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Oct. 15,1946.
"
5. w. HEROLD
2,4@9,485
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
i-"ned Jan. 24, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
./
INVENTOR.
HERWD
2,409,485
E w H s RQL D
ELECTRON mscmmus DEVICE
Filad Jan. 24, 1945
I
z‘sheets-shaat 2
INVENTOR.
+300
EDWARD W. HEROLD-I
@www
ATTORNEY
2,409,485
Patented Got. E5, 3946
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vPATENT OFFICE
2,d09,d85
EEECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Edward W.',Eerold, ‘Kingston, N. 3., asslgnor to
Radio Qorporation of America, a corporation of
Delaware
1
Application January 24, 1945, Serial No. 574,263
7 Glalma. (171. 315-717)
l
2
The invention covered herein may be manufac
tured and used by or_ for the Government of the
United States for' any governmental purpose
normal standards some require adjustment by
means of correcting magnets. Although some of
the trouble was probably due to surface poten
tial variations on various parts of the electrode
mount, other dimculties appeared to be due to
without payment tome or assigns of any royalty
thereon.
My invention relates to electron discharge de
misalignment of the tube elements. In this re~=
vices, more particularly to such devices suitable
spect, de?ection plates, which also comprise part
for use at ultra high frequencies and utilizing a
of the main electrostatic focusing lens, present
beam of electrons which is periodically de?ected
the greatest problem since their alignment is
for varying the output of the device.
10 critical, and possibly are ‘the chief cause of sub
Electron discharge devices to which the pres‘
standard operation, and yet alignment can be
ent invention is directed are used as mixers and
maintained only by extreme care in mounting.
ampli?ers, particularly at high frequencies where
It was believed'the chief disadvantages of de
the advantages of low input conductance and ca
?ection plate misalignment could be overcome
pacity are important.
-
"
15 if these plates were operated at the same poten- ,
One form of beam de?ection tube includes a .
cathode and associated elements for providing a
directed beam of electrons of rectangular cross
section, which beam is directed toward a col
lector through a, beam ‘focusing and beam de?ec 20
tion system, the electron beam being de?ected
tial as surrounding electrodes, since then no
electric ?elds would be present to distort the
beam in case of misaligned parts. However, in
this event focusing of the beam, which is essen
tial in a tube whichlis to have high sensitivity,
must be done in some other way.
across an apertured element to determine the
In the present type of beam de?ection tube ‘ '
amount of current to the collector. The aperture
the centering of the beam is accomplished by a
may be bisected by a rod-like element, thus pro
differential bias applied'to the de?ecting elec
ducing in effect a double aperture. Positioned 25 trodes. This requires troublesome blocking con
between the collector and apertured element may
densers and D.-C. separation of the de?ection
be a suppressor which is aligned with the aper
plates. The de?ecting electrodes are also relied
ture in the apertured element.
upon in combination with the apertured ele
In the copending application of Charles ‘W.
ments to provide a focusing action on the elec-_
Mueller, Serial No. 451,339 ?led November 1, 1944, 30 tron beam, thus necessitating the use of the de
and assigned to the same assignee as the present
?ection plates for two functions with the at-,
application, there is shown and described a beam
tendant mechanical and electrical dimculties.
de?ection tube of the general type described
It is, therefore, a. principal object of my inven- .
above. This tube utilizes a ?at plate type of
tion to provide an electron discharge device of
construction for insuring accurate alignment of v 35 the beam de?ection type of improved design in
the various electrodes.‘ In this arrangement a
‘which normal performance can be substantially
cathode provides a rectangular shaped beam of
assured.
