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om"n 15', 1946.
O. E. BOWLUS
ELECTRICAL CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Nov. 30, 1944'
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
„rra/Mirna’.
o@ 15, 1946.
2,409,534
O. E. BOWLU'S>
ELECTRICAL CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Nov. 30, 1944
L-c.
5 Sheets-Sheet 3 >
BY
OCL 15, 1946.
„
Q_ E_ BOWLUS
I
2,409,534
ELECTRI CAL CONTROL SYSTEM
' Filed Nov. so, 1944
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Oct. l5, 1946.
o. E. BowLus
~ 2,409,534 v
ELECTRICAL CONTROL ASYSTEM
Filed Nov. 30, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
wäw1@
17772/7175 YS.
2,4Ü9,534
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,534
ELECTRICAL CONTROL SYSTEM
Omer E. Bowlus, Detroit, Mich., assignor to
Chrysler Corporation, Highland Park, Mich., a
corporation of Delaware
Application November 30, 1944, Serial No. 565,954
zo onims. (Cl. 172-281)
1
2
The present invention relates to electrical con
circuit in parallel with each other. In reading
the drawings, Figure 1B may be placed imme
diately to the right of Figure 1A, Figure 1C may
be placed immediately below Figure 1A, and Fig
ure 1D may be placed immediately below Figure
trol systems and is particularly directed to the
provision of improved apparatus which functions
as a combination converter-inverter for deriving
alternating current energy of a desired adjust
able frequency from a source of alternating cur
rent the frequency whereof may be randomly
1B. When the drawings are so arranged uncon->
nected terminals on the various sheets will line
up with correspondingly designated unconnected
variable over a range which is above, below, or
terminals on the adjacent sheets, thereby com
which includes, the output frequency. in its here
in illustrated embodiments the present invention 10 pleting the circuits which extend from one sheet
is particularly designed for aircraft purposes, and'
to another; and
Figure 2 is a 'series of curves depicting various
serves to translate the variable frequency output
operating characteristics of the system.
of one or more engine driven generators into a
It will be appreciated from a complete under
three phase alternating current output of adjust
ably ñxed frequency. In certain of its aspects 15 standingv of the present invention that in their
broader aspects, the improvements thereof may
the present invention is directed to improvement
be embodied in widely differing systems, arranged
upon the inventions disclosed and claimed in the
for widely differing specific purposes. The sys
copending application of Nims, Serial No. 565,955,
tem specifically disclosed herein is particularly
ñled November 30, 1944, and certain features dis
closed but not claimed herein are claimed in thel 20 designed for use on multi-engine aircraft, to fur
copending application of the present applicant
and Nims, Serial No. 565,S56, iiled’November 3G,
nish three phase alternating current for various
control and operating purposes. The disclosure
herein of the invention with particular reference
to this application is, however, to be regarded in
1944, both 0f which applications are assigned to
the assignee of this application.
Principal objects of the present-l invention are to
provide a system of the aforesaid type which is
simple in arrangement, requires a minimum num
ber of structural elements, is relatively light in
weight, and is reliable and eflicient in operation;
to provide such a system in which multi-phase
alternating current input energy is translated into
an illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
As is indicated above, it is desirable, in con
nection with modern aircraft, to provide self
contained generating systems of the alternating
current type, which are adapted to deliver alter
nating current at an adjustably ñxed frequency
and voltage, and which utilize, as a prime source
of power, alternating current generators which
multi-phase alternating current output energy;
to provide such a system embodying improved
means for timing the operations of the control
apparatus associated with the several. output f»
phases; to provide such systems in which the
multi-phase output circuits of the several units
may be connected in parallel, and embodying im
proved means for synchronizing the control ap
paratus of the several units; and to generally 40
improve and simplify the construction and ar
’ rangement of systems of the above generally indi
cated type.
.
,
are driven by the aircraft engines. Since the air
craft engine speeds vary rather widely in opera
tion, the frequency of the alternating current gen
erators also vary, making it desirable to provide
apparatus which is effective to translate alter
hating current of a variable frequency into cur
rent having a frequency which is adjustably fixed,
and which may fall below, within, or above the
frequency range of the generator. The aforesaid
copending application of the present applicant
Nims, Seria1 No. 565,955, filed November 30, 1944,
With the above as well as other and more de
discloses and claims certain features of such sys
tailed objects in View which appear in the fol
1 tems, which, as specifically disclosed, are effec
invention is shown in the accompanying drawings
tive to deliver single phase alternating current.
The present system on the other hand is arranged
to deliver multi-phase alternating current, a
throughout the several views of which corre
three-phase output being specifically shown
sponding reference characters are used to desig
nate corresponding parts and in which:
herein.
Figures 1A and 1B show the power circuits for
two substantially identical units, each comprising
lowing description and in the appended claims,
a preferred but illustrative embodiment of the
Figures 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D collectively provide
a diagrammatic arrangement of power and con
a main generator adapted to be driven for eX
trol circuits for two units of the present inven
tion, arranged to supply a multi-phase output
ample by a corresponding engine of the associated
aircraft and arrangements are shown for con
2,409,534
3
4
necting the output circuits of the two units in
parallel. Similarly, Figures 1C and 1D show vir
tually identical control circuits for the power
units of Figures 1A and 1B respectively and also
show the synchronizing interconnections between
the primary winding te of associated transformer
such control systems. For these reasons a de
scription of one powei` and one control unit will
suffice for a description of both, except in the re
transformer l0. Primary windings 0G, till, and 53
cathodes of the main valves associated with out
put phase I2 are connected to the terminals of
06, and the cathodes of the main valves associated
with output phase I0 are connected to the ter
minals of the primary winding 53 of an associated
are provided with center taps which are con~
spects hereinafter noted.
20--22-24--26-28--30; 32-«34--35--38-li0m
42; and 44--66-48--50-52-54.
nected through corresponding reactors l2, 14, and
l5 to the center tap 'I3 of the generator it. Re
actors '.'2, '14, and 'I6 may be and preferably are
magnetically independent of each other, which
relation is indicated by the dashed lines appear~
ing therebetween.
Transformers 62, S0, and îil are provided wi
grounded secondary windings Bâ, Bil, and B4, whi n
may
Generator
be arranged
I6 may
to be of
driven
usualeither
construction
directly or,
as shown, are directly connected to the corre~
Referring first to Figure 1A, power is arranged
to be delivered to the three phase output con
ductors l0, | 2, and I 4, from an alternating current
generator I6, through a combination converter
inverter comprising three series of main valves
spending load conductors I4, I2, and
and preferably, through suitable change-speed
which
load
directly
conductors
connected.
for the two parallel , units
gearing, by a corresponding engine of the air~ 20
craft. Generator IE is provided with a usual
Commutating condensers S0,
and 90
con*
direct current field winding 55 which, as described
nected directly across the corresponding transi
in the aforesaid Nims application, may be pro
formers 62, t6, and l0 and serve
control the
vided with regulating apparatus which serves to
conductivity of the associated valves, in the herc
maintain the voltage of generator It' at a sub
stantially uniform value through the expected
generator operating speed range, which in the
case of aircraft systems, may be from 4,000 to
10,000 R. P. M. Such regulating apparatus may
also be arranged as described in the Nims appli 30
cation to maintain a proper division of the load
between two or more of the present power units
when such units are operated in parallel with
each other.
