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Патент USA US2409543

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Oct 15, 1946-
P. s. CARTER‘
2,409,542
HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSDUCER SYSTEM
Filed Nov_. 20, 1942
TO TRANSMITTER
OR RECEIVER
'
‘Fig.5. .
'_ INV'ENTOR'
BYPHILIP
7%32TH!
,
ATTORNEY
2,409,542
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
UNITED STATES vPATENT OFFICE
2,409,542
HIGH-FREQUENCY TRANSDUCER SYSTEM
Philip S. Carter, Rocky Point, N. Y., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
Delaware
Application November 20, 1942, Serial No. 466,321
13 Claims.
(Cl. 250—11)
2
1
stood by reference to the following detailed de
scription which is accompanied by a drawing
wherein Figure 1 illustrates in diagrammatic
The present invention relates to a means for'
shifting the phase of energy in high frequency
transducer means and, more particularly, to
phase shifting circuits for use in antenna systems.
form an embodiment of the invention which may
An object of the present invention is to improve Cl be used for advancing the phase of energy along
a single wire conductor, while Figures 2 and 3
the directivity of antenna arrays.
illustrate a modi?cation which may be used for
Another object of the present invention is the
retarding the phase, Figures 4 and 5 illustrate
provision of means for shifting the phase of high
further modi?cations of the present invention
frequency energy in transmission lines without
causing re?ection.
10 for advancing the phase of energy in a single
wire line, and Figure 6 illustrates in plan view
Still another object of the present invention is
one application of the principles of the present
the provision of means for’causing predetermined
invention to a V type antenna.
phase differences of high frequency energy in
In Figure 1 is shown a phase advancing circuit
different sections of an antenna array.
Still a further object of the present invention
in a conductor I!) which may be one conductor of
a V type antenna, or the single ungrounded con
ductor of a wave-antenna. The shunt reactance
is the provision of means, as aforesaid, adapted
to be placed between antenna sections, which
will operate without the introduction of large
amounts of re?ection at the points where said
means are inserted.
The foregoing objects and others which may
appear from the following detailed description
are attained in accordance with the principles
required for advancing the phase is obtained by
the use of a disc or sphere ll, having a high
20
capacity to the surrounding space, connected to
the antenna wire ii] at junction point l2 by
means of a connecting wire l3. The connect
ing wire i3 is in effect an inductance in series
of the present invention by providing phase shift
with the capacity provided by metallic body II.
ing networks at points along a single wire in
The effective value of inductance is determined
free space, said networks approximating in their
by the length of wire l3. At either side of junc
tion I2 is placed a series condenser such as that
indicated by M or iii. Condensers l4 and I5
are of equal capacity.
If it is desired to retard the phase along con
ductor ID the circuit of Figure 2 may be used.
In this circuit two series inductive reactances 2i
action | orIIT type circuits heretofore used in
two wire circuits or one wire and ground trans
mission line systems. Such phase shifting net
works may be used in long wire antenna systems
to improve the directivity characteristic or they
may be used to vary the directivity characteristic
as desired.
There are a number of antenna sys
tems known in the prior art wherein the phase
is shifted at certain positions along the wires by
means of series capacity inductance coils or
folded up sections of the antenna wire itself.
.When such methods of shifting phase are used
high re?ection takes place at each position of
phase shift. This results in a considerable fall
ing off in the current as it proceeds from the feed
point of the system toward the far end. This
and 22 are inserted along the length of con
ductor Hi. Between the two inductances 2| and
22 is located a metallic body 23 in the form of a
sphere or disc. The metallic body 23 has a con
siderable capacity to the surrounding space, the
value of capacity being determined by the siZe
of the metallic body.
In Figure 3 is shown a modi?cation of the
structure of Figure 2 wherein the inductances
21 and 22 of Figure 2 are substituted by closed
loops 3i and 32 each of equal length. Their
undesirable action greatly decreases the direc
length is so chosen as to be less than one quarter
tivity and the efficiency of the antenna system.
