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2,409,455
RADIANT ENERGY LOCATING SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 29,4 1944
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W. A. TOLSON ETAL
RADIANT ENERGY Locmms SYSTEM
2 sheets-sheet 2
Fiied Jan. 29, 1944
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,409,456
Patented Oct. 15, ‘i946
T OFFECE
.ass
2,409,456
RADIANT ENERGY LOCATIN G SYSTEM
William A. Tolson and Carl A. Meneley, Prince
ton, N. J., assignors to Radio Corporation of
America, a corporation of Delaware
Application January 29, 1944, Serial No. 520,336
14 Claims. (Cl. Z50-11)
l.
This invention relates to radiant energy locating
systems and more particularly to systems for
locating objects radiating or reradiating radiant
energy.
Numerous systems and devices for locating the
azimuthal position as Well as the distance of ob
jects reflecting radiant energy have been de
scribed. Some of these systems employ radio fre
quency Waves, Whereas others use infra red or
heat Waves. Moreover, in the case of both types
of waves, objects may be located by radiating a
beam of energy which is reflected by the object
to be located and is applied after reception to a
suitable indicator. Some of the systems are ar
ranged to locate the object to be detected with re
spect to the complete azimuth, whereas other de
2
ably located at the focus of the reñector. A trans
mitting device may be included on the shaft which
drives the reflector 5 so that a directive beam oi
radiant energy may be rotated With the reñec
tor 5, thereby to direct a beam of radiant energy
toward the device to be detected or to scan the
area to be protected. The transmitter may include
a source of radiant energy 9, a reflector Il and
a suitable radiator I3. It should be understood
that the transmitter may radiate waves of any de
sired frequency, for example, the radiant energy
may be in the form of heat waves or radio fre
quency waves.
The motor l is also arranged to rotate a shaft
15 l5 which is connected to the ~movable coil Il of
vices scan in a more restricted arc and indicate
a goniometer I9. The goniorneter includes ñXed
coils 2 l, 23. The shaft l5 is preferably rotated at
the position of the object within the predetermined
angular range.
In such prior art systems, it has been custom
tatable coil Il of the goniometer is connected to
a pulse generator 25 Which establishes either
the same angular rate as the reíiector 5. The ro
sharply deñned Wave forms or sawtooth Wave
ary to include generators which are operated in
forms, as hereinafter described. The pulse gen
synchronism with the rotation of the directive
erator is connected to a modulator 21. The mod
beam whereby the generator voltage may be ap
lator is controlled by the output of an amplifier
lied to the deflecting elements of a cathode ray
tube so that the ray may be deñected in syn 25 29, Whose input includes the radiant energy re
ceiving means l. In the case of heat Waves the
chronism with the rotation of the directive beam
receiver converts the applied energy into elec
of radiant energy. The inclusion of generators
trical energy; in the case of radio frequency Waves,
increases the complication of the apparatus as
an antenna is used to establish the electrical cur- .
well as its Weight.
rents.
The heat receiver may be of the type dis
One of the objects of the present invention is
closed in U. S.. Patent 2,234,328 which issued on
to provide improved means for synchronising the
March 11, 1941, on an application filed by Irving
electron beam defìection in a cathode ray tube in
Wolff on September 24, 1937. The heat receiver
dicator of the type used in locating radiant en
is preferably equipped with a diaphragm includ
ergy sources. Another object is to provide im
ing a slit through which the heat waves are
proved means for deñecting synchronously a cath
' applied.
ode ray and for maintaining the phase relation of
One terminal of each of the ñxed goniometer
said deñection with relation to radiant energy
coils 2|, 23 is connected to ground. The re
scanning beams or the like. An additional ob
maining terminals of one pair of fixed coils 2|
ject is to provide an improved radiant energy
locating system. A still further object is to pro 40 are connected to the grids GI, G2 ofi a first pair
of push-pull tubes 3|, which are connected in
vide an improved method of and means for de
push-pull relation. The remaining terminals of
tecting the angular position of a source of heat
the other pair of ñxed coils 23 are connected to
energy.