Each of the aforesaid main valves may be of
any conventional type. Preferably and as indi
|06, |08, and H0, and are also provided respec
||4; ||6 and H3; and |20 and |22. The ter
minals of windings ||2 and H4 are connected,
respectively in series with current limiting re~
sistors |251, between the grids and cathodes of
valves 20-22-24 and 25-«20-30. Windings | i5
and Ilíl, and |20 and |22 in turn areJ correspond~
ingly connected between the grids and cathodes
of the remaining associated valves.
In accordance with this embodiment of the
present invention, alternating voltages of ajc«
B in turn is connected to the anodes of valves 22,
38, and M associated respectively with output
phases I4, I2, and I0. Corresponding comments
apply to the other generator phases, it being noted
that each generator phase is associated with and
is effective to supply current, under the conditions
hereinafter stated, to one phase of the output
circuit.
The cathodes of the main valves associated
with output phase I4 are connected to the respec»
tive terminals of the primary winding 60 of an
associated
transformer
62.
proximately square wave form are induced in the
secondary windings ||2--| ill-_I |6~| |8-ií10
|22, the voltages in the two windings of each pair
being 180 degrees out of phase with each other,
and the voltages of the respective pairs being 120
degrees out of phase with each other. The con
trol circuits for eiîecting such energization of the
secondary windings of the control transformers
t.
associated with output conductor I4, valve t2
associated with output conductor I2, and valve
48 associated with output conductor I0. Phase
Similarly,
the
These control transformers are provided
tively with pairs of secondary windings |I2 and
...
nu
which are directly connected to the anodes of the
corresponding main valves. That is to say, phase
A is directly connected to the anodes of valve 2??,
(
vided.
cated they are usual three element gas-ñlled
Generator I6 is illustrated as having 'six star
connected phase windings A, B, C, D, E, and F,
successive positive and negative half cycles of the
output phases I4, |2, and i0, and to determine th
displacement, in electrical degrees, between th
voltages induced in such phases, correspondin
control transformers I 00, |02, and |04 are pro-
respectively with center tapped primary windings
grid controlled Valves of the so-called discon~
tinuous type. That is to say, each of these valves,
though normally non-conductive, may be ren
dered conductive, when their anodes are surfV
ciently positive with respect to their cathodes to
sustain a discharge, by rendering their grids sufii
ciently positive with respect to their cathodes.
When so rendered conductive, the grids lose con
trol and the valves remain conductive until the
anodes are either negative with respect to their
cathodes or are not sufficiently positive to sustain
a discharge. It will be noticed that the cathodes
of related groups of these valves are directly inter
connected so that, although structurally separate
valves are illustrated, multi-anode structures may
be used instead. That is to say, for example,
valves 20, 22, and 24 may be combined into a
single multi-anode structure.
inafter described manner.
To control the initiation and duration of vthe
are shown in Figures 1C and 1D, and are de
scribed hereinafter, As will be appreciated, and
as is diagrammatically shown in portions 1V, V,
and VI of Figure 2, the above-described control
voltages render the grids of the associated main
valves alternately positive and negative with re~
spect to their cathodes, so as to cause successive
positive and negative half cycles of voltage to be
induced in the respective output windings 80*
82-84.
It is believed that the operation of the above
described power circuits will be apparent from
a description of the operation of the converter
inverter circuits associated with, for example, the
control
output phase
windingI4. H2Atbecomes
the timeeffective
ti in Figure
to posi~
tively bias the grids of Valves 20-22-24, and
winding |l4 becomes effective to negatively bias
the grids of the associated valves 25-2E2~-30. ils
is described below, the latter action prevents any
discharges in the last-mentioned valves, and it
will beA understood that the former action tends
2,409,534
6
re-establish a discharge through any thereof in
view of the negative bias applied to the grids. It
the time t1, phase A is most strongly positive and,
because of the common cathode connections of
is to be noted-that the time required for the dis
charge of condenser 86 is longer than the de
the last-mentioned valves, this fact renders the
cathodes of valves 22 and `24 positive with re Oi ionization time of the just-mentioned valves.
to- render the valves 20--22-24 conductive. At
spect to their anodes and prevents the initiation
of a discharge therethrough. Valve 20 is, how
ever, conductive, and current may flow there
through from phase A through the left-hand half
Consequently, the grids of these valves are en
abled to obtain control thereof and maintain
them non-conductive as aforesaid. It is believed
to be evident that at the time t5, the flow of cur
. of the associated primary transformer winding 10 rent through winding 60 transfers from phase
B0, and through the corresponding reactor> 12.
At the time tz in Figure 2, the potential of phase
B rises to a value surliciently in excess of the
voltage of phase A to render valve 22 conductive,
and initiate a flow of current from phase B
F and valve 25, to phase D and valve 28. Fur
ther, it is believed to be evident that at the time
te, at which time the original polarities of wind
ings II2 and VII4 are restored, valve 28 is ex
tinguished, and the next succeeding positive half
cycle of output phase I4 is “initiated” from phase
B through valve 22. It will be noticed from por
tion I of Figure 2f that with the assumed fre
quency relations between the input and the out
through valve 22 and the left-hand half of pri
mary winding E0. Conduction through valve 22
elevates the potential of the cathode of valve 29
to a value above that of its anode, and extin
guishes the discharge through valve 20. Simi~ 20 put circuits, that during the ñrst above described
larly, at approximately the time t3, the voltage
of phase C rises to a Value above that of phase
B, initiating a discharge through valve 24 and
positive half cycle of the output phase I4, phases
A, B, and C successively deliver current, through
valves 2ll-22-24. During the ñrst described
negative half cycle on the other hand valves 2S
The aforesaid flow of current from the source 25 and 28 carry the current, which is derived from
phases F and D. During the positive half cycle
charges up the associated commutating condenser
represented by the interval ist?, valves 22 and 24
86, bringing its left-hand terminal to a positive
potential and its right-hand terminal to a nega
conduct current from phases B and C. It will
tive potential. This full charge is preferably ob
thus be apparent that the number of phases and
tained just before each commutation point is 30 valves which supply current to output phase I4
varies during successive half cycles of the same
reached, in this case, the time t4. Throughout
polarity and during successive half cycles of dif
this interval, phases D, E, and F are, to vary»
ing degrees, positive,` and the negative potential
ferent polarity. The full lines in portion I of Fig
established for their cathodes by winding 60 and
ure 2` indicate the time intervals throughout which
condenser 86, tends to cause ñow of current
the correspondingly designated phases are ef
through valves 26-28-30. Such current flow is
fective to supply current to output phase I4.
