing device being Vcoupled' to ' said distributing device comprises a polarized re lay, the same being sensitive to changes in the s the receiving means and to the said driving' means. said condensers and to said polarized relay. y a circuit, said distributing device -being 'disposed direction of Athe current, and in which the device for switching from locating the object to follow in said circuit, a single amplifier and rectifier ing the object consists of a relay -device operable 25 interconnected between the receiving means and by said polarized relay. ' said distributing device to amplify and rectifyv « `8. The> system claimed'in> claim l, in vwhich , the transmitter is a rotatable, ultrashort radio the received radio energy, said distributing deev ' . vice being adapted to counter-direct two amounts i of radio energy received successively from _two ceiving means being directed'in substantially the 30 slightly different directions in aV certain plane of s a field of scanning corresponding to .twovoppoe samel direction and being synchronously and >au tomatically rotatable in two'planes at rightangle sitely located equal parts of the’saidfleldÍand to direct the resulting difference rof Vthe received. A wave transmitter, and said transmitter and re toeach other. , ` , i ‘ radio energies to the said driving means to op- ' 9. The system claimed in' claim 1, in which the receiving means consists of a single directional 35 erate same in one or the other direction in said i plane, depending upon lwhich of 'the saidjtwo ultrashort radio wave receiver, a rotating screen disposed in front of the latter, said screen being amounts of energy is the major one,'to»au_tomati` provided with an eccentrically located hole and cally follow the object, and indicating >>means , adapted to divide and scan the ñeld of scanning, coupled tothe vertical and horizontal shafts to 'Y whereby successively reflected energy from an 40 continuously indicate the side and elevation an'-vr ' object in diñerent opposite equal parts of the field of scanning is alternatingly passed to - the re ceiver and to the said driving means. . l0. System for locating and following van object in space comprising, in combination, a single transmitter adapted to emit a highlyv directive beam of ultrashort frequency modulated radio waves, receiving means lcomprising directional gles to said object respectively. 12.` In a system as claimed in ‘claim'1'1„»a pair of tachometers, each being provided with'a read ing scale graded in angle speed per second, one tachometer being coupled to each' of said lhori-l - zontal and vertical shafts to continuously'jmeas ure the side and elevation 'angle' speed ,respec tively of said object. ’ , Y , 13. In a system for locating and followingv an scanning means adapted to scan in slightly di- 50 object in space comprising, in combination a sin verging directions and to receive beams trans gle transmitter adaptedto _emit a highly direc' mitted by said transmitter and reflected lby said tive beam offrequency moduated- radiowaves, object located in space, to cause a beat frequency receiving means adapted- toscan'in'slightly di-V between said transmitted and reflected received verging directions and to receive beams trans--` waves. means for orientating said receiving means in two planes at right angles to one another, said 55 mitted by said transmitter and reñected- by said object once located in space, to cause a'beat fre- l f orlentating means comprising a' horizontal and quency between said transmitted and reflected a vertical shaft, driving means to turn said'shafts received waves, means for'orientating saidvre- " and receiving means coupled thereto in said ceiving means in at least onefplane, said orientat ` planes,- adistributing device coupled to the re ceiving means and to the'l said driving means, a 60 ing- means comprising driving means, an -electric circuit, said distributing device disposed'in said energy distributing device coupled to the receiv- l y circuit, a single amplifier and rectifier intercon nected between the receiving means and said dis tributing device to amplify and’rectify the re ing means and to the said driving means. a cir diiîerent directions in a certain plane of a ñeld ofyscanning corresponding to two oppositely lo " cated equal parts `of the said field and to direct the resulting difference of the received radio en ergies to said driving means to operate same in one or the other direction in said plane depend » vice being adapted to counter-direct two .amounts cuit, said vdistributing device being disposed in' said circuit, a single amplifier and lrectifier in ceived radio energy, said distributing device being 65 terconnected between the receiving >means `and said distributing device to amplify and rectify _ _adapted to counter-direct two successively re the received radio energy, said ldistributing de- . ceived amounts `of_ radio energy from two slightly of radio energy received successively from` two slightly different directions in a certain‘plane of a field of