вход по аккаунту


код для вставки
Filed may 27.' 1943
A? ~ ~
_ C
s sheets-sheet z
' W* SQ@
Oct. 15, 1946.
Filed may 27. 1945> -
_ ' _3 sheetsfsneet s
Z,/ maag@ '
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
i 2,409,552
.Maurice L. Dcnnellan, Ypsilanti, Mich.
Application May 27, 1943, 'serial No. 488,763
2 Claims. (Cl. 244-463)
The present invention relates to an aeronautical
take-off device and more 'particularly to a device
which is adapted -to assist >in the take-off of ‘air
in the take-off device is transmitted -eñiciently
directly to the wheels of the plane.
Other objects or this invention will appear in
the following description and appended claims,
wing type is least efñcientvmechanically during 5 reference being had to the accompanying draw
ings forming a part oi this speciiic'ation wherein
its take-,off period. `At this time the weight oi
like reference characters designate corresponding
the’plane and‘its load is supported'by> the landing
borne vehicles. An air borne vehicle of the rigid
gear and the ground engaged wheels. In order
to attain ñight speed'it is necessary to have the
vehicle and its load rapidly accelerated in order
to attain such speeds as to impart a lift to the
During .the Ytake-ofi period it usually -is
necessary to move .the vehicle over a relatively.7
great distance which requires'the entire power
output of the ymotors Vbecause of the excessive
power demands during `thematic-off interval. As
is known, .actual 4iiight -`of the -vehicle «when air
borne requires A.considerably `less than the entire
power out-put ofthe motors.
parts of the several views.
Fig. 1 ‘is a view in side elevation showing‘a‘nï
airplane 'with a take-oit device of the present
invention connected therewith, parts of Vtheplane
being broken away to show details of control
mechanism used-with the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary top plan view taken
substantially along the `line ïZ-Z in the direction
of the arrows in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a top'plan View with sides‘broken away
and- partially in section showing a take-oit device
embodying the present invention.
Fig. 4 is ‘an enlarged >fragmentary side eleva
It is, >thereforef amongftheobjects. of fthe .present 20 tion
of the take-ofi device embodying the present
l. To provide a~novel aeronautical take-01T de
vice to `furnish additional -power »to the lplane
during the take-offperiod.
2. To provide a" novel aeronautical tal<e~oii de-‘
vice which maybe readily attached to the plane
while-on the ground but Ywhich is‘detached from
the plane as soon as take-off >speeds are attained
and the plane becomes air borne.
3. To provide a novel take-off >device consisting
of a vehicle havingground >engaged wheels which
are power driven independently of the motors of
the aircraft, thus `permitting relatively greater
loads >in the aircraft while permitting a take-01T
Fig. 5 is an enlarged v‘sectional view'taken sub--`
stantially along the linet5--5‘looking in the direc
tionof the arrows in‘Fig. 3.
Fig. Gis an enlarged fragmentary sectional view
taken substantially along-the line 6-5 looking vin
the direction of the arrows in Fig. 3.
Fig. '7 is an enlarged sectional detail of the
attaching mechanism taken intheencircled area
1 of Fig. 4.
Fig. `8 is a fragmentary plan view taken sub
stantially along the line 8--~8 in the direction of
the arrows of Fig. `3.
Fig.` 9 `is a fragmentary sectional view taken
from a restricted area without requiring the use
of additional motors on the planeitself.
along the Vline 9-9 looking in the direction “of
4. To provide .a device :particularly adapted for
Before explaining in detail the‘present inven-l
handling and ‘maneuvering ground borne aircraft
the arrows of Fig. 3.
tion, it is to be understood that the invention `is
and in which the .powerlis eiliciently applied'di- 40
' not limited in its application to the details of
rectly to the ground contacting wheels'of the air
‘5. Tó provide Yan aeronautical .take-oil' device
which will minimize the requirement of high‘lift
construction and arrangement of parts illustrated
in the‘accompanying drawings, since the invene
tion is capable of other embodiments and of being
practiced or vcarried out in various ways. Also`
characteristics oi the wing and permitthe design ` 45 it is to >be understood that the phraseology -or
oi" wings having relatively higher speed charac~
terminology employed herein is for the purpose
teristios without increasing the dimensions re*
of description `and not of limitation.
duired inthe take-oir area.