According to the present invention a three leg 45 of the operating wavelength whereby their effect
in the circuit is equivalent to that of series in
circuit, having suitably proportioned reactances
ductances. A straight wire 33 has been substi
in each leg, is used for shifting phase. By the
tuted for the metallic body 23 of Figure 2, the
proper proportioning of the reactances in each
length being somewhat less than a quarter of the
leg of the circuit the characteristic impedance
may be made to match the characteristic imped 50 operating wavelength ‘of the system whereby its
effect is that of a shunt capacity to ground.
ance of the antenna wire. In this way the de
In Figure 4 there is shown another structure for
sirable phase shift may be obtained without re
obtaining the same result as that obtained from
?ection and substantially equal currents will re
Figure 1. Here, the series loops 4! and 42 each
sult in each antenna section.
‘The present invention will be more fully under 55 have a length greater than a quarter of the oper
2,409,542
4
ating wavelength whereby their effect is capaci
reactance in said network, said last named ele
ment including a length of conductor having such
length that its e?ect on said network is inductive,
tive and the straight open wire 43 has a length
greater than the quarter wavelength whereby it is
equivalent to a shunt inductance.
Figure 5 shows a further structure for obtain
ing the same result as that of Figure l and Fig
said series reactance elements including conduc
tors so disposed as to have inappreciable radiation
resistance and having a length less than one quar
ure 4, that is, advancing the phase of energy flow
ing along conductor l0. Here, the series capaci
ter of the operating wavelength whereby they are
capacitive in effect the reactances of said ele
ties are provided by open sections of lines 5| and
ments being so proportioned that the character
52 each having a length less than a quarter of 10 istic impedance of said network is equal to the
the operating wavelength. The straight open
impedance of said single wire to prevent re?ec
ended conductor 53, having a length greater than
tion of energy at the point of insertion of said
a quarter of the operating wavelength, operates
network.
'
in the same manner as conductor 43 of Figure 4
3. A phase shifting network for insertion in a
to produce the equivalent of a shunt inductance.
single wire carrying high frequency energy in
In applying these circuits to practice, the char
cluding series reactance elements and at least
acteristic impedance of the circuit is made equiva
one reactance element adapted to function as a
lent to the characteristic impedance of the an
shunt reactance in said network and connected
tenna wire It by properly proportioning the series
to said wire between said series reactance ele
and shunt reactance elements.
Thus no re?ec
tion is introduced at the point of insertion of each
phase shifting unit, and the currents in wire ill
at each side of the point of insertion are equal.
There is a large number of applications of the
20 ments, said last named element including a
present invention, of which one is shown in Fig- ~
ure 6 as an example. Assume that it is desired
to design a V antenna with the radiating con
ductors 8 wavelengths long. The antenna is con
nected by means of transmission line 'I'L to suit
able transducer means such as a transmitter or ;
receiver. Without phase shifting devices in the
wires the most effective included angle between
the wires would be of the order of 35 degrees for
length of conductor having a length greater than
one quarter of the operating wavelength so that
its effect on said network is inductive the re
actances of said elements being so proportioned
that the characteristic impedance of said net
work is equal to the impedance of said single
wire to prevent re?ection of energy at the point
of insertion of said network.
4. A phase shifting network for insertion in
a single wire carrying high frequency energy
including series reactance elements and at least
one reactance element adapted to function as a
shunt reactance in said network, said last named
a maximum additive effect of the main radiation
element including a length of conductor having
lobes. If the angle between the wires is made 90
such length that its effect on said network is
degrees as used in antennas having wires one
inductive and terminated at its free end by a
wavelength long and the phase along the wires
body having a substantial capacity to surround
(“is advanced at 7 points along the antenna wire
ing space, said series reactance elements includ
by means of phase shifting networks PN, as shown
ing conductors so disposed as to have inappre
in Figure 6, so that the combined radiation from 40 ciable radiation resistance and having a length
each pair of one wavelength conductors is in
less than one quarter of the operating wavelength
phase with all of the others, a much more direc
whereby they are capacitive in effect the reac
tive system results. Phase shifting networks PN
tances of said elements being so proportioned
may be of the type shown in Figures 1, 4 or 5.
that the characteristic impedance of said net
Furthermore, the radiation resistance of the an~ 4. work is equal to the impedance of said single
tenna system as a whole is very greatly increased
wire to prevent re?ection of energy at the point
because of the improved phase relationship be
of insertion of said network.
tween adjacent sections.