extinguishing the'discharge through valve 22.
prevented, however, by the strong negative bias
Considering now the general form of the volt
applied to the grids of these valves by control
age wave induced in the secondary winding 80
winding I I4.
of transformer 62, and the phase relation of this
At the time t4 in Figure 2, the polarities of 40 induced voltage relative to the output voltages of
windings I I2 and I I4 are reversed, which reversed
control transformer Illß, it will be appreciated that
relation is maintained until the time te. The
so long as valves 20-22-24 are conductive they
negative polarity of control winding I I2 negativa
tend to cause a ñow of current through the left
ly biases valves ZIJ-22-24 which action is with
hand half of the primary winding 60 of the as
out effect on valves ‘20 and 22 since these valves
sociated output transformer, resulting in, for ex
are not conducting at the time t4. The negative
ample, a positive half cycle of induced voltage
bias applied to the conducting valve 24 tends to
in secondary winding 89. Conversely, when valves
extinguish the discharge therethrough, and may,
26-«23--30 are conductive they tend to cause a
with certain classes of valves, be effective to do so.
flow of current through the right-hand half of
The positive bias applied to valves 26-28-30 ‘ winding 6U and induce a half cycle of voltage of
negative polarity in winding 89. The impedances
by control winding II4 tends to render all of
these valves conductive. At the time t4, however.
in the converter-inverter network delay the in
phase ’F'is more positive than phases D and E
duced voltage in winding 86 by a phase angle
and consequently valve 26 is the only one of the
equal to a fraction of a half cycle of the output
just-mentioned three valves which becomes con~ ` frequency. This delay or phase shift may, in a
general sense, be explained as follows: At each
ductive. This action “initiates” in the sense dis»
cussed below, the negative -half cycle of voltage
commutation point, such as the time t4 in Figure
of output phase I4. As soon as valve 26 becomes
2, the commutating condenser 86 is charged, as
conductive, it elevates the right-hand terminal
aforesaid. When, at time t4, valve 26 becomes
of condenser 86 to a value which is lower than
conductive, condenser 48 is enabled to elevate the
the voltage of phase F by only the amount of
potentials of the cathodes of valves 26-22-24
the relatively small voltage drop through valve
as aforesaid. Condenser 86 also elevates the po
26. By virtue of the charge then existing on con
tential of the center tap of winding 6D, These
denser 86, this action immediately elevates the
changes in potential are of course enabled by
cathode potentials of all of valves 20, 22, and
the associated reactor '1;2. The energy stored in
24 to values well above their anode potentials
condenser 86 prevents an immediate reversal of
and extinguishes any discharges existing therein.
the induced voltage in winding Sil, such induced
The reversal of the charging voltage applied to
voltage falling to zero only after the expiration
condenser 86 when valve 26 becomes conductive
of an interval determined in part at least by the
enables the initial charge to dissipate itself
characteristics of the previously described discharge circuit for condenser 86. Similar com
ments apply to the delayed reversal of the induced
reverse polarity renders the cathodes of valves
voltage in winding 8a which is initiated at each
20-22-24 strongly negative with respect to their
other commutation point such as the time te.
anodes, which action is, however, ineffective to 75
The form of the induced voltage wave in wind
through
verse charge
winding
to be huilt
6G and
up on
further
condenser
enables
85. a.This
2,409,534.
7
8
ing 80 is of course determined by the relative im
viously described accurately timed relation, com
pedances in converter-inverter network as a whole
prises generally an oscillator circuit |33, which
and it is preferred to so proportion these imped
serves as a source of periodic voltage; a counter
ances as to produce an induced voltage of ap
proximately the wave form shown in the afore
said Nims application.
network |32, which serves to segregate successive
Cil
'
impulses from the oscillator circuit and appro
priate them in proper order to the respective
output phases; and a series of three inverter net
It will be observed accordingly that although
the transfer action between valve groups which
works I34 which respond to the counter-network
takes place at each commutation point, does not
and control the delivery of energy to the respec
necessarily result in an immediate reversal of 10 tive control transformers lili), W2, and |54.
the induced voltage in the corresponding output
The oscillator circuit I3@ may, in general, be
winding, such as 8G, such transfer action does
of any usual type and as illustrated, comprises a
“initiate” or result in such a reversal.
usual grid controlled gas-filled valve I4@ of the
The operation of the valve banks associated
previously mentioned discontinuous control type.
with output phases I2 and I0 is the same as that
Valve |40 is connected across terminals |42 and
described above with the exception that the con
|44 of an illustrative source of power, in series
trol voltages applied to these banks are displaced
with the primary winding oi a synchronizing
120 degrees with respect to each other and with
transformer |46, a timing condenser |48, and a
respect to the control voltages for output phase
potentiometer resistor I 5E). Usual gas-filled volt
I4. Portions II and III of Figure 2 indicate, in 20 age regulating glow tubes |52 and I5-’I are inter
full lines, the intervals, with respect to the cor
posed between terminals |42 and Illll and serve, as
responding control voltages (portions V and VI
will be understood, to maintain the voltage be
respectively) during which the indicated phases
tween these just-mentioned terminals at a sub
are eifective to supply current to the correspond
stantially uniform value, terminal M4 being
ing output phases.
grounded and terminal |42 being indicated, for
By examination of portions I, II, and III oi
illustrative purposes, as having a potential ci 24D
Figure 2, it will be noticed that at any given time,
volts. N eglecting the action of the synchronizin
for example, the time t1, phase A is effective to
transformer illû, it will be appreciated that when
deliver current for each of output phases I4 and
valve Idil is conductive, current is enabled to flow
I2- Beginning at the time tz, in turn phase D
therethrough and charge up condenser |48, which
is effective to deliver current to each of output
current flow is surge-like in character. By vir
phases I2 and Il?. A particular generator phase,
tue of the inductance in the plate circuit of
therefore, serves to deliver current to a plurality
the valve, the completion of this charging action
of output phases at the same time.
.
is accompanied by a momentary reversal of the
So long therefore as the above-mentioned syn
voltage across the valve which temporarily ren~
chronously timed control voltages are developed
ders its cathode positive with respect to its anode.
by the control transformers IM, |02, and |84,
This action blocks the valve and enables the en
the six phase variable frequency input power is
ergy stored in condenser |43 to dissipate itself
translated into a three phase output having a
through resistor |56. As this charge is progres
frequency equal to that of the energy applied to 40 sively dissipated, the potential of the cathode of
the control transformers. It will further be ap
valve |40 is correspondingly lowered, thereby pro
preciated from the foregoing that the input and
output :frequencies are virtually independent of
each other, thus accommodating the system to
the relatively unusual case in which the input
and output frequencies are identical, as well as
to the more usual case in which they differ. It
should be noted that the loading of the indi
vidual phases of the generator has a substan
gressively increasing the anode-cathode voltage
across the valve. When the latter voltage reaches
a critical value valve MB again breaks down and
passes an impulse of current. Valve |40 is thus
rendered conductive and non-conductive period
ically, at a frequency determined primarily by
the characteristics of the discharge circuit for
condenser |48, each conductive period being a
tially uniform average value, for any given output 50 very minor fraction of each non-conductive peri
load, although at certain frequencies, the average
od. During each conductive period the potential
loading of the individual valves is not uniform.
