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Патент USA US2409507

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06f. 15,~ 1946.
J, A, LOGAN
'
2,409,504
OIL BURNER
Filed Feb. 1,‘ 1945
2 Sheets-Sheét 1
_
INVENTOR
JO-JIPHA . l001w
BY ‘ 6% (I'll ,q-Zmg
‘
ATTORNE
s
I
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
2,409,504
‘ UNITED ‘STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE
2,409,504
OIL BURNER ‘_
Joseph A. Logan, Hadley, Massaassignor to Gil-I
bert & Barker Manufacturing Company, West
Spring?eld, Mass, a corporation of Massachu
setts
1
Application February 1, 1945, Serial No. 575,678
3 Claims. (C1. 15s-ss.s)
2
This invention relates to improvements in au
tomatic gun type oil burners.
‘
burner is much shorter than the stopping inter
‘
val. However, the invention also provides for a
sudden closing of the by-pass and an equally
quick opening of the cut-off valve. The described
vacillating closure of the burner cut-off valve and
the resulting spurts of oil which cause the drib
The invention involves a centrifugal device,
driven with the shaft of the oil pump and con
trolling the opening and closing of a valve, which
suddenly opens and closes a by-pass around the
pump, whenever the speed of the latter respec
tively falls below or rises above a predetermined
value. With the by-pass open, the pump is com
pletely unloaded. Because the by-pas’s is open,
when the burner mechanism is started, the mo
tor, fan and pump attain full speed in less time
than would otherwise be possible. No oil can
issue from the burner nozzle until the by-pass
bling flow from the atomizing nozzle, occurs prin
cipally because of the prevalent use in gun type
burners of an oversize pump, one whose pumping
10 rate is much in excess of the rate of oil consump
tion of the burner.
‘
'
The problem of stopping oil flow from the
atomizing nozzle during the starting and stopping
intervals of operation of the burner mechanism,‘
closes. The by-pass automatically closes when 15 in order to avoid faulty combustion due to the
the motor, fan and pump attain a predetermined
then over-rich mixture of air and oil, is an old
speed, which preferably is as nearly as feasible
one. Several‘ways have’ been proposed in the
to top speed, so that no oil will be emitted from
prior art for the purpose. One example is shown
the nozzle of the burner until an adequate sup
in my prior Patent No. 1,985,934, of 1935.
ply of‘ air is availableto insure proper combus
The improvement will be disclosed in an illus
'
tion.
When the motor is deenergized, the by
pass will automatically open before the speed of
trative example in the accompanying‘ drawings,
in which
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of one form
of oil burner embodying the invention;
'
the fan slackens enough to materially decrease
the supply of air, thereby stopping the ?ow of oil
from the nozzle before‘ the supply of air becomes 25
inadequate for proper-combustion.
An important effect, which is desired and
which is obtained by the invention, is to secure
a sudden opening of the by-pass for the purpose
Fig. 2 is a similar view, but partly in section,
of another form of burner in which the inven
, tion may be embodied;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary end elevational view,
partly in section and drawn to a larger scale,
of causing the cut-off valve, which controls ?ow 30 showing the by-pass valve and its actuating‘
of the pumped oil to the-atomizing nozzle of the
burner, to close quickly on' deenergization of the
burner motor and to‘remain closed, at least until
the motor, ‘fan and pump have come completely
mechanism, the by-pass valve being‘ shown in
open position;
i Fig. 4 is a view‘ similar to Fig. 3 but showing
the by-pass valve in closed position; and
'
to rest. ‘The purpose is to stop the dribbling flow
of oil from the nozzle that frequently follows the
initial closing of the cut-off valve. The pump
continues to rotate for a time after the initial
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional plan view
showing the by-pass between the outlet and inlet
closing of the cut-off valve and, by so doing,
builds up pressureenough to open this valve. As
the cut-off valve opens, the pressure is relieved
and the valve ‘closes again, only to open again
well known in the art. It includes a tubular air
by the pressure rise which ensues following the
closing of the'valve. This cut-o?f valve may close
and open two or three times before thepump
slowszdown enough to lower the pressure su?i
ciently to stop the‘ action. And on each‘opening,
a spurt of oil is ‘ejected into the pipe leading to
of the pump and the by-pass valve.