the
grids G3, G4 of a second pair of push-pull am
-The invention will be described by referring to
the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 is 45 pliiier tubes 33. The output of the first pair of
tubes 3l is applied through a transformer 35 to
a schematic circuit diagram of one embodiment
a pair of rectiñers 3l, 39 and hence to the ver
of the invention; Figures 2a through 2f are graphs
tical
deflecting elements 4l of a cathode ray tube
illustrating the operation of the devices of Figure
or kinescope i3. The output of the second push
1; Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of another
embodiment of the invention; and Figures 4a and 50 pull tubes 33 is applied through a transformer
45 to a pair of rectiñers 4l, 43, and hence to the
4b are graphs of the cathode ray indications ob
horizontal deflecting elements 5I of the cathode
tained with the device illustrated in Figure 3.
ray tube 133. The remaining electrodes of the
Referring to Figure 1, a motor 1, through suit
cathode ray tube are connected to a suitable power
able gearing 3, is used to rotate a reflector 5 and
a radiant energy responsive device 1 Which is suit 55 source Which is not shown.
2,409,456
3
4
The Inode of operation of the thus described
of the cathode ray tube correspond to the distance
system depends in part upon Whether the sys
tem is used for detecting radiant energy which
originates within the objects to be detected as dis
tinguished from reflected energy.
If such orig
inal energy sources are to be indicated, the trans
mission means, 9, Il, I3 may be omitted. On the
other hand, the transmission means may be used
to radiate energy which will be reflected by the
objects to be indicated. In either event ñrst as-`
sume that no radiant energy is being applied to
the receiver. If the pulse generator is operated at
a relatively high frequency compared to the an
gular rotation of the receiving reñector 5, a series
of pulses, such as shown in Figure 2a, will be ap
plied to the grids GI, and a corresponding series
of pulses, as shown in Figure 2b, will be applied
and to the angular position of the radiant energy
reflecting object.
In the device of Figure 3, a motor 6I is used to
rotaie a reflector 53 and the rotatable coil E5 of
a goniometer 6l'. A suitable antenna 69 is ar
ranged at the focus of the reñector, and is con
nected to a receiver 1i. 'I'he receiver output is
applied to the control electrode 'I3 of a cathode
ray tube 75. The antenna may be connected
through appropriate lengths of transmission line
to a transmitter ‘l1 or a separate directive or non
directive antenna 19 may l‘be used for radiating
>the energy to be reñected. The transmitter is
keyed by a pulse generator 8l, which is also con
nected to a savvtooth Wave generator 83. The
sawtooth Waves are applied to the rotatable coil
of the goniometer. The fixed coils 85, 8l' of the
to the grid G3. The phase of the envelope of volt-v
ages applied to GI and G3 differ by 90°, as is
goniometer are connected directly or through am
plifiers 89, 9| to the deñecting elements 93, 95 re
indicated in the graphs.
It should be understood that voltages corre- `
spectively of the cathode ray tube.
sponding to those illustrated in Figures 2a and 2b
The mode of operation of Figure 3 is as follows:
are also applied to the grids G2 and G4 so that
At the instant the transmitter '17 is keyed by the
the phase of the voltage on Gl and G2 diiTers
pulse generator 3|, a, pulse of radiant energy is
by 180°, and the phase of the voltage applied to 25 radiated and a sawtooth wave is applied through
G3 and Gli also differs by 180°, The amplified
the goniometer ’àl and ampliñers 89, 9| to the de
currents applied to the transformers 35 and 45
iiecting elements 93, 95. The cathode ray, which
are rectiiied so that the envelopes, as shown in
may be either biased off or applied to the cath
Figures 2c and 2d are applied to the vertical de
ode ray tube screen, is deflected radially at an an
ñecting elements 4l. Corresponding voltages dis
gular position which may be made to correspond
placed 90" from that of Figure 2c and 90° from
to the angular position of the beam of transmitted
that illustrated in Figure 2d are applied to the
or received radiant energy. If an object reflects
horizontal deñecting elements 5I. The effect of
the energy, the reñected signal will be received
the applied voltages is to deflect the cathode ray
at a later interval of time in accordance with Well
>beam throughout a circular path, as illustrated in
known theory. The received reflected signal,
Figure 2e.
which is applied to the control element of the
cathode ray tube, depending on signal polarity,
In the absence of modulation, the cathode ray
will continue to move in a circular path in syn
will either key on the ray to indicate the reception
chronism with the rotation of the receiving ñeld
as a lbright spot on the screen, or the signal will
pattern. The presence of reñected energy will llo key off the ray to indicate the reception as a
cause the receiver 'l to establish an electrical sig
dark spot on the radial trace as illustrated in
nal which may be amplified or applied directly
Figures 4a and 4b, respectively. The distance of
to the modulator 2l'. The modulation may be
the spot along the radial trace corresponds to the
used to increase the amplitude of the pulse gen
distance of the object and the radial position of
erator output, whereby the deflecting potentials '» ' the trace corresponds to the azimuthal position
of the object.
applied to the elements All, 5i will be increased.