.
electrons directed toward a collector. The beam
Another object of ‘my invention is to provide
focusing and de?ecting electrode system 'com
such a device in which the disadvantages of
prises a pair of oppositely disposed plates,,each 40 misalignment of de?ection plates are eliminated.
having a pair of' rod-like elements welded to the
or reduced to a minimum.
inside and opposing surfaces of the plates, and ex
Another object of my invention is to provide
tending transversely of the beam path. They are .
an electron discharge‘ device of the beam de?ec
oppositely disposed from each other to provide a '
tion type having an electrode system in which no
pair of successively positioned apertures. To 45 bias is needed on the de?ection plates so as to
maintain these plates in spaced relationship and
eliminate the troublesome blocking condenser
to de?ne the rectangular apertures, separating
and D.-C. separation of the de?ection plates. A further object of my invention is to provide ‘
members, extending parallel to the beam path
an electron assembly in which the focusing and
and providing supporting arms, are positioned
at the top and bottom of the plates. These lon 50 de?ection portions can be separated whereby
gitudinally extending arms also support opposite
tubes can be built which will have better elec
tron beam alignment on the average than previ
ly disposed de?ecting electrodes between which
ously obtained.
the beam is directed and by which the beam‘ is
deflected.
The novel features which I believe to be char—
While many tubes of this type perform up to 55 acteristic of my‘invention are set forth with par
2,409,485
.
exploded perspective showingv the arrangement
'
between the de?ecting electrodes 28 and 29 and
are deflected across the intercepting wire 30 pass
an elevation of an electron discharge device
made according to my invention with parts re
moved to show details of construction, Figure 2
is a transverse section taken along the line 2-2
of Figure 1, Figure 3 is a transverse section taken
along the line 3-3 of Figure 1, Figure 4 is an
4
aperture l6’ through the aperture assembly 25
ticularity in the appended claims, but the inven
tion itself will best be understood by reference to
the following description taken in connection with
the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 is
10.
ing through the aperture 34’ of suppressor 34
.to the collector M.
A getter wire or trough 31 is mounted at the
top of the envelope at the ends of the conductors
and leads 38 and 39. A shield 36 is provided be-'
tween the getter and the top of the electrode as
sembly.
The header is provided with a glass press 42
through which the leads 43 and 44 extend, these
of the parts 'of a mount assembly of the electron
being in turn connected to de?ecting electrodes
discharge device shown in Figures 1 to 3 inclu
29 and 28. The leads‘ 43 and 44 extend parallel
sive, Figures 5, 6 and 7 show details of construc
to
other through the press so that a coaxial
tion of the focusing portion of the assembly made 15 lineeach
or Lecher wire system may be conveniently
according to my invention, and Figure 8 is a
_ connected to the same externally of the enve
schematic diagram showing the lens effect pro
lope.
duced by the arrangement shown in Figures 5,
.The details of the aperture and focusing ar
6 and 7.
As shown in Figures 1 to 3 inclusive, the evac
uated metal envelope in of oval shape is pro
vided with a metallic header 1 i through which
rangement made according to my invention are
shown in Figures 5, 6 and '7. This assembly in
cludes a pair of plate members such as 50 and Ii
having rectangular apertures such as 50'. These
the various leads and supports for the electrodes
plates are oppositely disposed to each other and
extend, these leads being insulatingly sealed
are maintained in spaced relation by arms 28
through the header member. The envelope and 25 and
2'! as described above. Adjacent the oathheader may be made of non-magnetic material
ode side of the plates and mounted on the inner
such as stainless steel.
'
opposed surfaces .of the plates are a plurality of
Mounted within the envelope is a cathode elec
‘rod-like elements 52, 53, 54 and 55. These ele
trode assembly comprising the indirectly heated
ments may be secured to the inner surfaces of
cathode i2 provided with the cathode and heat 30 the plates by fusion welding, for example, and
er-leads l3 and I4. The cathode is surrounded
oppositely disposed to each other to provide a
by means of the shielding member i5 having a
front cover member 16 provided with an elon
pair of successively positioned apertures through
which the beam of electrons is directed.