5. A phase shifting network for insertion in
While I have particularly shown and described
a single wire carrying high frequency energy in
several modi?cations of my invention, it is to be '
cluding series reactance elements and at least
distinctly understood that my invention is not
one reactance element adapted to function as a
limited thereto but that improvements within the
shunt reactance in said network, said last
scope of the invention may be made.
named element including a length of conductor
I claim:
having a length greater than one quarter of the
1. A phase shifting network for insertion in a
operating wavelength so that its effect on said
single wire carrying high frequency energy in
system is inductive and terminated at its free
cluding series reactance elements and at least
end by a body having a substantial capacity to
one reactance element adapted to function as a
surrounding space, said series reactance elements
shunt reactance in said network, said last named
including conductors so folded as to have inap
element including a length of conductor having
preciable radiation resistance and having a
a substantial capacity to the surrounding space,
length less than one quarter of the operating
said series reactance elements including conduc
wavelength whereby they are capacitive in effect
tors so disposed as to have inappreciable radiation
the reactances of said elements being so propor
resistance and having a length greater than one
tioned that the characteristic impedance of said
quarter of the operating wavelength whereby they
network is equal to the impedance of said single
are inductive in e?ect the reactances of said ele
wire to prevent re?ection of energy at the point
menis being so proportioned that the character
of insertion of said network.
istic impedance of said network is equal to the
6. A phase shifting network for insertion in
impedance of said single wire to prevent re?ection
a single wire carrying high frequency energy in
of energy at the point of insertion of said net
cluding series reactance elements and at least
work.
one reactance element adapted to function as a
2. A phase shifting network for insertion in a
shunt reactance in said network, said last
single wire carrying high frequency energy includ
named element including a length of conductor
ing series reactance elements and at least one
having such length thatits effect on said network
reactance element adapted to function as a shunt
is capacitive, said series reactance elements in
2,409,542
5
eluding conductors so folded as to have inap
preciable radiation resistance and having a
length greater than one quarter of the operating
wavelength whereby they are inductive in effect
the reactances of said elements being so propor
tioned that the characteristic impedance of said
network is equal to the impedance of said single
wire to prevent re?ection of energy at the point
of insertion of said network.
'7. A phase shiftinging network for insertion in
a single wire carrying high frequency energy
including series reactance elements and at least
6
operating wavelength open circuited at one end
and at the other end connected in series with said
single wire the reactances of said elements being
so proportioned that the characteristic imped
ance of said network is equal to the impedance
of said single wire to prevent reflection of energy
at the point of insertion of said network.
9. An antenna system including a wire having
a length at least equal to several times the oper
ating wavelength of said system, and phase shift
ing networks connected to said wire at intervals
of one wavelength, said phase shifting networks
being constituted according to claim 2.
one reactance element adapted to function as a
10. An antenna system including a wire having
shunt reactance in said network and connected
to said wire between said series reactance ele 15 a length at least equal to several times the oper
ating wavelength of said system, and phase shift
ments, said last named element including alength
ing networks connected to said wire at intervals
of conductor having such length that its effect
of one wavelength, said phase shifting networks
on said network is inductive, said series reactance
being constituted according to claim 4.
elements including sections of two wire trans
11. An antenna system including a wire having
mission line having lengths less than a quarter
a length at least equal to several times the oper
of the operating wavelength open circuited at
ating wavelength of said system, and phase shift
one end and at the other end connected in series
ing networks connected to said wire at intervals
with said single wire the reactances of said ele
of one wavelength, said phase shifting networks
ments being so proportioned that the character
istic impedance of said network is equal to the 25 being constituted according to claim 5.
12. An antenna system including a wire having
impedance of said single wire to prevent re?ec
a length at least equal to several times the oper
tion of energy at the point of insertion of said
ating wavelength of said system, and phase shift
network.
ing networks connected to said wire at intervals
8. A phase shifting network for insertion in
a single wire carrying high frequency energy in 30 of one wavelength, said phase shifting networks
being constituted according to claim ‘7.
cluding series reactance elements and at least
13. An antenna system including a wire hav
one reactance element adapted to function as a
ing a length at least equal to several times the
shunt reactance in said network, said last
operating wavelength of said system, and phase
named element including a free ‘ended conductor
shifting networks connected to said wire at inter
having a length greater than one quarter of the
vals of one wavelength, said phase shifting net
operating wavelength whereby its effect in the
works being constituted according to claim 8.
network is inductive, said series reactance ele
ments including sections of two wire transmission
PHILIP S. CARTER.
line having lengths less than a‘ quarter of the
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