'
Referring to Fig. l, the burner there shown is
conduit i, leading from the outlet of afan hous
ing 2, which contains a suitable fan (not shown)
for supplying the air for combustion. Within
the tube, near its outlet end, is a pressure¢atomiz
inv nozzle 3 to which oil is supplied by a pump
4 and from which a substantially conical spray
of ?nely atomized oil issues to mix with the air
supplied by the fan. The fuel mixture is ignited
‘ by
spark from suitable electrodes, one of which
the nozzle,’ causing emission of oil‘in a dribbling
is shown at 5. The fan and pump are driven by
?ow incapable of proper atomization. .The same 50 an electric motor (not shown) but usually at
action‘ is theoretically possible during the start
ing interval of the burner, just after the opening
of the cut-off valve. Practically, however, the
tached to that wall of easing 2 lying opposite the
wall to which pump It is attached. The inlet and
outlet of the pump are shown at 6 and 1, respec
action is not so liable to occur because there is
tively. The outlet 1 is connected by a pipe 8 to a
not sufficient time. The starting interval of the 55 valve casing 9 which contains a nozzle cut-off
2,409,504
3
ing spurts of oil which cause dribbling from the
valve and a pressure-regulating and by-pass
nozzle.
valve. When the pumped oil reaches a predeter
Referring now to the details of the exemplary
mined minimum pressure, say 85 pounds per
mechanism, the by-pass I2 may be formed, as
square inch, the cut-off valve will open and allow
oil to flow by way of a pipe IE? to the nozzle 3. tn shown, in the upper portion of the casing of pump
4. The Icy-pass valve I3 has a stem I6 which is
When the pumped oil reaches another and higher
slidably mounted in the inwardly-extending hub
predetermined pressure, say from 9D to 125
of a cover I'I, suitably ?xed to the casing of pump
pounds per square inch, the pressure-regulating
6. Leakage between the stem and cover is pre
valve opens and allows oil to by-pass into a pipe
H, which may lead either to the inlet side of _' vented in any suitable way, as by the bellows I8,
which at its inner end is ?xed to stem I6 and at
pump 4 or to the supply tank. Usually the pump
its outer end is ?xed between the cover I1 and
is oversize—having a pumping rate much in ex
the pump casing. Fixed on the outwardly-pro~
cess of the rate of flow from the nozzle--and the
jecting portion of the valve stem IS, in axially
major portion of the pumped oil is by-passed and
i spaced relation, are two collars or abutments I9
the minor portion flows to the nozzle. The pres
and 20. Slidable on the stem between these
' sure of the oil fed to the nozzle is maintained
abutments is a member 2|, having on opposite
constant at the predetermined maximum pres
sides V-shaped grooves to receive, one in each,
sure by the pressure-regulating and by-pass
the knife edges of the ?xed heads 22 of toggle
valve 9.
links 23. Each link has on its outer end a slid
The unit 9, comprising the cut-off valve and
able head 24 ‘to ?t in a V-shaped recess in a
the pressure-regulating and by-pass valve may
stationary arm 25. These arms are joined by
be of any of the many suitable'types available
an integral part 26 which is suitably secured to
on the market, as will be well understood by those
the cover II. The outer and V-shaped portion
skilled in the art. An example of one suitable
of each arm 25 is centrally slotted to permit pas- ‘
type will be found in Fig. 4 of Patent No. 2,100,
sage of the outer ends of the toggle links 23. A
997, granted November 30, 1937.