The increased deñecting potentials will increase
Thus, the invention has 'been described as an
the radius of the cathode ray deñection to indi
improved radiant energy locating system in which
cate the reception of radiant energy, as shown
the deiiecting voltages for a cathode ray tube in
in Figure 2f. A suitable scale, which is not shown,
dicator are derived by applying pulse energy to
may be disposed about the periphery of a cathode
the rotatable co-il of a goniometer.
ray tube to indicate the azimuthall position at
formof the deflecting voltages may be sawtooth
which the radiant energy is received.
The wave
A zero or
or rectilinear. If rectilinear pulses are employed,
they are rectified and the rectified currents sup
mined position by momentarily decreasing the 55 plied to deflect the cathode ray in a circular path
amplitude of the pulses from the pulse generator
corresponding to the area to be scanned by the
25. The decreased amplitude may be eiîected by
radiant energy. The term “radiant energy” is
cam operated switch 53, which is used to connect
used throughout the speciñcation and claims to
momentarily a resistance 55' across the output of
include either heat energy, Aradio frequency energy
the pulse generator. It should be understood that 60 or any desired` form of Wave energy transmission.
the ray deflection may be increased or decreased
While it is preferable to employ directive trans
reference mark may be applied to any predeter
by the received signals according to the polarity
mission and directive reception, the desired direc
of the signal currents applied to the modulator.
tivity may be Vobtained from the transmitted
A modiñcation of the invention is shown in Fig
radiation or from the received signals. In the
ure 3. In this modiiication the deflecting poten 65 case of heat Waves, no transmitter is required if
tials are derived by applying currents of sawtooth
the objects to be detected are at a temperature
wave form to the rotating coil of the goniometer.
which is different from the ambient.V
The sawtooth deflecting Waves are either applied
We claim as our invention:
»
.
directly or are amplified and then applied to the
1. A radiant energy locating system including
deflecting elements of the cathode ray tube 70 in combination means for receiving radiant en
whereby synchronized radial deflections of the
ergy, rotatable means for limiting the reception
cathode ray are obtained through the desired an
of said radiant energy to a predetermined angular
gular range. The received signal potentials are
range, a cathode ray tube _for indicating the
used to control the intensity of .the cathode ray
angular position at which said energy is received,
so that the resultant indications on the screen 75 said tube including elements for deflecting said
5
ray- throughout said range, a goniometer having
a’ rotatable coil movable'in synchronisnrwith
said rotatable means and having fixedV coils dis
posed in operative relation to said rotatable coil,
a` generator connected to said rotatable coil for
inducing energy in quadrature phase'in said fixed
coils, and connecting means between said ñxed
coils and said deflecting elements for applying
potentials to said deflecting elements for rotat
ing said ray in synchronism with said rotatable
means and for deflecting said -ray in a radial
direction.
2. A radiant energy locating system including
in combination rotatable means for selectively
receiving radiant energy throughout a predeter
mined angular range, a cathode ray tube for
indicating the angular position at which said
energy is received, said tube including elements
for deflecting said ray throughout said range, a
goniometer having a rotatable coil' movable in
6
erator output in response to received radiant
energy.
«
6. A radiant energy locating system including
in combination rotatable means for receiving
radiant energy throughout a predetermined angu
lar range, a cathode ray tube for indicating the
angular lposition at which said energy is received,
said tube including elements for dellecting said
raythroughout said range, a goniometer having
a rotatable coil movable in synchronism with said
rotatable means and having fixed coils disposed
in operative relation to said rotatable coil, a gen
erator connected to said rotatable coil for induc
ing energy in quadrature phase in said fixed coils,
means connecting said ñxed coils and said de
flecting elementsfor applying potentials corre
spending to said energy to said deñecting ele
ments for deflecting said ray in synchronism
with said rotatable means and for deflecting said
ray in a radial direction, and means for applying
said received radiant energy to said cathode ray
tube whereby the ray is varied and reception of
said radiant energy is indicated.