Mounted over the apertures, such as 50', in
from the cathode l2 are directed. This electrode 35 these apertured plates are a pair of mica mem
assembly» is mounted between. a pair of insulat
bers 51 and 58 upon which and registering with
ing spacer members I’! and I8 and clamped to
‘the apertures are’ focusing electrode members
the same by means of the strap i9 and positioned
55 and 56, which are provided as best shown in
between the spacer members which may be mica
Figures 2 and 3 with leads 55' and 5B_' for permit
gated aperture l6’ through which the ‘electrons
by ‘means of the ears such as 20-40’ on member 40 ting the application of proper biasing voltages.
it. Mounted at the other end of the envelope is _
As shown in Figure 8 by applying a low or zero
a collector 2| in the form of a loop supported by
potential to the focusing plates 55 and 5B and a
means of the support and lead 22.
high
positive potential, for example in the neigh
Positioned between the cathode and the col
lector is the aperture, lens and beam. de?ecting 45 borhood of 300 volts, to'the apertured plates 50
and ii, a lens effect may be produced as indi
electrode assembly. The aperture, lens and
cated.
The de?ecting electrodes may also be
beam de?ecting electrode assembly is formed as
maintained at a high positive potential, for ex
ample 300 volts, whereby no D.-C. potential dif
tion, designated generally at 25 and which will
be described in' greaterdetail below, provided 50 ference exists between the apertured plates and
the deflecting plates, the focusing electrodes
with horizontally extending arms 26' and 21
being utilized also as centering electrodes by a
-which support the de?ecting electrodes 28, 29
biasing voltage differential ,on these two plates
and the intercepting wire 30 anchored at its lower
_ a unit and includes the aperture and lens por
end and maintained in tension by means of the
spring anchor 3| permitting expansion and con
traction of the wire but always assuring align
ment. The wire is positioned in and guided by
the slots 26' and 21' at the ends of the arms‘ 26
and 21. Mounted at the collector end of the
assembly is a pair of shields 32 and 33 which
are supported by the header'and are secured to
the arms 26 and 21. These shields in turn sup-
port the apertured suppressor electrode 34 having
the aperture 34' by means of the glass bead as-
if this is necessary. Thus with my arrange
55 ment the electron beam starts from the cath
ode, is accelerated by the 300 volt aperture-plate
potential and then passes through two fine col
limating apertures formed» by the rods on the
aperture plate. Instead of entering the de?ect
60 ing electrode region, the beam then passes through‘
an electrostatic lens region formed by the rec
tangular apertures in the'aperture-plates and the
'
focusing electrodes. The correct focal length is
given this lens by means of adjustment of the
_
semblies such as 35 and 35'. A lead 34" is pro 65 potential on the focusing electrodes. In a prop
erly designed device this potential can be made
vided for the suppressor. The end of the aper
. zero, so that the only potentials on the tube are
ture and de?ecting electrode assembly adjacent
zero and the accelerating voltage. The tube then
the cathode I2 is provided with a pair oftrans
becomes inherently a fixed focusing device in
verse shield members 40 and M. These shield
members provide a linear accelerating ?eld for 70 dependent of the applied accelerating voltage.
the electron beam and prevent stray electrons _
from striking the de?ecting plates. The cath
ode end of the assembly is supported by the
bracket 38'.
,
“
The principle utilized here is described by H.
Iams in the Proceedings of the I. R. E., volume
27, pages 103-105, February 1939.
While I have indicated the preferred embodi
Electrons from cathode 12 pass through the 75 ments of my invention of which I am now aware
5.
2,409,4135
and have also indicated only one speci?c appli
cation for which my invention may be'employed,
it will be apparent that my invention is by no
'means limited to ‘the exact forms illustrated or
the use indicated, but that many variations may
be made in the particular structure used and the
6
for providing an aperture between said cath
ode means and said focusing electrodes, said
means on the facing surfaces of said plates in
cluding rod-like elements extending transverse
ly of the beam path. .
