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Oct. l5, 1946.
w. E. BA'HLS
> 2,409,466
~ Epncmou nrscHAneE vEvrcE
' Filed July 21. 1944
Ä. l
, Yy
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
Walter E. Bahls, Haddonfield, N. J., assig’nor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
Application July 21, 1944, Serial No. 545,924
5 claims. (ci. 25o-27.5)
My invention relates to electron discharge de
anodes may be attached to their conductors as by
soldering, brazing or welding. The conductors
ñers of the gas or vapor ñlled type.
are guided into their proper spacer holes and the
An object of my invention is to provide a gas or
vapor filled rectifier that is simple in construction 5 spacer slid to the desired longitudinal position on
the conductors. Small welded tabs 8 positioned,
and easy to manufacture.
for example, on the under side of the spacer and
A more specific object of my invention is to pro
attached to the anode leads and on the upper side
vide a rectiñer for alternating current which is
of the spacer to the cathode` leads effectively an
reliable in operation á'nd which may be made in
chor the parts together. Ceramic cement or tu
small sizes.
bular insulating members 9 surround anode leads
The characteristic features of my invention are
3 to prevent discharge between these leads and
defined in theappended claims and preferred em
cathode leads. The electrode assembly may
bodiments thereof are described in the following
then be telescoped into the envelope and the rim
specification and shown in the accompanying
drawing in which Figure 1 is a longitudinal sec 15 of the header brought into contact -with the lip
of the envelope and the rim and lip sealed in the
tional view of a gas or vapor filled rectifier em
usual manner. Finally the envelope may be ex
bodying my invention; Figure 2 is a longitudinal
hausted and filled with gas and sealed oli.
sectional view of another embodiment of my im
In operation, a gaseous discharge passes be
proved rectiiier, and Figure 3 is a detailed sec
, tween the cathode which becomes heated during
tional view of still another embodiment of my im 20
operation by ion bombardment, and the two an
proved rectiñer.
odes, any material vaporized from the electrodes
The particular rectifier chosen for illustrating
being effectively confined to the upper compart
my invention Vand shown in the drawing com
of the envelope. The spacer serves the dual
prises a simple straight sided tubular glassl en
function of uniting the electrodes in a rigid uni
velope I which can be easily formed, molded or 25 tary assembly, and of shielding the insulating
cut from glass tubing. The lower end of the en
surfaces of the envelope and header below the
velope is closed by a glass disc or header 2, in
spacer from condensing anode and cathode mate
which is sealed parallel lead-in conductors 3 per
rials. Leakage currents and arcing between the
< pendicular to the header. The conductors may be
leads below the spacer are effectively prevented.
arranged in a circle or in a single plane as shown. 30
In Figure 2 the pant leg protection for the
The conductors extend inwardly and through an
anodes is extended downwardly to the header.
insulating spacer 4 disposed parallel to the head
In this embodiment of my improved device, an
er. The insulating spacer is preferably round and
elongated ceramic tube 9a extends from the up
vices, particularly to alternating current recti
just small enough to slide easily into the envelope.
The insulating spacer shown in Figure 1 is pref 35 per surface of the header to a point just below
the upper end of the anode 5. The position of lche
erably of the ceramic type and is molded with
of the sleeve is determined by the condition
holes in registry with the lead-in conductors.
ofoperation desired and could be higher or lower
This spacer member helps space the electrodes
than that shown. Conveniently, shoulders I0
properly and conñnes the discharge to the space
may be molded integrally with the pants leg tubes
above the spacer, and also confines the ions
40 „on which rests the spacer disc 4a. The spacer 4a
in the embodiment s W Vin Figure 2 may be of
protected against ion bombardment. Rod-like
the mica type with e` ` arged holes to iit over the
anodes 5, of iron or carbon, are attached to the
upper end of the tubular insulators 9a. In as
inner ends of two of the conductors while a
sembly the insulator tubes 9a are dropped over
coiled ñlament 6, which may be coated with emit 45 the
anodes, the mica disc is pressed down upon
formed to this space so that the lead-in seals are
ting material, is attached to the inner ends of
other conductors. Extensions ‘I may be cast in
tegrally with the spacer around the holes of the
the shoulders II). Small metal tabs 8a welded to
the cathode leads above the mica lock the entire
assembly together. When „the filament 6 is con
spacer through which the anodes extend to con
nected to its leads, the electrode and header as
iine the discharge to the anode tips, the distance 50 sembly may be sealed-in in the usual manner.
between the inner wall of extension 'I and the sur
In Figure 3 simpliñed ceramic tubing 9b is
face of the anode 5 being preferably less than the
shown. Upon the upper end of the straight sided
mean-free-path of an electron in the gas used.
ceramic tube 9b may be placed a drawn metal
In manufacture, the header and lead-ln con
thimble I I having an offset shoulder I Ic inter
ductor assembly is ñrst made, after which the 55 mediate its ends to rest upon the upper end of the
header, a cathode mounted on the inner ends of
two of said conductors and rod-like anodes
mounted on the ends of the other of said con
ductors, a ceramic tube telescoped over said an
odes and their leads and extending from said
header to points below the upper ends of said
anodes, means holding said tubes against said
tube Sb and having a flange rim Ild upon which
the spacer may rest. The electrodes are assem
bled in the same simple manner described in con
nection with Figure 2.
The envelope may be of the small glass type
about .700 inch in diameter and now commonly
used in the so-called miniature glass radio tube
header and bracing said conductors comprising
an insulating disc extending across the envelope
parallel to the header below the upper ends of
said tubes and having openings to embrace the
ceramic tubes and cathode conductors.
and commercially known as the IT4 in which the
lead-in conductors may be of dumet or nickel
iron-cobalt alloy about .040 inch in diameter.
The cathode may comprise a coiled nickel or
tungsten Wire coated with barium strontium ox
ides or other electron emissive coating. The di
ameter and cross-section of the cathode filament
3. A rectiiier comprising an envelope closed
at its lower end with a glass disc header, a plu
rality of parallel lead-in conductors sealed in
said header, ceramic tubes telescoped over two
discharge will heat it and maintain it at such
of said conductors, rod-like anodes attached to
temperature as will produce thermionic emission.
the inner ends oi said two conductors, a iila
If desired, it can be made of such length that it
mentary cathode attached to the inner ends of
will operate at the conventional 6.3 heater volt
twov other of said conductors, a drawn metal
age if there is insuñicient voltage between the 20' thimble fitted over the upper end of said tubes,
cathode and anode to start with a cold cathode.
said thimble having shoulders to support the
Under these -conditions by applying a ñlament
thimbles on the upper ends of the tubes, the lower
voltage for short duration the tube may be set
rims of the thimbles having outwardly directed
into operation, after which the filament voltage
flanges, an insulating disc parallel to said header
may be removed, and the tube will continue to
resting upon said flanges and metal tabs on the
cathode conductors holding said disc upon said
My improved rectifier is characterized by its re
liaoie operation and by its simple and inexpen
are proportioned in such a manner that the gas
sive construction.
While I have indicated the preferred embodi
4. A rectiiier including an envelope having a
30 press, a plurality of conducting means extending
ments of my invention of which I am now aware
through and sealed in said press, a rod-like anode
supported on the inner end of one of said con
ducting means, and a ñlamentary cathode sup
portedv by other conducting means, and a trans
verse insulating element extending across the
envelope below the inner end of said anode and
said cathode and shielding said ypress from said
cathode and said anode, and insulating means
and have also indicated only one specific applica
tion for which my invention may be employed, it
will be apparent that my invention is by no means
limited to the exact forms illustrated or the use
indicated, but that many variations 'inay be
made in the particular structure used and the
purpose for which it is employed without de
surrounding said anode and extending between
parting from the scope of my invention as set
40 said press and the inner end of said anode and
forth in the appended claims.
terminating below the end of said anode and
What I claim as new is:
spaced from the end of said anode.
1, A rectifier comprising a tubular envelope, a
5. An electron discharge device including an
flat glass disc header closing one end of said en
velope, a disc-shaped insulating spacer in andY r' elongated envelope closed at one end by a press,
a plurality of lead-in conducting means extend
disposed across the envelope parallel to said
ing through said press, a plurality of rod-like
header, parallel lead-in conductors sealed per~
pendicularly through said header and extending
anodes supported within said envelope and a
through said insulating spacer, metal tabs welded
to said conductors to prevent movement of said
spacer along said conductors, a cathode mounted
cathode supported within said envelope from said
lead-in conducting means, tubular elements of
insulating material surrounding said anodes and
on the inner ends of two of said conductors, a
rod-like anode mounted on the inner end of an
their respective conducting means and extending
between the press and the inner ends of said
other of said conductors, an insulating element
anodes, and supporting means on said insulating
surrounding said anode, the anode and cathode
tubular elements and a transverse insulating
electrodes being in operative relationship on one
member supported on said supporting means and
side of said spacer and separated from said
means securing said transverse insulating mem
header by said spacer.
ber against the supporting means on said tubular
2. A rectifier comprising a tubular envelope
closed at one end with a^` glass disc type header,
parallel lead-in condudtfirs sealed through said
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