of the adjustable tap §56 on resistor LED abrupt
More particularly, in the event the input and out
ly rises and during each non-conductive inter
put frequencies are identical, certain of the main
val, such potential gradually falls to a normal
valves remain inactive if certain input and out 55 value. The potential of tap |55 is thus of the
put phase relations exist. This circumstance
usual saw-tooth wave form, as indicated in por
`makes it desirable, of course, to utilise valves of
tion VII of Fig. 2.
sufficiently large capacity to reliably handle any
The corresponding oscillator for the companion
unbalanced loading conditions.
unit (Figure 1D) duplicates the unit just de
It will be appreciated that in the broader as 60 scribed, it being noted that the secondary wind
pects of the invention, the main generator may
ing of each synchronizing transformer is tied to
be provided with a different number of phases
the grid of the oscillator valve |43 for the other
than the illustrated six phases. For example, a
unit. More particularly, the grid cathode circuit
three phase generator may be used, as disclosed
for valve |49 of the unit shown in Figure lC
in the aforesaid Nims application. In utilizing a
extends from the ground terminal IM through
three phase generator it will be appreciated that
the corresponding valve Idil, conductor |58,
each phase winding is connected to twice the
thence through- the secondary winding IED of the
number of anodes as in the present case. That
companion synchronizing transformer |46 to the
is, a particular phase winding would be con
corresponding ground terminal IM (Figure 1D).
nected to all of the anodes to which, for example, 70 It will be appreciated accordingly that each time
phases A and D of the present generator are
valve |453 ci one unit breaks down, a voltage im
connected and so on.
pulse is transmitted through the secondary wind
Referring now to Figure 1C, the illustrated
ing of the corresponding winding synchronizing
arrangement for energizing the above-described
transformer |45, which voltage impulse breaks
control transformers |00, |02, and |04 in the pre
down the valve |40 associated with the other
2,409,534
10
9
and extinguish valve |66. More particularly, op
unit. The oscillator circuits for the two units
are thus caused to operate in synchronism with
eration of the counter-network is as follows: As
suming that valves |62 and |64 are conductive, it
will be appreciated that terminals |96 and |86
have potentials which are above ground by only
the amount of the voltage drops through valves
|62 and |64, the balance of the voltage between
ground and conductor |14 being consumed in re
sistors |68 and |10. The grids of valves |62, |64,
and |66 are connected through resistors 208, 2|0,
each other.
It will be appreciated that the output frequency
of each oscillator circuit is determined primarily
by the desired output frequency of the power cir
cuit and by the number of phases of the power
circuit. In the present arrangement three output
phases are provided and two impulses per out
put phase are required from the oscillator circuit.
Accordingly, assuming a 400 cycle output fre
quency, it will be appreciated that the oscillator
and 2|2, to terminal 2|4, the potential whereof
1's somewhat below ground, for example, 35 to 50
volts below ground. The ratio of the resistors 204
and |90 (which are connected to the aforesaid
terminals |96 and |86) to resistor 2|2 is such
that under the conditions stated, the grid of
circuits are adjusted to have a frequency of 2,400
cycles per second.
>
’
Each counter-network comprises primarily a
series of three Valves, |62, |64, and |66, which
valve |66 is negatively biased, which action ren
ders valve |66 non-conductive. At the same time,
the grids of valves |62 and |64 are connected
preferably, but not necessarily, are of the high
vacuum continuous control type. The cathodes
of these valves are connected together and to the
ground terminal |44. The anodes of these valves 20
through resistor |80 on the one hand and resistor
|82 on the other hand, to terminal |16. Since
are connected, through control resistors |68, |10,
and |12, to a supply conductor |14, which is
maintained, by regulator valves |52 and |54, at an
intermediate potential, of the order, for example,
valve |66 is non-conductive, terminal |16 is at
substantially the potential of conductor |14,
which potential is very materially higher than
that of terminals |96 and |86, and the last-men
tioned connections thus serve to maintain the
grids of valves |62-|64 at potentials which are
slightly above ground and at which these valves
|66, which grid circuits include resistors |18, |80,
are in wide-open condition.
and |82. The grid circuit for valve |62 also in
t will be noticed that under the above described
cludes a delaying condenser |84, which functions 30
as hereinafter described. Similarly, the grid cir
conditions the blocking condensers |84 and |98
receive charges, of the indicated polarities, the
cuits oi valves |62 and |66 are tied to terminal
charge on condenser |84 attaining a value equal
|86, which is intermediate resistor |10 and the
to the drop across resistor |80 and the charge on
anode of valve |64. These grid circuits include
of 150 volts. The grids of valves |62 and |64 are
continuously tied to terminal |16, which is in
termediate resistor |12 and the anode of valve
resistors |88, |90, and |92 and the just-mentioned
condenser |98 attaining a value equal to the drop
grid circuit for valve |'66 includes a delaying con
across resistor 202.
denser |94. Finally, the grid circuits for valves
Assuming now that the potential of terminal
|56 associated with the oscillator circuit is
|64 and §86 are tied to terminal |96, which is in
termediate resistor |68 and the anode of valve |62.
These grid circuits include as indicated a-delaying
abruptly elevated, as described above, by the flow
of a surge current through the oscillator valve |40,
it will be appreciated that this action applies a
peaked positive impulse, also as aforesaid, to the
grids of each of the counter-valves |62, |64, and
|66, This action of itself, is without effect on
valves |62 and |64, in view of the fact that the
condenser |98 and resistors 200, 202, and 204.
The grids of all of the counter-tubes are tied, in
parallel with each other, to the previously de
scribed oscillator terminal |56. Each such grid
circuit includes a small blocking condenser 206.
It will be appreciated accordingly that each time
a positive impulse is applied to terminal |56, such
impulse is transmitted to the grids of the three
counter-valves and correspondingly elevates the
grids thereof are already at wide-open positive
values. This action does, however, positively bias
the grid of valve |66 and renders this valve fully
conductive.
respect to their cathodes.
The small blocking
condensers 206 are charged up very quickly and
consequently cause each such impulse to be of
the sharply peaked form shown in portion VIII
of Figure 2, the potential of terminal |56 being ,
shown in portion VII of such figure.
The functioning of this counter-circuit, in gen
eral, is such that, at any given time, two of the
three counter-valves are conductive and the re
maining counter-valve is non-conductive. Each 60
time a positive impulse is delivered from the oscil
lator circuit to the grids of these valves, the non
conductive valve is fired or rendered conductive.