spring 2? encompasses each toggle link and tends
It will be understood that the burner will
to spread the heads 22 and 24 apart and hold
include the usual thermostatic control for the
them engaged with their respective members 2|
burner motor and the usual safety devices to
and 2'5. The springs of the toggle links serve to
gether with an ignition transformer and con- ,
hold the by-pass valve both in its open and closed
nections from it to the ignition electrodes. These
position. Thus, in Fig. 3, the springs 21, acting
elements have been omitted because they are so
well known in the art and because they are un
necessary to an understanding of the present in
vention.
against heads 24 and the fulcrums on arm 25
with which such heads are engaged, force the
heads 22 inwardly to press slide 2| against collar
I9 and thus force the stem I6 axially inward to
hold valve I3 in open position and against the
stop 28 on the pump casing. Similarly, with the
parts positioned as in Fig. 4, the same springs
force slide 2| against collar 20 and press stem
ES axially outward to hold valve I3 in its closed
The improvement of this invention provides a
pump by-pass (Fig. 5),‘ comprising two passages
I2 and an opening I2’ which interconnects them.
This by-pass connects the outlet "I to the inlet
6. A valve I3 controls the by-pass. This valve
I3 is opened and closed with a snap action by
means of the toggle mechanism shown in Figs.
3 and 4, under the control of centrifugal devices,
position.
For actuating the toggle mechanism described,
such as the weights M, which are mounted on
the weights I4 are pivotally mounted at 29 in di
and rotated by the shaft I5‘ which drives pump
4. When the burner is at rest, the by-pass is
largement 30 on shaft I5.
open as shown in Fig. 3.
ametrically-opposed relation in a collar-like en
operating with its motor revolving at full speed,
the by-pass is closed as shown in Fig. 4. When
the motor of the burner is energized, shaft I5 will
be rotated with it and the weights M will be
thrown outwardly by centrifugal force. When a
diametrically through this collar, through a oli
predetermined speedis reached, the weights will
have moved outwardly to the position shown in
Fig. 4. In moving outwardly, the toggle mecha
nism is shifted to the Fig. a position to cause
valve I3 to suddenly close. This occurs as nearly
as feasible to the normal speed of the burner
motor. On deenergization of the motor, after
its speed has slackened somewhat, the weights
I4 will move inwardly and cause the toggle
mechanism to suddenly open the by-pass valve.
This occurs before the pressure of the oil has
dropped to a point low enough to allow the cut
off valve to close and preferably before pressure
has dropped low enough to allow the pressure
The inner ends of
these weights are thin and are mounted side by
side in abutting relation in a diametrical groove
3%!’ in such collar and shaft. These inner ends
engage one end of a rod 3|, slidably mounted in
an axial hole in shaft I5. Slidable on this shaft
is a grooved clutch collar 32. A pin 33 passes
When the burner is
ametrical groove 36 in the shaft and diametri
a
cally through the rod 3|. A spring 35, coiled
around the shaft, acts between an abutment 36
on the shaft and the clutch collar 32 to force the
latter to the left and hold rod 3| engaged with
the weights Ill. The centrifugal device is adjust
able by varying the tension of spring 35 which
may be done by adjusting the axial position of
abutment 36 on shaft I5. The abutment 36 is
threaded on the shaft for such purpose and may
be held in various positions of axial adjustment
, by a lock nut 31.
Inward movement of the
clutch collar under the force of spring 35 is lim
ited by the abutment of weights III with shaft
I5, as shown in Fig. 3. Outward movement of the
regulating valve to close. The result is a sudden
clutch collar, under the force of weights I4, is
unloading of the oil pump, causing almost in
limited by the abutment of the outer end of rod
stant collapse of oil pressure and a sudden clos
3| with the inner end of a stop screw 38, threaded
ing of the cut-off valve, and usuallyv also the
into the outer end of the axial hole in shaft I5
pressure-regulating valve, in such a way as to
preclude the heretofore-described vacillating
and held in place by a lock nut 39. The clutch
collar 32 receives the rounded lower ends 4,0 of
action of the cut-off valve with the rapid suc
cession of openings and closings and the result 75 a shifter fork 4| which straddles the collar and
2,409,504
which is rigidly connected by a stem 42* tothe
slide piece 2|.
