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06f. 15,~ 1946. J, A, LOGAN ' 2,409,504 OIL BURNER Filed Feb. 1,‘ 1945 2 Sheets-Sheét 1 _ INVENTOR JO-JIPHA . l001w BY ‘ 6% (I'll ,q-Zmg ‘ ATTORNE s I Patented Oct. 15, 1946 2,409,504 ‘ UNITED ‘STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE 2,409,504 OIL BURNER ‘_ Joseph A. Logan, Hadley, Massaassignor to Gil-I bert & Barker Manufacturing Company, West Spring?eld, Mass, a corporation of Massachu setts 1 Application February 1, 1945, Serial No. 575,678 3 Claims. (C1. 15s-ss.s) 2 This invention relates to improvements in au tomatic gun type oil burners. ‘ burner is much shorter than the stopping inter ‘ val. However, the invention also provides for a sudden closing of the by-pass and an equally quick opening of the cut-off valve. The described vacillating closure of the burner cut-off valve and the resulting spurts of oil which cause the drib The invention involves a centrifugal device, driven with the shaft of the oil pump and con trolling the opening and closing of a valve, which suddenly opens and closes a by-pass around the pump, whenever the speed of the latter respec tively falls below or rises above a predetermined value. With the by-pass open, the pump is com pletely unloaded. Because the by-pas’s is open, when the burner mechanism is started, the mo tor, fan and pump attain full speed in less time than would otherwise be possible. No oil can issue from the burner nozzle until the by-pass bling flow from the atomizing nozzle, occurs prin cipally because of the prevalent use in gun type burners of an oversize pump, one whose pumping 10 rate is much in excess of the rate of oil consump tion of the burner. ‘ ' The problem of stopping oil flow from the atomizing nozzle during the starting and stopping intervals of operation of the burner mechanism,‘ closes. The by-pass automatically closes when 15 in order to avoid faulty combustion due to the the motor, fan and pump attain a predetermined then over-rich mixture of air and oil, is an old speed, which preferably is as nearly as feasible one. Several‘ways have’ been proposed in the to top speed, so that no oil will be emitted from prior art for the purpose. One example is shown the nozzle of the burner until an adequate sup in my prior Patent No. 1,985,934, of 1935. ply of‘ air is availableto insure proper combus The improvement will be disclosed in an illus ' tion. When the motor is deenergized, the by pass will automatically open before the speed of trative example in the accompanying‘ drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of one form of oil burner embodying the invention; ' the fan slackens enough to materially decrease the supply of air, thereby stopping the ?ow of oil from the nozzle before‘ the supply of air becomes 25 inadequate for proper-combustion. An important effect, which is desired and which is obtained by the invention, is to secure a sudden opening of the by-pass for the purpose Fig. 2 is a similar view, but partly in section, of another form of burner in which the inven , tion may be embodied; Fig. 3 is a fragmentary end elevational view, partly in section and drawn to a larger scale, of causing the cut-off valve, which controls ?ow 30 showing the by-pass valve and its actuating‘ of the pumped oil to the-atomizing nozzle of the burner, to close quickly on' deenergization of the burner motor and to‘remain closed, at least until the motor, ‘fan and pump have come completely mechanism, the by-pass valve being‘ shown in open position; i Fig. 4 is a view‘ similar to Fig. 3 but showing the by-pass valve in closed position; and ' to rest. ‘The purpose is to stop the dribbling flow of oil from the nozzle that frequently follows the initial closing of the cut-off valve. The pump continues to rotate for a time after the initial Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional plan view showing the by-pass between the outlet and inlet closing of the cut-off valve and, by so doing, builds up pressureenough to open this valve. As the cut-off valve opens, the pressure is relieved and the valve ‘closes again, only to open again well known in the art. It includes a tubular air by the pressure rise which ensues following the closing of the'valve. This cut-o?f valve may close and open two or three times before thepump slowszdown enough to lower the pressure su?i ciently to stop the‘ action. And on each‘opening, a spurt of oil is ‘ejected into the pipe leading to of the pump and the by-pass valve. ' Referring to Fig. l, the burner there shown is conduit i, leading from the outlet of afan hous ing 2, which contains a suitable fan (not shown) for supplying the air for combustion. Within the tube, near its outlet end, is a pressure¢atomiz inv nozzle 3 to which oil is supplied by a pump 4 and from which a substantially conical spray of ?nely atomized oil issues to mix with the air supplied by the fan. The fuel mixture is ignited ‘ by spark from suitable electrodes, one of which the nozzle,’ causing emission of oil‘in a dribbling is shown at 5. The fan and pump are driven by ?ow incapable of proper atomization. .The same 50 an electric motor (not shown) but usually at action‘ is theoretically possible during the start ing interval of the burner, just after the opening of the cut-off valve. Practically, however, the tached to that wall of