scanning- corresponding to two op- ‘ positely located equal' parts of the said ñeld, and to direct the resulting difference of the received radio energies to said driving means to operate ing upon which of the said two amounts of en- ' ergy is the maior one, in order to automatically 75 same in one orïthe other direction in said >plane 2,499,448 '15 _depending upon which of the said two amounts 16 of energy is the greater, until the center axis of energy is the major one, to automatically fol of the said transmitting and receiving means, low the object. and a frequency meter coupled to ` at every moment, is exactly pointing at the cor- y said receiving means, said frequency meter being provided with a graduated scale for continuously responding object.y 16. A system for locating and following objects in space comprising rotatable transmitting and ' indicating the distance to said object. 14. In' a system for locating and following of objects in space by means of rotatable transmit ting and receiving means pointing in substan tially the same direction for the transmission and 'the reception of directed radio waves reflected from said objects, the combinationof driving means adapted to rotate the transmitting and receiving means in at least one plane, impulse transmitting means coupled to said driving means VY'and adapted to automatically transmit electric» impulses .to said,v driving means to turn said trans mitting and receiving means in predetermined, compulsory paths in at least one plane in order to systematically locate an object in space, and 20 controlling means coupled to said receiving means and adapted to successively transfer amounts of receiving means pointing in substantially the same direction for the transmission and reception of directed radio waves reflected from the ob ject, driving means for rotating said transmit ting and receiving means in at least one plane, directing means coupled to said driving means and adapted to automatically turn said transmit ting and receiving means in predetermined paths in order to systematically search for -an object in space, an electromagnetic operating device, amplifying and distributing means coupled to said receiving means and to said electromagnetic operating device and adapted to transfer radio energy to the latter, said electromagnetic oper ating device being adapted to control said driv ing means, and being controlled in its move ments by said amplifying and distributing means, a switching device coupled to said electromag radio energy from two opposite'directions of a certain plane Within a limited field of search to said driving means for driving in one or the other 25 netic operating device, said switching device being adapted to disconnect said directing means from direction, and a switching device coupled to and said driving means, said electromagnetic oper . governed by said controlling means upon recep ating device actuating said switching device at tion of reflected energy, said switching device being adapted to disconnect said directing means from said driving means and to couple said con trolling means to said driving vmeans for con the moment when reflected energy from a located 30 object is received in the receiving means in or der to disconnect said directing means from said - trolled driving and following of an object at the moment when an amount of reflected energy has been received in the receiving means. 15. The system claimed in claim 14, in which 35 said receiving means> is adapted to successively driving means and establish control over said driving means for following said object in ac cordance with the movements of said electromag netic operating device, said amplifying and dis tributing means serving successively to receive receive radio energy from two substantially par and amplify amounts of radio energy from two somewhat diverging directions in the same plane `device comprising a circuit -`including said dis corresponding to equal parts of the field of search, tributing and receiving means; said amplifying 40 and to transfer two such successively received and distributing means being coupled between amounts of radio energy and'deliver the resulting the receiving means and the said' controlling> energy difference, if any, to said electromagnetic means, said distributing means comprising means ‘operating device, in order to indicate and follow the movement of said object in space in one di to counter-direct two >successively received amounts of radio energy from two oppositely 45 rection or the other in the respective plane, de located equal parts of the ñeld of search and to pending upon which amount of energy is the greater. deliver the resulting energy difference to the said controlling means in order to automatically ' HELGE FABIAN ROST. , allel directions in the corresponding plane, said ' turn thetransmitting and the receiving means inv one or the other direction in the corresponding 50 plane, depending upon which of the said amounts KARL HARRY THUNELL. STEN DANIEL VIGREN. . PER HARRY ELIAS CLAESSON.