This action does not alter the conductivity of one
of the remaining two valves but it does extinguish
the remaining valve. Thus, for example, during
As soon as valve |66 becomes fully
conductive, it immediately lowers the potential of
terminal |16 to a value which is above ground only
by the amount of the relatively small voltage drop
through valve |66, which potential is substantially
potentials of these grids to a positive value with ,
the same as the previously described potentials of
terminals |96 and |86. The drop in potential of
terminal |16 tends to but does not negatively bias
the grid oi valve |64, since this tendency is op
posed by the impulse from oscillator circuit. The
drop in potential of terminal |16, however, does
immediately drive the grid of tube |62 to a nega
tive potential, relative to its cathode, because of
the charge on condenser |84.
As soon as this
action occurs, valve |62 becomes non-conductive
and elevates the potential of terminal |96 to a
“ value corresponding to the previously described
L
potential of terminal |16; that is to a potential
substantially equal to that of conductor |14. With
terminal |96 at the relatively high potential, the
grids of Valves |64 and |66 are held positive so
that these valves are substantially wide-open,
through circuits corresponding to those previously
extinguishes valve |62, leaving` valve |64 con
described in connection with valves |62 and |64.
ductive. The next impulse from the oscillator cir
Similarly, with both valves |64 and | 66 conduc
cuit fires valve |62 and extinguishes valve |64,
tive, the grid of valve |62 is negatively biased in
leaving valves |62 and |66 conductive. The next
impulse from the oscillator circuit fires valve |64 75 a manner analogous to that previously described
an interval between two successive impulses of
the oscillator circuit, valves |62 and |64 may
be conductive and valve |66 may be non-con
ductive. The next impulse fires valve |66 and 70
11
¿2,409,534
12
in connection with the negative bias on the grid
of valve líiß. The single described impulse from
the oscillator circuit, therefore, serves to extin
guish Valve |52, leaving valves |5ë and itâ con
ductive. It is believed to be evident that in an
analogous manner, the next impulse from the
of usual form.
Grids 252 and 2E@ are also con
nected, through associated resistors 232
25M
to conductor 28S which is continuously main~
tained at a potential well below ground; for ezi
ample, at a potential of minus 240 volts.
At any given time one of the inverter valves
220-222 is conductive and the companion in
oscillator circuit is effective, by ñring valve |52, to
extinguish valve |64, leaving valves |52 and |555
conductive. Similarly, a succeeding impulse is
eiîective, by ñring valve §54 to extinguish valve
|56, leaving valves |52 and |554 conductive.
verter valve is biased to a non-conductive con
dition. A feature of the present invention re
sides in. utilizing the anode-cathode circuit of
each inverter valve to supply the associated con
Each on or conductive interval of each counter
trol transformer IDD, through the above-mentioned connections; and in utilizing the screen
valve is therefore equal in length to twice the
period of the oscillator circuit, and each oil or
non-conductive interval of each counter-valve is
equal to one period oi" the oscillator circuit.
State-.fl in another way, each “cycle” comprising
grids of these inverter valves as auxiliary anodeo
to provide an output circuit for each valve to
produce the inverter action. The inverter ac~
tion may thus be described independently of
one on and one oil interval of each counter-valve,
the primary output circuits of these valves.
is equal in length to three periods of the oscillator.
More particularly, and assuming that valve 22d
Moreover, the cycles of the respective counte 20 is fully conductive, it will be appreciated that a
valves have a phase displacement of one period of
substantial part, for example, two-thirds, oi" the
the oscillator; that is, a phase displacement of one
voltage difference between. conductor 25B and
third of a full cycle of cach counter-valve. These
the grounded cathode is consumed in resistor
24B, leaving terminal 255 at a potential which
phase
and XI,relations
of Figureare
2. indicated
Thus, assuming
in portions
an oscilla-for
IX,
is above ground only by the amount oi the vol*
frequency of 2,400 cycles, each counter-valve has
age drop through valve 222.
a frequency of 8D!) cycles.
The impedance of the network between termi
In the present system, each change from a non
nal 266 and the negative conductor 235, and
conductive to a conductive condition of each
comprising resistor 262, condenser 26d, and re
counter-valve is utilized to trigger the correspond* 30 sistor 224 is such that terminal 238 of this net
ing inverter network iM. Each such inverter
work, to which grid 259 is connected, is at a
comprises a pair of high vacuum valves, desig
sufficiently negative potential with respect to
nated 22€), 222, 224, 22S, 228, and 23%. Each such
ground to completely bias valve 280 to a non~
valve comprises main and auxiliary anodes, a com
conductive condition. Under these conditions,
the only voltage drop through resistor 2518 is
trol grid and an indirectly heated cathode. Usual
screen grid valves are usuable and are indicated
in the drawings, the screen grids serving as the
auxiliary anodcs. Since these inverter networks
are identical, a description ol one thereof will
suilice for all. Considering the inverter network 40
associated with output phase I4, and which corn
prises valves 229 and 222, the cathodes of these
'I'he
valvesanodes
are connected
oí these to
valves
the ground
are connected
conductor
to the
corresponding terminals of the primary winding
due to the current flowing in the network con~
nection between conductors 252 and 225, and
comprising resistor 243, condenser 25d, resistor
255, and resistor 282. The impedance of this
network is such that under the indicated condi
tions terminal 29ll, to which grid 252 is con'
nected, is maintained at a potential with re
spect to the cathode of valve 22S, at which this
valve is in a wide-open condition. Under the
- above conditions, further, condensers 238 and
|06 of the associated control transformer lllîl,
210 contain variable charges, depending upon the
which winding has a center tap 23S which is con-~
stage of the inverter cycle then in progress.
tinuously connected to supply conductor 2. 8,
Each time counter-valve 152 changes from a
which is continuously maintained at al potential
conductive to a non~conductive condition, the
of, for example, 300 volts above ground. A sta~ 50 potential of the associated terminal 292 abruptly
bilizing resistor 21.0 is connected across the pri»
rises, as will be clear from the previous descrip
tion. This increase in voltage, except in negli
of
mary
valves
winding
220 and
|06.222The
arescreen
continuously
grids 2M
connected.,
and
gible part, is not communicated to terminal 214
through control resistors 2li@ and 248, toa supply
of the inverter circuit, since under the indi~
conductor 250 which is continuously maintained.
cated conditions, rectifier 28|] ailords virtually
at a. potential somewhat below the potential of.
a short-circuit between conductor 2’i2 and
conductor 238. For example, conductor 25o may
ground. Such increase in voltage does apply a
be maintained at a potential of approximately
potential to and charge up the small blocking
240 volts above ground.
condenser 216.
The control grid 252 of valve 22B is connected, 60 Each time counter-valve |52 becomes conduc
through a network comprising a condenser 254 and
tive, the potential of terminal 292 abruptly falls
a resistor 256, to terminal 253 which is intermedi
to a considerably lower value, as will be clear
ate resistor 248 and the anode of the companion
from the previous description. This action im
valve 2'2. The control grid
of valve 22 is
mediately pulls terminal 293 down to a potential
similarly connected, through. a network comprising Cb Ul which is below the potential of terminal 292 by
resistor 262 and condenser 254, to terminal 2&5.