easing 2 lying opposite the wall to which pump It is attached. The inlet and outlet of the pump are shown at 6 and 1, respec action is not so liable to occur because there is tively. The outlet 1 is connected by a pipe 8 to a not sufficient time. The starting interval of the 55 valve casing 9 which contains a nozzle cut-off 2,409,504 3 ing spurts of oil which cause dribbling from the valve and a pressure-regulating and by-pass nozzle. valve. When the pumped oil reaches a predeter Referring now to the details of the exemplary mined minimum pressure, say 85 pounds per mechanism, the by-pass I2 may be formed, as square inch, the cut-off valve will open and allow oil to flow by way of a pipe IE? to the nozzle 3. tn shown, in the upper portion of the casing of pump 4. The Icy-pass valve I3 has a stem I6 which is When the pumped oil reaches another and higher slidably mounted in the inwardly-extending hub predetermined pressure, say from 9D to 125 of a cover I'I, suitably ?xed to the casing of pump pounds per square inch, the pressure-regulating 6. Leakage between the stem and cover is pre valve opens and allows oil to by-pass into a pipe H, which may lead either to the inlet side of _' vented in any suitable way, as by the bellows I8, which at its inner end is ?xed to stem I6 and at pump 4 or to the supply tank. Usually the pump its outer end is ?xed between the cover I1 and is oversize—having a pumping rate much in ex the pump casing. Fixed on the outwardly-pro~ cess of the rate of flow from the nozzle--and the jecting portion of the valve stem IS, in axially major portion of the pumped oil is by-passed and i spaced relation, are two collars or abutments I9 the minor portion flows to the nozzle. The pres and 20. Slidable on the stem between these ' sure of the oil fed to the nozzle is maintained abutments is a member 2|, having on opposite constant at the predetermined maximum pres sides V-shaped grooves to receive, one in each, sure by the pressure-regulating and by-pass the knife edges of the ?xed heads 22 of toggle valve 9. links 23. Each link has on its outer end a slid The unit 9, comprising the cut-off valve and able head 24 ‘to ?t in a V-shaped recess in a the pressure-regulating and by-pass valve may stationary arm 25. These arms are joined by be of any of the many suitable'types available an integral part 26 which is suitably secured to on the market, as will be well understood by those the cover II. The outer and V-shaped portion skilled in the art. An example of one suitable of each arm 25 is centrally slotted to permit pas- ‘ type will be found in Fig. 4 of Patent No. 2,100, sage of the outer ends of the toggle links 23. A 997, granted November 30, 1937. spring 2? encompasses each toggle link and tends It will be understood that the burner will to spread the heads 22 and 24 apart and hold include the usual thermostatic control for the them engaged with their respective members 2| burner motor and the usual safety devices to and 2'5. The springs of the toggle links serve to gether with an ignition transformer and con- , hold the by-pass valve both in its open and closed nections from it to the ignition electrodes. These position. Thus, in Fig. 3, the springs 21, acting elements have been omitted because they are so well known in the art and because they are un necessary to an understanding of the present in vention. against heads 24 and the fulcrums on arm 25 with which such heads are engaged, force the heads 22 inwardly to press slide 2| against collar I9 and thus force the stem I6 axially inward to hold valve I3 in open position and against the stop 28 on the pump casing. Similarly, with the parts positioned as in Fig. 4, the same springs force slide 2| against collar 20 and press stem ES axially outward to hold valve I3 in its closed The improvement of this invention provides a pump by-pass (Fig. 5),‘ comprising two passages I2 and an opening I2’ which interconnects them. This by-pass connects the outlet "I to the inlet 6. A valve I3 controls the by-pass. This valve I3 is opened and closed with a snap action by means of the toggle mechanism shown in Figs. 3 and 4, under the control of centrifugal devices, position. For actuating the toggle mechanism described, such as the weights M, which are mounted on the weights I4 are pivotally mounted at 29 in di and rotated by the shaft I5‘ which drives pump 4. When the burner is at rest, the by-pass is largement 30 on shaft I5. open as shown in Fig. 3. ametrically-opposed relation in a collar-like en operating with its motor revolving at full speed, the by-pass is closed as shown in Fig. 4. When the motor of the burner is energized, shaft I5 will be rotated with it and the weights M will be thrown outwardly by centrifugal force. When a diametrically through this collar, through a oli predetermined speedis reached, the weights will have moved outwardly to the position shown in Fig. 4. In moving outwardly, the toggle mecha nism is shifted to the Fig. a position to cause valve I3 to suddenly close. This occurs as nearly as feasible to the normal speed of the burner motor. On deenergization of the motor, after its speed has slackened somewhat, the weights I4 will move inwardly and cause the toggle mechanism to suddenly open the by-pass valve. This occurs before the pressure of the oil has dropped to a point low enough to allow the cut off valve to close and preferably before pressure has dropped low enough to allow the pressure The inner ends of these weights are thin and are mounted side by side in abutting relation in a diametrical groove 3%!’ in such collar and shaft. These inner ends engage one end of a rod 3|, slidably mounted in an axial hole in shaft I5. Slidable on this shaft is a grooved clutch collar 32. A pin 33 passes When the burner is ametrical groove 36 in the shaft and diametri a cally through the rod 3|. A spring 35, coiled around the shaft, acts between an abutment 36 on the shaft and the clutch collar 32 to force the latter to the left and hold rod 3| engaged with the weights Ill. The centrifugal device is adjust able by varying the tension of spring 35 which may be done by adjusting the axial position of abutment 36 on shaft I5. The abutment 36 is threaded on the shaft for such purpose and may be held in various positions of axial adjustment , by a lock nut 31. Inward movement of the clutch collar under the force of spring 35 is lim ited by the abutment of weights III with shaft I5, as shown in Fig. 3. Outward movement of the regulating valve to close. The result is a sudden clutch collar, under the force of weights I4, is unloading of the oil pump, causing almost in limited by the abutment of the outer end of rod stant collapse of oil pressure and a sudden clos 3| with the inner end of a stop screw 38, threaded ing of the cut-off valve, and usuallyv also the into the outer end of the axial hole in shaft I5 pressure-regulating valve, in such a way as to preclude the heretofore-described vacillating and held in place by a lock nut 39. The clutch collar 32 receives the rounded lower ends 4,0 of action of the cut-off valve with the rapid suc cession of openings and closings and the result 75 a shifter fork 4| which straddles the collar and 2,409,504 which is rigidly connected by a stem 42* tothe slide piece 2|. _ pi I: 1 6 snap action opening of the byl-pas's valve-is re ‘ quired and that this may occur at any time be fore the oil pressure falls to the point at which the cut-off valve is set to open. However, to se and shaft l 5 will be driven. With the by-pass in in cure the other advantage of preventing emission the pump open, the motor will build up speed of oil from the nozzle at times, when the‘?ow of more rapidly than would otherwise be possible be air is inadequate to support good combustion, With the parts positioned as‘in Fig. 3, if the burner motor is energized, its fan, the pump‘4 cause the pump is completely unloaded. A small or motor or one with lowerstarting torque can the by-pass valve l 3» should be set to open not much below the top speed of the motor.‘ , be used than if the pump were not unloaded at ‘ The burner, shown‘in Fig. 2, is one which is in tended to practice the inventions disclosed in my copending applications Serial Nos, 557,119 ‘and the start. As the motor acquires suflicient speed, the weights I 4 are swung outwardly by centrifugal force and, pressing aagainst rod 3| shift the same to the right, against the force of spring-35, 569,452, ?led October 4, 1944, and December 23, moving the clutch collar 32 in the same direc tion. The ?rst movement of clutch collar 32 to the right will engage the rounded‘ ends 40 ‘of fork 4| and cause the toggle slide or actuator 2! to 1944, respectively, and both owned by the as signee of the present application. In each of said prior applications, the air for combustion is ad mitted through a multitude of small perforations '43 in a tube 44 the interior of, which provides a move to the right, This'slid‘e. moves freely‘ on combustion chamber. Projecting through the stem it until it abuts the collar 20. At the time 20 closed rear‘ end of this, tube are the pressure when the slide 2| engages collar 20, the toggle atomizing nozzle 45 and ignition electrodes, one links 23 have been moved to midposition. Hence, of which is shown at 4B. The outer end of tube a slight movement of the collar 28 to the right by 44 is open. The annular space 41 between tubes l and 44, to which air is supplied by the fan in the slide 2i will carry the links 23 across centers, after which the toggle springs 21 will expand and casing 2, is closed at its outer end as indicated. drive the slide 2| and stem l6 rapidly to the right, The rest of the burner may be constructed as al moving valve l3 to the closed position shown in ready described in connection with Fig. 1. In a Fig. 4, and closing the by-pass. The collar 32 burner of the Fig. 2 type, it is more than ordi narily important to prevent dribbling from the is wide enough to allOW the fork 4| to be moved rapidly ahead by the toggle springs. The closing a nozzle or improper combustion from any other cause because the resulting carbonization might of the valve I3 is thus effected with a snap ac cause stoppage of some of the perforations 43 and tion and practically instantaneously. The closing partial stoppage of ‘air flow which would quickly of the by-pass is preferably timed to occur as nearly'as feasible to the top speed of the burner put this burner out of action because it is the radial jets of air which keep the ?ame away from motor for the purpose of delaying the supply of the wall of tube 44 and maintain it cool. oil to the burner nozzle until the fan has ac» The by-pass, its control valve