In the preferredembodiment of the presentin
6. To provide a novel aeronautical take-off de
vention, I propose to utilize _a power driventake
vice in which the horse power available for the 50 oiî device on each of the ground engaging land«
take-01T `‘may be selectively increased as maybe
ing wheels of the airplane and to synchronize
required to' assure a proper take-oni within the
their operation as will hereinafter `be more fully
described. In order to simplify the drawings and
space and time interval available.
the Vdescription of the invention, it will be de
' 'l'. To provide a device to assist in the take-off
of air borne vehicles, either of the power driven 55 scribed with reference to but one take-oit device
arranged for‘driving one of the ground engaging
or the motorless glider types` either singly or in
wheels of the airplane, it being understood that
multiples, such for example as in trains.
the other units which engage they other ground
8. To provide a device adapted to supply aux-`
engaging wheels of the airplane will ¿be .identical
iliary power to a normallyair-borne vehicle dur
ingthe take-ofi` and in which the power developed ‘60 in construction and operation with lthat >to be
hereinafter described. It is also to be understood
that it is within the scope of the present inven
tion to utilize but a single take-olf device of the
present invention and by the provision of a plu
rality of spaced driving heads to drive more than
one of the ground engaging wheels of the plane at
one time.
.relation of the driving member 22 to the ground
engaging wheel I2 of the plane may be varied so
as to compensate for the camber and caster of the
wheel I2. In this way an aligned meshing of the
gear teeth on the member 22 with the ribbed por
tions of the tread 36 on the wheel I2 is effected
as shown in greater detail in Fig. 9.
Referring to the drawings, and particularly to
This provides a positive power drive from the
Fig. 1, I0 designates an airplane of conventional
member 22 to the wheel I2.
design, which is provided with a landing gear I I
In order to assure the accurate meshing of the
which carries a plurality of ground engaging
ribbed portion of the driving member 22 with the
wheels I2, one of which only is shown in the draw
ribbed portion of the tread 36, means are pro
ings. A vertically pivoted rudder I3 is provided
vided for removing accumulations of earth, stones,
to control the movement of the plane horizontally,
and the like or similar substances from the spaces
the rudder being controlled by the pilot of the 15 between the resilient ribbed portions of the tread
plane in accordance with conventional practice
36. In a preferred embodiment of the invention,
and construction.
I provide jets 46 of a high velocity fluid, such as
The take-olf device of the present invention is
water, which are supplied with such ñuid under
indicated in general by the numeral I4 and is
pressure through a fluid supply line 4I, which is
provided with a pair of ground engaging drive 20 connected with a pressure pump 42 driven by a
wheels I5, operatively connected and power driven
motor 43, and supplied with the fluid from a iiuid
by a suitable source of power I6, such for example
supply tank 44. Where the tread of the tire I2 is
as an internal combustion engine, a Diesel engine,
of rubber and the driving member 22 has gear
a gas-electric drive, or the like. The take-olf de
teeth members also of rubber of suitable hardness
vice I 4 is guided by manipulation of front steer 25 to transmit a drive from one member to the other,
ing wheels or, preferably the single steering wheel
the use of water either with or without a soapy
I'I, which is mounted in forks I8 (see Fig. 6) which
lubricant is preferred for this purpose as this also
are pivotally connected as will be hereinafter
lubricates the resilient gearing during the driv
more fully described, with the frame I9. While
ing engagement of the member 22 and the tread
the single wheel has definite advantages as to 30 36.
maneuverability, it is to be understood that a
In order to assure a cleaning of the spaces be
pair of steering wheels may be used in accord
tween the ribbed portion of the tread 36, a rotary
ance with any desired conventional design or con
brush 45 is provided which contacts the tread 36
and mechanically removes the greater part of
Steering movement of the wheel I'I is effected
the material accumulated between the ribbed
by a manually controlled steering gear 2U, when
portions of the tread so that the subsequent ñush
the device is disconnected from the plane. When
ing with the fluid under pressure is effective to
connected with the plane, the take-on' device I4
clean thoroughly the spaces between the ribbed
is guided by the steering arm 2 I.