Athe amount of the charge on condenser 215.
Grids 252 and 26|) in turn are interconnected to
The constants of the circuit, including terminals`
gether through condensers 268 and 21o. Conduc n
290 and 292, are such that the just-mentioned
tor 212, which is connected to the anode of the
drop in the potential of terminal 290, produced
corresponding counter-valve |52, is connected 70 by valve |â2, is transitory in character.
to terminal 214, intermediate the last-mentioned
The peaked negative impulse (portion XII,
‘condensers Conductor 212 includes a bloclringf
Figure 2) thus applied to terminal 25B serves
condenser 215, and is connected to the ground
to reduce the positive bias of he grid of valve
conductor 232 through a relatively high resistance
226. This action in turn decreases current flow
218 and a continuously conductive rectifier 233, 75 between its cathode and its auxiliary anode or
2,409,534
13
14`
screen grid 242. The latter action in turn de-`
creases the voltage drop across resistor 246,
degrees, the frequency of such outputs being de
termined by the adjustably fixed frequency of the
thereby elevating the potentials of terminals
associated oscillator circuit |30.
A further feature of the present invention re
sides in providing means to properly synchronize
the counter-networks for the several units.
Referring to Figures 1C and 1D together, it will
be noticed that auxiliary valve 300 is provided.
266 and 288 and opening up valve 222. rIChe
opening of valve 222 increases the drop across
resistor 248 and correspondingly lowers the po~
tentials of terminals 258 and 202. The lowering
of the potential of terminal 290 still further re
duces the conductivity of valve 220 which is
This valve may be of usual three element high
reflected as an increase in the conductivity of 10 vacuum type. The anode of valve 3&0 is continu
valve 222. The above described negative im~
pulse accordingly serves to initiate a progressive
swing of valves 220 and 222, which swing takes
ously connected to the grid 302 of valve |66 in
Figure 1D. The cathode of valve 300 is con-„
tinuously connected to terminal 2 I4 which as in
place exceedingly rapidly, with respect to the
dicated is somewhat below ground, and the grid
frequencies involved in the present system, and 15 thereof is continuously connected to terminal 304,
which is negative with respect to terminal 2 I4. It
serves to completely open valve 222 and com
will be appreciated from a previous description
pletely block orlî valve 220.
The next time counter-valve I 62 becomes non
that while Valve IEB of Figure 1C is conductive,
the potential of terminal 308 is relatively low.
conductive, the positive impulse applied to ter
minal 292 is suppressed as before, making no 20 Assuming control switch 306 is closed, with valve
change in the. conductivities of the inverter
|166 conductive, it will be appreciated that the
difference in potential between terminals 308 and
valves. On the other hand, the next time
SIG is absorbed in condenser 3|2, leaving the grid
counter-valve |62 becomes non-conductive, a
peaked negative impulse is again applied to ter
of valve 300 negatively biased. The connection
minal 214.
Since the inverter circuit is sym
metrical, it will be appreciated that this negative
between valve 300 and valve |66 of Figure 1D is
thus without effect. As soon, however, as Valve
#56 of Figure 1C is extinguished, the potential of
impulse serves to block off valve 222 and render
valve 220 fully conductive. Under the as-l
terminal 306 is abruptly elevated, thereby posi
sumed conditions of a frequency of 800 cycles
tively biasing valve 300 and rendering it conduc~
for the action of counter-valve 162, it wiil be 30 tive.
valve 300 is rendered conductive, it
appreciated that each of the inverter valves is
brings the potential of the grid 302 of valve |66
thus cycled by the conductive and non-conduc
(Figure 1D) to a strongly negative value with re
tive conditions at the rate of 800 times a second,
spect to its cathode. If at the time this occurs, which corresponds to a frequency of the inverter
such valve E66 is non-conductive (which is the
circuit of 400 cycles.
Considering now the principal output circuits
of the inverter valves, it will be appreciated that
so long as inverter valve 220 is conductive, cur
rent iiow in the corresponding portion of thc
primary winding of the associated control trans
former |00 is in a direction to establish `one
polarity for the secondary or output windings
H2 and H4 of this transformer. So long as
valve 222 is conductive, on `the other hand, an
condition assuming the counter-circuits for the
two units are in proper step with each other) Such
negative biasing is without eiiect. If, however,
the counter-circuits should be out of step with
each other, such negative biasing would imme
diately extinguish valve |66 of Figure 1D. Such
extinguishment would have the same effect as
though it had been caused by an impulse by the
associated oscillator circuit. The just-men
tioned synchronizing circuit thus serves to insure,
opposite polarity is established for windings |I2 45 when the units are placed in operation, that they
and H4.
are in proper step with each other.
As previously mention, it is preferred that the
A further feature of the invention resides in
output voltages of windings H2 and I|4 be of
the provision of improved means for insuring that
Accordingly, in the present
the inverter networks for each unit are in proper
system, the impedance of the main anode-cath
ode circuits ofinverter Valves 220 and 2.22, are
square wave form.
such inverter networks for a plurality of units are
such that when either of these valves is rendered
in step with each other. The need for such syn
step with each other, and to further insure that
conductive, current through the corresponding
chronization arises, as will be understood, from
main anode circuit rises gradually and Substan
the fact that a negative impulse from, for ex
tially linearly to a maximum value, which is at 55 ample, counter-Valve |62, is effective to ñre one
tained at approximately the same time that the
or the other of the two inverter valves 220 and
next inverter or flip-dop action occurs. When
222, depending upon which of these valves was
such action occurs current flow’ in the just-men
last fired. As shown, conductors 234 and , 235`
tioned circuit is abruptly interrupted and a grad
serve to connect the control grids of valves 220
ual rise in current flow through the main anode 60 and 224 respectively, to the auxiliary anode or
circuit of the other inverter valve is initiated.
screen grid 231 of valve 230, through small block
Current flow in the primary winding portions of
ing condensers 239 and 24 I. It will be appreciated
the control transformer |00 is consequently of
that in view of the phase relations established by
saw-tooth form and results in the approximately
the counter-network, three of the inverter' valves
square wave form secondary outputs indicated in 65 1220, and so forth, are conducting at any given
portion IV of Figure 2.
time and moreover each time inverter valve 228 is
It is believed to be evident that the inverter
rendered conductive, valves 220 and 224 should
networks comprising valves 224-226 and valves
already be in a conductive condition. It will be
appreciated that each time inverter valve 228 is
228-230 function in the manner described above
in connection with valves 220-222, in response 70 rendered conductive, the potential of screen grid
231 of valve 230 rises sharply. This positive im
respectively to the change from non-conductive
to conductive condition of the associated counter
pulse is communicated, through the blocking con
densers 239 and 24| to the control grids of Valves
valves |64 and |66. Consequently, transformers
|00-I 02-| 04 deliver square wave secondary out
220 and 224. If these valves are already con
puts having phase displacements of 120 electrical 75 ductive (which is the condition if the inverter
15
2,409,534
16
circuits are in proper' step with each other), these
ing phase of said output circuit, and control
positive impulses are without effect. Ii?, on the
means for actuating said units in predetermined
other hand, either of valves 220 and 224 should be
phase relation to each other so that the respec
non-conductive (which is the condition if the in
tive phases of the output circuit have correspond
verter networks are out of step) such positive im
ing phase relations, said control means includ
pulse would immediately render the non-conduc
ing a source of periodic control voltage common
tive valve conductive and bring the circuits into
to said units, a network having a plurality of out
step with each other. It will be noticed that the
put circuits individual respectively to said units,
above synchronizing circuits are provided for both
means rendering said network responsive to said
units, Figures 1C and 1D.