and the actuat quired nearly full speed and has created a ?ow ing mechanism therefor have for simplicity and of air at the proper rate to the nozzle so that clearness of illustration been shown as exposed proper combustion will result. When the burner motor is deenergized, the 40 outside the pump. Of course, these parts would in practice be suitably encased. It is frequently weights l4 will begin to move inwardly as soon as the case that the burner cut-off valve and the the motor speed slackens somewhat. As the weights swing inwardly toward shaft I5, the spring 35 will move the clutch collar 32 to the left from. the position shown in Fig. 4. The ?rst movement of collar 32 will shift the slide 2| to the left and move the toggle links 23. As these links are moved to midposition, slide 2| will en gage collar I9. When this occurs, the links will be moved across centers and the expanding springs 2‘! will thenmove the collar l9 and stem l6 ‘almost instantaneously into the position shown in Fig. 3. The groove in the clutch collar 32 is wide enough to enable the shifting fork 4i ‘ to be moved ahead by the toggle springs. The by-pass is thus suddenly opened, complete 1y unloading the pump. The almost instantane ous opening of the by-pass in the pump results in an almost instantaneous collapse of oil pressure pressure regulating valve are built into the same casing, which houses the pump, and the by-pass, its valve and the actuating mechanism for such valve may also be incorporated into the same casing. Reference to my above-named prior patent will show the importance of having the air and oil in proper proportion for good combustion during the intervals-of starting and stopping the burner, whereby to avoid the smoke and resulting soot deposits which would otherwise occur. The use of excess air as a compromise to reduce the How bles from poor combustion during such intervals lowers the efliciency of the burner. With the present invention the difliculties from incomplete combustion during the starting and stopping in tervals are avoided and troubles resulting from so that the burner cut-01f valve will close with a dribbling feed of oil are stopped. Therefore, the snap action, preventing the oscillating action air supply to the burner may be adjusted more which is caused by a more gradual lowering of the pressure and which results in the dribbling ?ow of oil from the nozzle. Since the pump is un loaded, the resistance to motion of the connected ' pump, motor rotor and fan is materially lessened and these members will continue in motion by their momentum, and especially by the momen tum of the heavy rotor of the burner motor, whereby the fan will ‘continue in motion for a longer interval than it otherwise would. This re sults in prolonging the air ?ow and completely scavenging the air tube of the burner. It will be understood that to stop the dribble ?ow caused by oscillation ofthe cut-oil valve, a closely to the ideal proportions, theoretically necessary, and much improved ei?ciency of com bustion secured. I claim: 1. The combination in an oil burner, having a nozzle, a pump to supply oil to the nozzle, and a cut-oilc valve for preventing ?ow of oil to the nozzle whenever the pressure of the pumped oil is less than a predetermined value; of a by-pass from the outlet to the inlet of said pump, a valve to control said by-pass and normally closed dur ing operation of the burner while the pump is moving at full speed, means for opening said valve with a snap action, a centrifugal device 2,409,504 7 8 rotatable with said pump and operable when the speed of said pump falls below a predetermined value and before the pressure of the pumped oil falls to said predetermined value to initiate the to supply oil to the nozzle, an automatic pressure regulating valve for maintaining a constant atomizing pressure of the oil supply to the noz zle, and means to supply air to the atomized oil for ignition and burning; of a by-pass from the outlet to the inlet of said pump, a normally open valve for said by-pass, an actuating de vice, including a part driven with the pump, automatically responsive to pump speed, and action of said means and cause the sudden open ing of the by-pass valve. 2, The combination in an oil burner, having a nozzle, a pump to supply oil to the nozzle, and a cut-off valve for preventing flow of oil to the nozzle whenever the pressure of the pumped oil 10 having an operative connection with said latter is less than a predetermined pressure; of a by valve constructed and arranged to close said pass from the outlet to the inlet of said pump, valve in burner starting operations when the a valve to control said by-pass, a centrifugal pump acquires its high speed range and to again device rotatable with the pump and operable to open said valve for suddenly unloading the pump, cause the opening and closing of said lay-pass when the latter slows down below its high speed valve accordingly as the speed of the pump is range in burner stopping operations, whereby in respectively below orabove that speed necessary the slow speed range of the pump operation both to maintain said predetermined pressure. the pump and the aforesaid automatic pressure regulating valve will be unloaded. ‘3. The combination in an oil burner, having a pressure atomizing nozzle, a motor driven pump 20 JOSEPH A. LOGAN.