portions of the tread 36. If it is desired to cool
Power is transmitted from the take-olf device 40 the tread 36 after the driving engagement with
I4 to the plane wheel I2 by a power driven gear
the member 22, a plurality of air jets 46 are pro
member 22, which is connected by suitable gear
vided for playing on the tread 36, and these jets
ing with a power driven shaft 23, which is opera
are supplied with air under pressure from an air
tively connected for the transmission of driving
supply line 41 which is operatively connected
torque to the power source I6. The driven gear 45 with a compressed air tank 48 which is supplied
member 22 is preferably a solid member provided
with compressed air by an air compressor 49
with resilient gear teeth, as shown. If desired,
however, it may have rigid gear teeth, or it may
which is driven by a motor 50.
If desired, however, either the fluid or the air
or both may be dispensed with under :certain
be a pneumatic tire member mounted on a wheel
secured to an axle. As shown in Fig. 3 the power 50 operating conditions, and also may be reversed
source I6 is connected with a transmission 24
having a power take-olf 25 which is connected
as to their point of discharge relative to the tread
36 of the wheel I2.
The transfer of power to drive the wheel I2 is
effected through a power head which preferably
through bevel gearing 26 to drive the shaft 23. «A
shaft 21 is driven from the transmission 24 and
transmits driving torque through a conventional 55 includes the resiliently toothed member 22, hav
type of differential 28 to the power driven axle 29,
ing ribs which mesh directly with the resilient
which drives the ground engaging driving wheels
rib construction on the tread 36. Alignment of
I5. Control and shifting mechanism 30 is pro
the driving member 22 relatively to the t‘read 36
vided for selectively declutching or driving the
is facilitated and the member 22 is guided by
wheels I5 and is controlled from a shift control .60 means of a circumferential rib 5I, which is pro
3| whichis placed adjacent the operator’s seat
vided on the tire 36 and which extends vertically
in the device. A shift control 32 also placed ad-above the plane of the angular ribs 52. A cen
jacent the operator’s seat in the device controls
tral cut-away or beveled portion 53 is preferably
the selective declutching or driving of the power
provided on the member 22 for engagement 0f
take-off shaft 23 and the gear member 22. The
the riib 5I. While the present drawings show the
driving torque of the shaft 23 is transmitted
use of but one power head on a take-olf device
through bevel gears 33 to the member 22 and
I4, it is to be understood that a plurality of spaced
drives the ground engaging wheel I 2 of the plane.
power heads may be provided, one adjacent each
The driving member 22 is mounted on a shaft
of the ground engaging wheels of the plane for
carried by pivotally mounted arms 34 and 35,
driving such wheels, or one or more adjacent
which are provided with vertical adjusting mem
each wheel.
bers 34-A and 35-A by means of which either
If a more positive drive is desired, a modified
end of the shaft may be raised or lowered inde
form of power head may be employed, such for
pendently of the other end by the pivoting of the
example as that shown in Fig. 4. As herevshown,
arm 34 and 35. By this provision the angular 75 a spiral gear 60 is mounted on the wheel I2 and
is l-driveniby a "toothed Lgear ‘6 I, iwhich >is carried
in the .power ‘headportion .of ithefta' device
dog 'I2 in a withdrawn position ‘duringithe cou-`
plingt'of'the device "I4 ‘to ‘the ‘sleeve "I0 -carried ¿by
I4, asfa'substitute `forthe member y22. '~ Otherwise
the construction ofthepower 'head ’and its op
eration is "substantially the 'same as that previ
the 'landing gear.
ously described.
A further vmodiiication is within the contem
plation of the present invention and includes `a
toothed `gear mounted on the wheel I2, .which
maybe of any desired "type of gear design. A
driven :gear 'is >mounted on a gear bracket with
its :teeth in mesh with the‘teeth of 'the saidgear.