_
pi
I:
1
6
snap action opening of the byl-pas's valve-is re
‘
quired and that this may occur at any time be
fore the oil pressure falls to the point at which
the cut-off valve is set to open. However, to se
and shaft l 5 will be driven. With the by-pass in in cure the other advantage of preventing emission
the pump open, the motor will build up speed
of oil from the nozzle at times, when the‘?ow of
more rapidly than would otherwise be possible be
air is inadequate to support good combustion,
With the parts positioned as‘in Fig. 3, if the
burner motor is energized, its fan, the pump‘4
cause the pump is completely unloaded. A small
or motor or one with lowerstarting torque can
the by-pass valve l 3» should be set to open not
much below the top speed of the motor.‘ ,
be used than if the pump were not unloaded at ‘
The burner, shown‘in Fig. 2, is one which is in
tended to practice the inventions disclosed in my
copending applications Serial Nos, 557,119 ‘and
the start. As the motor acquires suflicient speed,
the weights I 4 are swung outwardly by centrifugal
force and, pressing aagainst rod 3| shift the
same to the right, against the force of spring-35,
569,452, ?led October 4, 1944, and December 23,
moving the clutch collar 32 in the same direc
tion. The ?rst movement of clutch collar 32 to
the right will engage the rounded‘ ends 40 ‘of fork
4| and cause the toggle slide or actuator 2! to
1944, respectively, and both owned by the as
signee of the present application. In each of said
prior applications, the air for combustion is ad
mitted through a multitude of small perforations
'43 in a tube 44 the interior of, which provides a
move to the right, This'slid‘e. moves freely‘ on
combustion chamber. Projecting through the
stem it until it abuts the collar 20. At the time 20 closed rear‘ end of this, tube are the pressure
when the slide 2| engages collar 20, the toggle
atomizing nozzle 45 and ignition electrodes, one
links 23 have been moved to midposition. Hence,
of which is shown at 4B. The outer end of tube
a slight movement of the collar 28 to the right by
44 is open. The annular space 41 between tubes
l and 44, to which air is supplied by the fan in
the slide 2i will carry the links 23 across centers,
after which the toggle springs 21 will expand and
casing 2, is closed at its outer end as indicated.
drive the slide 2| and stem l6 rapidly to the right,
The rest of the burner may be constructed as al
moving valve l3 to the closed position shown in
ready described in connection with Fig. 1. In a
Fig. 4, and closing the by-pass. The collar 32
burner of the Fig. 2 type, it is more than ordi
narily important to prevent dribbling from the
is wide enough to allOW the fork 4| to be moved
rapidly ahead by the toggle springs. The closing a nozzle or improper combustion from any other
cause because the resulting carbonization might
of the valve I3 is thus effected with a snap ac
cause stoppage of some of the perforations 43 and
tion and practically instantaneously. The closing
partial stoppage of ‘air flow which would quickly
of the by-pass is preferably timed to occur as
nearly'as feasible to the top speed of the burner
put this burner out of action because it is the
radial jets of air which keep the ?ame away from
motor for the purpose of delaying the supply of
the wall of tube 44 and maintain it cool.
oil to the burner nozzle until the fan has ac»
The by-pass, its control valve and the actuat
quired nearly full speed and has created a ?ow
ing mechanism therefor have for simplicity and
of air at the proper rate to the nozzle so that
clearness of illustration been shown as exposed
proper combustion will result.
When the burner motor is deenergized, the 40 outside the pump. Of course, these parts would
in practice be suitably encased. It is frequently
weights l4 will begin to move inwardly as soon as
the case that the burner cut-off valve and the
the motor speed slackens somewhat. As the
weights swing inwardly toward shaft I5, the
spring 35 will move the clutch collar 32 to the
left from. the position shown in Fig. 4. The ?rst
movement of collar 32 will shift the slide 2| to
the left and move the toggle links 23. As these
links are moved to midposition, slide 2| will en
gage collar I9. When this occurs, the links will
be moved across centers and the expanding
springs 2‘! will thenmove the collar l9 and stem
l6 ‘almost instantaneously into the position
shown in Fig. 3. The groove in the clutch collar
32 is wide enough to enable the shifting fork 4i ‘
to be moved ahead by the toggle springs.
The by-pass is thus suddenly opened, complete
1y unloading the pump. The almost instantane
ous opening of the by-pass in the pump results in
an almost instantaneous collapse of oil pressure
pressure regulating valve are built into the same
casing, which houses the pump, and the by-pass,
its valve and the actuating mechanism for such
valve may also be incorporated into the same
casing.
Reference to my above-named prior patent will
show the importance of having the air and oil
in proper proportion for good combustion during
the intervals-of starting and stopping the burner,
whereby to avoid the smoke and resulting soot
deposits which would otherwise occur. The use
of excess air as a compromise to reduce the How
bles from poor combustion during such intervals
lowers the efliciency of the burner. With the
present invention the difliculties from incomplete
combustion during the starting and stopping in
tervals are avoided and troubles resulting from
so that the burner cut-01f valve will close with a
dribbling feed of oil are stopped. Therefore, the
snap action, preventing the oscillating action
air supply to the burner may be adjusted more
which is caused by a more gradual lowering of the
pressure and which results in the dribbling ?ow
of oil from the nozzle. Since the pump is un
loaded, the resistance to motion of the connected '
pump, motor rotor and fan is materially lessened
and these members will continue in motion by
their momentum, and especially by the momen
tum of the heavy rotor of the burner motor,
whereby the fan will ‘continue in motion for a
longer interval than it otherwise would. This re
sults in prolonging the air ?ow and completely
scavenging the air tube of the burner.
It will be understood that to stop the dribble
?ow caused by oscillation ofthe cut-oil valve, a
closely to the ideal proportions, theoretically
necessary, and much improved ei?ciency of com
bustion secured.
I claim:
1. The combination in an oil burner, having a
nozzle, a pump to supply oil to the nozzle, and a
cut-oilc valve for preventing ?ow of oil to the
nozzle whenever the pressure of the pumped oil
is less than a predetermined value; of a by-pass
from the outlet to the inlet of said pump, a valve
to control said by-pass and normally closed dur
ing operation of the burner while the pump is
moving at full speed, means for opening said
valve with a snap action, a centrifugal device
2,409,504
7
8
rotatable with said pump and operable when the
speed of said pump falls below a predetermined
value and before the pressure of the pumped oil
falls to said predetermined value to initiate the
to supply oil to the nozzle, an automatic pressure
regulating valve for maintaining a constant
atomizing pressure of the oil supply to the noz
zle, and means to supply air to the atomized
oil for ignition and burning; of a by-pass from
the outlet to the inlet of said pump, a normally
open valve for said by-pass, an actuating de
vice, including a part driven with the pump,
automatically responsive to pump speed, and
action of said means and cause the sudden open
ing of the by-pass valve.
2, The combination in an oil burner, having a
nozzle, a pump to supply oil to the nozzle, and
a cut-off valve for preventing flow of oil to the
nozzle whenever the pressure of the pumped oil 10 having an operative connection with said latter
is less than a predetermined pressure; of a by
valve constructed and arranged to close said
pass from the outlet to the inlet of said pump,
valve in burner starting operations when the
a valve to control said by-pass, a centrifugal
pump acquires its high speed range and to again
device rotatable with the pump and operable to
open said valve for suddenly unloading the pump,
cause the opening and closing of said lay-pass
when the latter slows down below its high speed
valve accordingly as the speed of the pump is
range in burner stopping operations, whereby in
respectively below orabove that speed necessary
the slow speed range of the pump operation both
to maintain said predetermined pressure.
the pump and the aforesaid automatic pressure
regulating valve will be unloaded.
‘3. The combination in an oil burner, having a
pressure atomizing nozzle, a motor driven pump 20
JOSEPH A. LOGAN.
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