‘
5. An electron dischargedevice having cath
purpose for which it is employed without depart- ,
ingfrom the scope of my invention as set forth
ode'means for supplying a beam .of electrons,
and an electrode in the path of said electrons,
an electron lens assembly positioned between said
What I claim as new it:
10' cathode means and said electrode and through
1. An electron discharge device having a cath
which the path of the beam of electrons lies, said
ode means for supplying a beam of electrons and
lens assembly including a pair of plate members
an electrode in the path of said electrons, and
having oppositely disposed ~apertures . therein,
means positioned between said cathode means
means for maintaining said plate members in
and said electrode and including an electron lens
spaced relationship, focusing electrodes mount
, in the appended claims.
system comprising oppositely disposed apertured
plates adapted to have a biasing potential ap
plied thereto and between which the beam path
extends, and electrode elements mounted in reg
istry' with said apertures on the outside of and
out of contact with said plates and adapted to
have a lower biasing potential applied thereto
than to said plates.
2. An electron discharge device having a cath
ed on the outside surfaces of said plate mem
bers and insulatingly supported thereon in reg
istry with said apertures, a plurality of pairs of
oppositely disposed rod-like elements positioned
on the facing surfaces of said plate-like members
' and positioned between the cathode and the aper
tures for providing a pair of successively posi
tioned apertures.
'
6. An electron discharge device having cathode
ode means for supplying a beam of electrons and 25 means for supplying a beam of electrons, and an
an electrode in the path of said electrons, and
means positioned between said cathode means
and said electrode and including an electron lens
system comprising oppositely disposed apertured
plates adapted to have a biasing potential ap
plied thereto and between which the beam path
extends, and electrode elements mounted in reg-.
istry with said apertures on the outsideof and;v
out of contact with said plates and adapted to "
electrode in the path of said electrons, an} elec
tron lens assembly positioned between said cath
ode means and said electrode and through which
the path of the beam of electrons lies, said lens
assembly including a pair of plate members hav
ing oppositely disposed apertures therein, means
for maintaining said plate members in spaced
relationship and including a pair of elongated‘
members extending from one side thereof, focus
ing electrodes mounted on the outside surfaces
of said plate members and insulatingly supported
thereon in registry with said apertures, and a
have a low biasing potential applied thereto than
to said plates, and a pair of de?ecting electrodes
between said lens system and said electrode and
between which the path of said electrons lies.
‘ plurality of pairs of oppositely disposed rod-like
3. An electron discharge device having cath
“elements positioned on the facing surfaces of
ode means for-supplying a beam of electrons and 40 said plate-like members and positioned between
an electrode in the path ‘of said electrons, and
‘the cathode and the apertures for providing ‘a
means positioned between said cathode means
and said electrode and including an electron lens
pair of successively positioned apertures, and de
?ecting electrodes mounted on said elongated
members between said focusing electrodes and
the electrode in the path of said electrons.
system comprising a pair of oppositely disposed
plate-like members having registering apertures 45
and spaced apart and between which the beam
' '7. An electron discharge device having cath
path lies, focusing electrodes insulatingly sup - ode means for supplying a beam of electrons, and
ported on the outside of said plates in registry
an electrode in the path of said electrons, an
with said apertures and means on the facing
electron lens assembly positioned betweensaid
surfaces of said plates extending toward each 50 cathode means and said electrode and through
other for providing an aperture between said
which the path of the beam of electrons lies, said
cathode means and said focusing electrodes.
lens assembly including a pair of plate members
4. An electron discharge device having cathode
having. oppositely disposed apertures therein,
means for supplying a beam ‘of electrons and an
means for maintaining said plate members in
electrode in the path of said electrons, and means
spaced relationship and including a pair of elon
positioned between said cathode means and said
‘gated members extending from one side there
electrode and including an electron lens system
‘of, focusing electrodes mounted on the outside
comprising a pair of oppositely disposed plate
surfaces of said plate members and insulating
like members having registering apertures and
ly supported thereon in registry with said aper
spaced apart and between which the beam path 60 tures and de?ecting electrodes mounted on said
lies, focusing electrodes insulatingly supported
elongated members ‘between said focusing elec
on the outside of said plates in registry with
trodes and the electrode in the path of said elec-»
said apertures and means on ‘the facing sur
trons.
faces of said plates extending toward each other
EDWARD W. HEROLD.
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