This Iportion of 'the unit would remain on "the
airplane "and ‘the ipower ihead >provided rin the
take-off gear I4 would consist ionly of lasplined
shaft which would mesh -with‘the said drive `»gear
and would be 'selectively attached to or detached
from driving relation with said 'gear as might be
desired "in 'the operation of .the device.
>As shown infFiggG, the steering wheel Il o‘fV the 20
‘ power’take-off device ‘Iii of the present invention
Disconnection of the steering arm 2I is feffected
by actuation .of the pivotally mounted 'control
member T4 so asto `disengage fthe locking 'dog -12
from :theratchet teeth "I-3. This permits lth'e
sleeve ilo to be "Ldra'wn awayffrom the end of the
arm '§21 and disconnects the plane “and ithe take
off device.
.In Vvorder *to synchronize the operation Aof .the
takeeoiîf >devices :I4 an electrical signalling system
is 'provided which vis :controlled îfrom the plane
and transmits `visible :signals to the operators fof
the power ‘driven take-off units. An'electrically
conductive `cable 80 is provided `on each take-off
device and has ¿a quick-detachableplug 8| con
nected with a .receptacle 82 carried on the ¿plane
'Ille .receptacles are electrically connected .by
electrically -conductive 'cables 83 with a >control
84 .on ~the ïplane instrument `.panel and are con
preferably‘is mounted‘in forks "I8 which are piv
otally mounted in aibracket‘BZ which is ’secured
nected> by .anelectrically `conductive cable `85 with
the‘electricallswitch‘members 85 and 8l> disposed
at its ends tothe frame I9. As shown ‘in Figs.
1 and '4, the‘steering gear :20 comprises a worm
gear 63 vsecured kto‘the steering post 64 andro
tated therewith. A‘toothed gear segment 65 is
locked ‘to the stub‘shaft '66 Whichis secured to
theiorks I6. Theïtoothe‘d'gear 65 meshes with
the ‘worm Agear "63. Thus upon rotation .of the
worin gear V63 the forks +8 are rotated `’and the
respectively, one on each iside of the movable
rudder I3.
Wheel yI’I :is Adirected as may ’be desired.
when fto ` ‘fgof’
The control 8'4 ‘operates 'a “stop”-lamp¥signal
88 'and a “go”-'1a`mp'signal 89, which'a're provided
on :the dash of each of the take-off vehicles (Fig.
8). Thus `the piloti‘of the plane, vby operation lof
the control B4 can signal the operators of fea’ch
of the take-off vehicles `I4‘whe‘n to “stop” and
the take-oir device i4 :is'connected’with the plane
as shown in Figs. 1, 3 and 4, the steering move
ment of the wheel >I'I is controlled Foy the steer
The switch members fB'B iandvS'I lare connected
with an amber lamp signal'ßû to call fora retard~
ing of the "speed of 'the take-‘off »device I4 .and
ing-arm -ZI Which‘controls `the movement ofthe
with algreen signal'lamp SI to'fcall for ‘accelerat
ing the spe'ed‘of >the take-off device I4. Theis'ig
forks I8.
nais are synchronizedfi‘n such >a way in the take
oíT .devices ’that when the plane’s rudder I3 ‘is
tachably connected with the internally toothed 40 moved 'tto cause the plane to move to the right,
anfamber signalLis’flashedV to the operator of the
sleeve 'Iil -carried on a bracket 1 I secured to the
The `arm 2l is provided with a forked end Äíi'I
which >engages the forks I8. The `arm 2| is de
vplane ~landing gear IVI.