l0 source of control voltage for energizing said out
In addition, in order to insure that the inverter
put circuits in rotation, an inverter network indi
.networks for both units are in proper step with
vidual to each unit and actuable in response to
each other, the screen grid of valve 230 for the
successive energizations to actuate the corre
unit of Figure 1C, is arranged for connection,
sponding control means, and means rendering
through a small blocking condenser 243 and a
said inverter networks operably responsive to suc
normally opened manually operable synchroniz
cessive energizations of the corresponding out
ing switch 245, to the control grid 24'! of inverter
put circuits of said inst-mentioned network.
valve 228 associated with the unit of Figure 1D.
3. In a system for delivering mtiltiphase alter
With this arrangement, it will be noted that each
nating current energy to an output circuit from
time inverter valve 228 of Figure 1C becomes con 20 a source of multiphase alternating current en
ductive, the consequent rise in potential of the
ergy, a plurality of translating units each individ
associated screen grid 231 of valve 230, causes a
ual to a corresponding phase of said output cir
positive impulse to be transmitted to the control
cuit, each unit comprising a pair of valve means
grid of valve 228 associated with the unit of Fig
each defining a plurality of discharge paths hav
ure 1D. If this valve is already conductive (which
ing a common cathode connection and a pltu‘al
is the condition if the inverter networks for the
ity of anodes coupled to corresponding phases of
two units are in step), this positive impulse is
said source, means coupling the valve means of
Without effect. On the other hand, if such net
each unit to the corresponding output phase so
works are out of step, such impulse brings them
that current flow through the individual means
into step.
of each pair tends to cause, respectively, current
In the present instance no source of energy for
ilow of respectively opposite polarity in the corre
supplying the direct current power circuits has
sponding phase of the output circuit, periodically
been indicated. It will be understood that these
actuable control means for each unit for suc
power circuits may be supplied from any suitable
cessively rendering the corresponding valve means
source. For example, a portion of the three
conductive and non-conductive in alternate re
phase output of the system may be utilized for
lation, and timing means for actuating the sev
this purpose. Alternatively, and as is described
eral control means in predetermined phase rela
in more detail in the aforesaid copending Nims
tion to each other, said timing means including a
application, an auxiliary or pilot generator may
source of periodic control voltage common -to said
be provided to supply the control energy.
LLO units, a network having a plurality of output
Although only a single complete embodiment
circuits individual respectively vto said units,
of the invention has been described in detail, it
means rendering said network responsive to said
will be appreciated that various modifications in
source of control voltage for energizing said out
the form, number, and arrangement of the parts
put circuits in rotation, and means rendering each
may be made without departing from the spirit
control means operably responsive to each ener
and scope of the invention.
gization of the corresponding output circuit of
What is claimed is:
said network.
1. In a system for supplying a multiphase al
4. In a system for delivering multiphase alter
ternating current output circuit from a source of
hating current energy to an output circuit from
electric energy, the combination of a plurality
a source of multiphase alternating current en
of translating units individual to said phases,
orgy, a plurality of translating units each indi
each unit including means actuable to translate
vidual to a corresponding phase of said output
energy from the source into single phase alter
circuit, each unit comprising a pair of valve
hating current energy and deliver the same to a
means each deñning a plurality of discharge
corresponding phase of said output circuit, and i paths having a common cathode connection and
control means for actuating said units in prede
a plurality of anodes coupled to corresponding
termined phase relation to each other so that the
phases of said source, means coupling the valve
respective phases of the output circuit have cor
means of each unit to the corresponding output
responding phase relations, said control means
phase so that current Flow through the individual
including a source of periodic control voltage (SO means of each pair tends to cause, respectively,
common to said units, a network having a plu
current now of respectively opposite polarity in
rality of output circuits individual respectively to
the corresponding phase of the output circuit,
said units, means rendering said network respon
periodically actuable control means for each unit
sive to said source of control voltage for energiz
for successively rendering the corresponding valve
ing said output circuits in rotation, and means (lo means conductive
non-conductive in alter
rendering each circuit operably responsive to
nate relation, and timing means for actuating
each energization of the corresponding output
the several control means in predetermined phase
circuit of said network.
relation to each other, said timing means includ
2. In a system for supplying a multiphase al
ing a source of periodic control voltage common
ternating current output circuit from a source of
to said units, a network having a plurality of out
electric energy, the combination of a plurality of
put circuits individual respectively to said units,
translating units individual to said phases, each
means rendering said network responsive to said
unit including means actuable to translate energy
source of control voltage for energizing said out
from the source into single phase alternating cur
put circuits in rotation, an inverter network indi
rent energy and deliver the same to a correspond
vidual to each unit and actuable in response to
2,409,534
17
18
successive energizations to a'ctuate the corre
sponding control means, and means rendering
said inverter networks operably responsive tosuc
cessive energizations of the corresponding output
circuits of said Erst-mentioned network.
5. In a system for controlling iiow of current
mentioned means including a source of periodic
voltage, a network having a plurality of output
circuits effective respectively to so energize said
timing means, and means rendering said output
circuits successively responsive to said source of
periodic voltage.
11. In a system for controlling ñow of current
to a multiphase load circuit, a plurality of net
works each having an output circuit individual
to said phases, a network having a plurality of 10 to each phase of the load circuit for controlling
such phase, a valve for each output circuit,
output circuits individual to such phases, means
changes in conductivity of said valves serving to
rendering said network responsive to said source
control the corresponding output circuits and ef
of control voltage for energizing said output cir
fect said control, a pair of independently operable
cuits in rotation, and means rendering said con
control means so constructed and arranged that
trol means operably responsive to energization of
between a source and a multiphase lo-ad circuit,
control moans individual to each phase of said
load circuit, a source of periodic voltage common
the corresponding output circuit.
each network is controlled by a different one 0i’
said control means for successively altering the
6. In an inverter network, _the combination of
conductivities of the valves of each network, and
a pair of electric valves each having a cathode, a
means responsive to one network for periodically
control grid and main and auxiliary anodes,
means including control means coupling the aux 20 correcting any out of phase of the other network
iliary anode and grid circuits of said valves to
so as to maintain the networks in step with each
other.
gether to control the conductivity of _said valves,
and an output circuit coupled to the main-anode
12. Apparatus for supplying a multiphase load
circuit comprising a plurality of systems each as
cathode circuit of each valve.
7. In an inverter network, the combination of 25 deiined in claim l, means connecting the respec
tive output circuits in parallel to said load cir
a pair of electric valves each having a cathode, a
cuit, and synchronizing means for causing the
control grid and main and auxiliary anodes,
means including control means coupling the aux~
control means for the respective systems to be ac
tuated in predetermined timed relation to each
iliary anode and grid circuits of said valves to
gether to control the conductivity of said valves, 30 other.
an output circuit coupled to the main-anode
13. Apparatus for supplying a multiphase load
cathode circuit of each valve, and means for peri
odically actuating said control means to ‘ ex
tinguish one valve and render the other valve
conductive.
8. In an inverter network, the combination of a
pair of electric valves each having a cathode, a
control grid and main and auxiliary anodes,
means including control means coupling the aux
iliary anode and grid circuits of said valves to~
gether tov control the conductivity of said valves,
translating means having a winding, the respec
tive terminals whereof are connected tc the main
anodes of said valves, said winding having an
intermediate terminal, and a source of energy
connected between said intermediate terminal
and the cathode of said valves.
9. In an inverter network, the combination of a
circuit comprising a plurality of systems each as
deiined in claim 2, means connecting the respec«
tive output circuits in parallel to said load circuit,
35 and synchronizing means for causing the control
means for the respective systems
in predetermined timed relation
14. In a system for delivering
ternating current energy to an
to be actuated
to each other.
multiphase al
output circuit
from a source of mt. aìphase alternating current
energy, a plurality or translating units each in
dividual to a corresponding phase of said Output
circuit, each unit comprising a pair of electric
valve means each defining a plurality of dis
charge paths having a common cathode connec
tion and a plurality of anodes coupled to corre
sponding phases of said source, means coupling
the valve means of each unit to the correspond
ing output phase so that current flow through
plurality of pairs of electric valves, each having a
cathode, a grid and main and auxiliary anodes, 50 the individual means of each pair tends to cause,
respectively, current iiow of respectively opposite
means including control means coupling the aux
iliary anode and grid circuits of the valves of each
polarity in the corresponding phase of the out
pair together to contro-l the conductivity of the
put circuit, periodically actuable control means
corresponding valves, timing means to periodi
for each unit for successively rendering the cor
cally actuate said control means to extinguish one
valve of each pair and render conductive the
other valve of such pair, an output circuit coupled
across the cathode and main anode circuit of each
valve of each pair, and means to energize said
timing means of the respective pairs in prede
termined phase relation to each other.
10. In an inverter network, the combination of
a plurality of pairs of electric valves, each having
a cathode, a grid and main and auxiliary anodes,
means including control means coupling the aux
iliary anode and grid circuits of the valves of
each pair together to control the conductivity of
the corresponding valves, timing means to peri
odically actuate said control means to extinguish
one valve of each pair and render conductive the
other valve of such pair, an output circuit coupled
across the cathode and main anode circuit of each
valve of each pair, and means to energize said
timing means of the respective pairs in prede
termined phase relation to each other, said last
responding valve means conductive and noncon
ductive in alternate relation, a source of periodic
control voltage common to said units, a counter
network including an electric valve'individual t0
each phase of the aforesaid output circuit,
means coupling said valves to said source of pe
riodic control voltage so that the conductivities
of said valves are altered in predetermined suc
cession, and means rendering each control means
operably responsive to the condition of the as
sociated said valve.
15. In a system for supplying a multiphase al
ternating current output circuit from a source of
electric energy, the combination of a plurality of
translating units individual to said phases and
common to >said source, each unit including
means actuable to translate energy from the
source to single-phase alternating current energy
and delivering the same to a corresponding phase
of said output circuit, a source oi periodic control
75 voltage common to said units, a counter-network
2,409,534
19
including an electric 4valve individual to each
phase of the aforesaid output circuit, means
coupling said valves to said source oi' periodic
control voltage so that the conductivities of said
valves are altered in predetermined succession, lil
and means including an inverter network indi
vidual to each phase of the output circuit, each
such inverter network being operably responsive
to the condition of the associated electric valve.
16. In a system for delivering multiphase al
ternating current energy to an output circuit
from a source of multiphase alternating current
energy, a plurality of translating units each in
dividual to a corresponding phase of said output
circuit, each unit comprising a pair of electric
valve means each deiining a plurality of dis
charge paths having a common cathode connec
20
condition of each valve for producing a control
voltage for the corresponding phase.
18. In a system for producing multiphase con
trol voltages, the combination of a source of
periodic control voltage common to such phases,
a counter-network including an electric valve in
dividual to each such phase, means coupling said
valves to said source of periodic voltage so as to
alter the conductive conditions of said valves in
rotation, and means including an inverter net
work individual to each said valve and operably
responsive to the condition thereof for producing
a control voltage for the corresponding phase.
19. In `a system for controlling flow of current
to a multiphase load circuit, a plurality of net
works each having an output circuit individual
to each phase of the load circuit for controlling
such phase, said networks comprising a pair of
tion and plurality of anodes coupled to corre
sponding phases of said source, means coupling
independently operable control means so con
the valve means of each unit to the correspond 20. structed and arranged that each network is con
ing output phase so that current flow through the
trolled by a different one of said control means
individual means of each pair tends to cause, re
to actuate the corresponding output circuits in
spectively, current flow of respectively opposite
rotation, and means responsive to one network
polarity in. the corresponding phase of the output
for controlling the other network so as to correct
circuit, pc iodically actuable control means for
any out-of-phase operation of the other net
each unit for successively rendering the corre
work with respect to the one network whereby
spending valve means conductive and noncon
the networks will be brought periodically in step
with each other.
ductive in alternate relation, a source of periodic
control voltage common to said units, a counter
20. ln a system for controlling flow of current
network including an electric valve individual to
to a multiphase load circuit, a plurality of net
each phase of the aforesaid output circuit, means
works each having an output circuit individual
coupling said valves to said source or" periodic
to each phase of the load circuit for controlling
control voltage so that the conductivities of said
such phase, said networks comprising a pair oi
valves are altered in predetermined succession,
independently operable control means so con
and means including an inverter network indi
structed and arranged that each network is con
vidual to each phase of the output circuit, each
trolled by a different one of said control means to
such inverter network being operably responsive
actuate the corresponding output circuits in rota
to the condition of the associated electric valve.
tion, means responsive to one network for con
17. In a system for producing multiphase con
trolling the other network so as to correct any
trol voltages, the combination of a source of pe 40 out-of-phase operation of the other network with
riodic control voltage common to such phases, a
respect `to the one network whereby the networks
counter-network including an electric valve inwill be brought periodically in step with each
dividual to each such phase, means coupling said
other, and means for selectively rendering said
valves to» said source of periodic voltage so as to
alter the conductive conditions of said valves in
rotation, and means operably responsive to the
responsive means effective or ineffective.
OMER E. BOVVLUS.
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