'7. A radiant energy locating system including
synchronism with said rotatable means and hav
ing ñXed coils disposed in operative relation to
said rotatable coil, a sawtooth generator con
nected to said rotatable coil for inducing energy
in combination rotatable means for selectively
in quadrature phase in said fixed coils, and 25 receiving radiant energy throughout a predeter
means effectively connected to said ñxed coils
mined angular range, a> cathode ray tube for in
and to said deiiecting elements for applying po
dicating the angular position at which said en
tentials to said deflecting elements for rotating
ergy is received, said tube including elements for
said ray in synchronism with said rotatable
deflecting said ray throughout said range, a
means and for radially deflecting said ray in syn 30 goniometer having a rotatable coil movable in
chronism with said sawtooth energy.
synchronism with said rotatable means and hav
3. A radiant energy lo-cating system including
ing fixed coils disposed in operative relation to
in combination rotatable means for receiving
said rotatable coil, a generator connected to said
radiant energy throughout a predetermined
rotatable coil for inducing energy in quadrature
angular range, a cathode ray tube for indicating 35 phase in said ñxed coils, rectifier means effec
the angular position at which said energy is re
tively connecting said ñxed coils and said `de
ceived, said tube including elements for deflect
flecting elements for applying potentials corre
ing said ray throughout said range, a goniometer
sponding to said energy to said deñecting ele
having a rotatable'coil movable in synchronism 40 ments for'deñecting said‘ ray in synchronism with
with said rotatable means and having iixed coils
said rotatable means, and means for applying
disposed in operative relation to said rotatable
said received radiant energy to said cathode ray
coil, a pulse generator connected to'said rotatable
tube whereby the ray is varied and reception of
coil for inducing pulses in quadrature phase in
said radiant energy is indicated.
said iixed coils, means effectively connected to
"8. A radiant energy locating system including
said ñxed coils and to said deñecting elements
in combination rotatable means for receiving
for applying potentials to said deilecting ele
radiant energy throughout a predetermined
ments for deflect-ing said ray in synchronism
angular range, a cathode ray tube for indicating
with said rotatable means, and means for ap
the angular position at which said energy is re
plying modifying potentials to said cathode ray
tube to indicate reception of said radiant en
ergy.
v 4. yA radiant energy locating system including
in combination rotatable means for selectively
receiving radiant energy throughout a predeter
mined angular range, a cathode ray tube for
indicating the angular position at4 which said en
ergy is received, said tube including elements for
deflecting said ray throughout said range, a
50 ceived, said tube including elements for deflect
ing said ray throughout said range, a goniometer
having a rotatable coil movable in synchronism
with said rotatable' means and having ñxed coils
disposed in operative relation to said rotatable
coil, a generator connected to said rotatable coil
for inducing energy in quadrature phase in said
iixed coils, amplifying means connected to said
ñXed coils, rectifying means connected to the
output of said amplifying means and to said
goniometer having a rotatable coil movable in
deflecting elements for applying deñecting poten
synchronism with said rotatable means and hav 60 tials to 'rotate said ray in synchronism with said
ing ñxed coils disposed in operative relation to
rotatable means, and means for applying said
said rotatable coil, a pulse generator connected
received radiant energy to said cathode ray tube
to said rotatable coil for inducing pulses in quad
to indicate the angular range at which said
rature phase in said fixed coils, rectifier means
radiant energy is received.
f 9. A radiant energy locating system including
eliectively connected to said fixed coils and to
in combination rotatable means for receiving
said deñecting elements for applying potentials
radiant energy throughout a predetermined
to said deflecting elements for deflecting said ray
angular range, a cathode ray tube for indicat
in synchronism with said rotatable means, and
means for applying modifying potentials to said 70 ing the angular position at which said energy is
received, said tube including elements for de
cathode ray tube to indicate reception of said
iiecting said ray throughout said range and an
radiant energy.
element for controlling said ray, a goniometer
5. A system of the character of claim 1 in
having a rotatable coil movable in synchronism
cluding a modulator connected to said generator
and to said receiving means for varying said gen 75 with said rotatable means and having fixed coils
2,409,456
disposed in operative relation to said rotatable
coil, a generator connected to said rotatable coil
for inducing energy in quadrature phase in said
fixed coils, means connecting said ñxed coils and
said deflecting elements for applying potentials to
said deflecting elements for deñecting'said ray
8
angular position at which said radio energy is
received,l said tube including elements for de
necting said ray
throughout Said range, a
goniometer having a rotatable coil movable in
5 synchronism with said rotatable means and hav
ing fixed coils effectively connected to said de
ñecting elements, a pulse generator connected to
said rotatable coil for inducing pulses in said
iiXed coils, and means connected to said pulse
to said controlling element whereby reception of 10 generator and to said receiver for modulating
said radiant energy may be indicated. A*
said pulses in accordancewith said received radio
l0. A radiant energylocating system including
energy whereby said pulses in the absence of
in synchronism with said rotatable means and
for dellecting said ray in a radial direction, and
meansy for applying said received radiant energy
in combination means for receiving radiant
energy, rotatable means for limiting the recep
tion of said radiant energy to a predetermined
angular range, acathodc ray Vtube for indicating
the angular position at which said energy is re
modulation dellect said ray in synchronism' with
said rotating means, and whereby in the presence
of modulation said ray deiiection is‘ altered to
indicate reception of said radio energy.
13. A radiant energy locating system including
in combination rotatable means for receiving
ing said ray throughout said range and a con»
radiant energy throughout a predetermined
trol> element for modifying said ray, a-goniorneter 20 angular range, a cathode ray tube for indicating
having a rotatable coil movable in synchronisrn
the angular position at which said energy is re
with said rotatable means and having fixed coils
ceived, said tube including elements for deiiecting
disposed in operative relation to said rotatable
said ray throughout said range, a goniometer
coil, a generator connected to said rotatable coil
having a rotatable coil movable in synchronism
for inducing energy in quadrature phase in said
with saidrotatable means and having fixed coils
ñXed coils, means connecting said ñxed coils and 25. operatively coupled to said rotatable coil, a pulse
to said deilecting elements for applying poten
generator connected to said rotatable coil for in
tials to said deilecting elements for deflecting said
ducing pulses in said ñxed coils, amplifiers con
ray in synchronism with said rotatable means and
nected to said iîXed coils, rectifiers connected to
for directing said ray in a radial direction, and
30 said deñecting elements, and means connected
means for applying said received radiant energy
to said pulse generator and to said rotatable
to said cathode ray tube control element whereby
means for modifying said pulses in accordance
said ray may be modiñed to indicate reception of
with said received energy whereby said pulses in
said radiant energy.
the absence of modulation deflect said ray in
11. Aradiant energy locating system including 35 synchronism with said rotating means, and
in combination a heat responsive receiver,
whereby in the presence of modulation said ray
rotatable means for limiting the response of said
deflection is altered to indicate reception of said
receiver to a predetermined angular range, a
radiant energy.
cathode ray tube for indicating the angular posi
14. A radiant energy locating system including
tion at which said heat is received, said tube in 40 in combination rotatable means for receiving
cluding elements for defiecting said ray through
radiant energy throughout an azimuthal range,A
out said range, a goniometer having a rotatable
a cathode ray tube for indicating the azimuthal
coil movable in synchronism with said rotatable
position at which said energy is received, said
means and having ñxed coils eiîectively con»
tube including elements for deñecting said ray
nected to said’deilecting elements, a pulse gen
throughout said range, a goniometer having a
erator connected to said rotatable. coil for in
rotatable coil movable in synchronism with said
ducing pulses in said fixed coils, and means con
rotatable means and having iìxed coils effectively
nected to said pulse generator and to said heat
connected to said deñecting elements, a pulse
responsive receiver for modulating said pulses
generator connected to said rotatable coil for
in accordance withY said received heat whereby 50 inducing pulses in said fixed coils,V >and> means
said pulses in the absence of modulation deñect
connected to said pulse generator and to said ro-said ray in synchronism with said rotating
tatable means for modifying said pulses in ac
means, andrwhereby in the presence of modula
cordance With said received energy whereby said
tion said ray deflection is altered to indicate re
pulses in the absence of modulation deflect said
ception of said heat.
ray in synchronism with said rotating means,
l2. A radiant energy locating system including
and whereby in the presence of modulation said
in combination a receiver responsive to> radio
ray deflection is altered to indicate reception of
energy, rotatable means for limiting the> re
said radiant energy.
ceived, said tube including elements for deiìect->
sponse of said receiver to a predetermined angli
lar range, a cathode ray tube for indicating Vthe 60
WILLIAM A. TOLSON.
CARL A. MENELEY.
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