Angular movement of
the landing `gear -I'i relative to the power take-oli
device lâ causes a swinging-movementiof the »arm
2|, which effects a rotatio-nof the forks'and the
movement of thesteering wheel I'I as may be
required to direct the take-off device I4 in vsuch
take-off Adevice "I'?l which is‘driving the right wheel
and1aîgree`n Üshgnal is flashed tothe operator of
the take-'off device I`4 on the left wheel. This
results in a speeding up of the left vwheel with>
relation'to the driving of the right wheel and this
causes the `>plane to move tothe right. When
movement to the `left is desired, the amber signal
a direction as to Ymaintain an aligned driving
lamp flashes in the take-off device I4 driving the
relation with the wheel I2 of the airplane. 1f
desired Aan over-running clutch of any conven 50 left wheel, andthe green signal ‘lamp flashes on
the‘dash'o‘f the‘take-off devicevoperating on the
tional design (not shown) may be provided lfor
right wheel. This causes the Vplane to Vmove to
connecting the forks I8 and the :stub-shaft Borso
that movement of the forks AI8 -by the steering
The ¿present application is related to my co
arm~2I `would be accommodated by such a clutch
and not be transmitted rearwardly through the 55 pending applications Serial Nos. Il83,6l2 and
483,613 ‘but `ciilîers :from ‘the device as shown in
steering gear mechanism.
said applications in that :in all embodiments of
Theisteering arm 2I `also provides the means
the :present invention a power drive is applied
foredetachably connecting-the take-oit devicev I'4
directly to the vground engaging wheels of the
with the landing gear II of the plane as shown
in Figs. 4 and 7. VAs here shown Van internally 60 airplane .and the take-off fdevices I4 are but Van
auxiliary power source.
toothed sleeve "i0 is secured to a bracket 'II which
ÍIf desired the power `driven wheels I5 of the
is carried‘by the landing gear. As shown in Fig. '7
take-#off device r4 nmay he power driven by the
the end of the arm 2I is `provided with a spring
motor I6 during the driving of the wheel I2, but
pressed ratchet locking dog 12, which `engages
with ïratchet teeth ‘I3 which are "provided‘inside’ 65 thepre'ferred operation is to use’the `power driving
ofthe wheels I5 ‘solely for the maneuvering of
the sleeve lí! `and prevents an unintended dis
the‘ltake-o?f devices *I4 intodriving position with
connection of the plane andthe 'take-off device.
relation’ to theiground ‘engaging wheels i2. .After
A pivotally mounted4 control member 14 is ‘adapted
the‘c'onnection of the device is effected by means
to’controlfthe "locking'and unlocking of the dog
of the «steering arm 2I,‘th‘e ‘drive tothe power
12 and the ratchet teeth 13. The control member
driven wheels Miris disconnected by actuation of
“I4 is‘c‘ontrolled by la' control rod 15, which extends
thel'control Lmember‘ 31| ‘and 'the declutching mem
into the cab of the take-o?f’device I4, and is man
berlßll. `Pit:thevsarce time `the control `member
ually actuated bythe operator of the take-«01T
312 is -actuated so .as 4to :provide a‘power drive `of
device when it is desired to disconnect the take
the driving member 22. Thus the take-«offidevic'e
off Ldevice 'from the plane or >to hold the locking
I4. is in‘ eiîect towed by the plane and all of the
power from the power source I6 is transmitted>
directly to the tread of the ground engaging
wheels I2. `
If desired a plurality of connecting arms 2|
may be provided to secure a more positive align
ment of the power driving member carried by the
power head of the take-ofi- device M with the
tread portion of the ground engaging wheels I2
of the plane.
If desired, however, the wheels I5 may be power
driven and exert a push either on the wheels or
It is also to be understood that any desired
number of driving members 22 may be employed
for driving the wheel I2. The use of combina
tions of two, four or six small driving wheels
which may be located at spaced points on the
tread of the wheel I2 is desirable under certain
conditions. By the application of power to such
small driving wheels, the larger wheel would be
rotated evenly by power applied at such spaced
10 points and the take-off device I4 would be more
deñnitely aligned therewith.
The provision of
the spaced driving wheels also would assure the
transmission of the driving torque over a larger
the axle of the landing gear of the'plane. This
may be accomplished by the use of any suitable
surface area than is the case where a single driv
type of push rod, yoke or fork secured to the
ing member is employed.
take-ofi device i4 and having an end portion
While I have shown conventional types of gear
adapted for contacting a portion of the wheel
mechanisms for the transmission of power from
oraxle of the plane’s landing gear.
the source of power IS to the various points for
Also it is to be understood that various types
power application, itis to be understood that any
of mechanical connector and disconnector de 20 desired type of power transmitting device may
vices may be used to provide the means for ac
be employed instead of positive gear devices. For
complishing the connection and disconnection of
example the power unit I 6 may be connected with
the steering arms 2l with the airplane. Also it
a suitable hydraulic unit and the transmission
is to be understood that other types of signalling
of power to the various power driven portions of
devices than those herein disclosed may be em 25 the device may be effected by suitable hydraulic
ployed. For example, a suitable radio or tele
power lines and torque converting devices. Also
phonic connection may be established between
the power unit IG may be directly connected with
the'plane and the take-off devices which would
an electric generating device and the power trans
assure proper control of the take-ofi devices dur
mitted by suitable electric wiring directly to elec
ing the take-01T of the airplane.
30 tric motors which are located at the points where
By the present invention it will be seen that
power application is desired. All such means of
means are provided to secure an effective and
transmitting power are Within the purview and
efficient transfer of driving torque directly to the
scope of the present invention.
ground engaging wheels of the plane from aux
I claim:
iliary power units not directly carried by the 35
1. A take-off device to assist in the horizontal
plane. This provides a very eil'ìcient way in
take-oil” movement of airplanes and comprising
which to supply power to the plane so that the
in combination a frame, a plurality of power
plane and its load are rapidly accelerated to take
driven wheels, a steerable wheel, a steering arm
off speeds by the direct application of power to
attached to said device for steering said steerable
the ground engaging wheels. This additional 40 wheel, a power head, and a power source, means
power is readily available without increasing ap
for selectively driving said power driven wheels
preciably the weight ofthe landing gear or of
and said power head from said power sourcep
the airplane and without requiring the use of
means for effecting a positive driving connection
permanently installed additional power units in ' between said power head and a landing wheel of
the airplane.
45 an airplane, and comprising a power driven
Devices of the present nature are particularly
toothed gear member driven by the power source
useful for the assisting in the take-olf of large
and meshed in driving relation with gear tooth
airplanes from restricted areas. The currently
members provided on the landing wheel of an
proposed “sea-dromes” which are floating steel
airplane, and quick detachable means for selec
landing ilelds anchored at suitable positions in 60 tively coupling and uncoupling said steering arm
the ocean, are designed to facilitate the use of
and the airplane landing gear.
large cargo and passenger carrying planes for
2. A quickly detachable power driven take-oil
trans-oceanic travel. Such “sea-dromes” are of
device to assist in the horizontal take-off move
necessity of limited dimension and devices such
ment of an airplane, said device comprising a
as that herein disclosed would be very useful in 55 frame, a plurality of power driven wheels secured
assisting in the take-off of large heavily loaded
at one end of said frame, a single steerable wheel
planes from the restricted areas of such “sea
mounted in a fork pivotally mounted on the oppo
While use of such devices on a “sea
site end of said frame, a power source, a power
drome” is a spectacular and timely instance of
head mounted on said frame adjacent said steer
uses for the device of the present invention, it is 60 ing wheel and lmeans for operatively connecting
to be understood that the device is applicable
said power driven wheels and said power head
generally to assist in the take-off of large heavily
loaded airplanes from any take-oil? area of re
stricted dimensions.
with said power source, means for effecting a
positive driving connection between said power
head and a landing wheel of an airplane, a steer
It is also to be understood that one or more 65 ing arm connected with said fork, a quick detach
of the steering arms 2| may be used either alone
or in combination with a towing arm the function
of which would be that of towing the take-off
device I4 from the plane. Any desired combina
able coupling on the airplane landing gear for
selectively >coupling and uncoupling said arm and
the airplane landing gear, said steering arm when
coupled in said coupling being adapted to steer
tion of steering arms and towing arms may be 70 said steerable wheel and maintain a predeter
used within the contemplation of the present
invention. Such a combination would be of par
ticular value where a positive gear drive is em
ployed for driving the ground engaging wheel of
the airplane.
mined alignment of said take-off device and the
airplane landing wheel at all times during the
take-ofi` movement of the airplane.
Без категории
Размер файла
895 Кб
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа