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Патент USA US2409556

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@Ct. 15,
' FLAW DETECTOR
H. C. DRAKE
FOR TUBING
Filed June 16, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
45
60
Oct._15, 1946.
H. c. DRAKE
2,409,554 -
FLAW DETECTOR FOR TUBING
Filed June 16, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
IN VEN TOR.
BY
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
-
2,409,554
UNITED STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE
FLAW nn'rsc'roit FOR TUBING
Harcourt 0. Brake, Hempstead, N.Y., assignor to
Sperry Products, Inc, Hohoken, N. J., a corpo
ration of-New York
‘
‘
Application June 16, 1944, Serial No. 540,674
4 Claims.
(Cl.175----183)
’
2
‘
. This invention relates to flaw detector means
‘ is passed through an‘energizing coil H which is
for detecting defects in metallic tubing. More
particularly the invention relates to the type of
tubing tester known as the Sperry detector mech-
designed to energize thetube It with ?ux to
generate eddy currents therein. The currents
thus generated will be constant except in the
anism wherein the tubing is energized with flux 5, region of flaw where a different amount of eddy
and moved relatively to a pair of detector coils ‘ currents will be generated. Such Variations in
designed to detect regions of non-uniformity in
induced currents caused by flux may be detected
the tubing caused by the presence of ?ssures or
. by means such as a pair, of ‘opposed induction
other defects- 'When a, length of tubing is passed
coils i2 surrounding the tube It. The coils i2
through such a detector mechanism, the ends of 10 are of equal inductance and connected in oppo
the tubing cause a large distortion in the ?ux
‘ sition and are normally equally affected, but when > '
distribution in the tubing and in the’ region sur-
a region‘of flaw occurs, ?rst one and then the
. rounding. the tube so thatthe detector coils give
an indication in the same manner as when a ?s-
other of the coils will have a different E.‘ M. F.
induced therein togenerate a differential E; M. F.
sure is‘ present. The effect of the distortion 1;; which after being suitably ampli?ed by an am
caused by the end of the tubing carries over for
pli?er 15 may‘ be caused to operate a suitable in
a considerable length of the, tubingand if a‘ true
dicator shown ‘diagrammatically ati?. The tube
defect occurs within or adjacent to this end dis- " it! may be guided through the‘ energizingmcoil H
tortion, such defect may'easily be missed. It is,
and detector coils lii'by means‘ cf‘pairs of guide
therefore, desirable that two conditions exist dur- 20 rollers i1, G8, I!) and may be driven by means of
ing the testing of tubing, as follows: (1) that the
a power driven roller 20 which is rotated fron'ua
region of distortion be confinedto theminimu‘r'n
Source of power not shown.
'
‘
H
be rendered ineffective for the‘ interval during
said end is’so diffused as to cause alarge distor- I
which the end‘efiect is present so that if a true
defect occurs adjacent this region, it will not be
tion beginninguata point substantially before‘the
end. This distortion would‘ Ordinarily be picked
confused with the indication which wouldother-
up by the detector coils i2 in the same manner
possible length of tubing, in otherv words, so’that
As ‘set forth in the introductionjhereto,‘ as the
the end e?ect previously described be held to a
end of the tubing "3 aphl‘?aches‘ the detection
minimum, and (2) that the indicating mechanism 25 coils" IE’ it is found that the ?ux distribution in
wisebe producedby the endle?ect.”
‘
‘.
, 30 as a ?ssure or other true defect and‘would re
It is, therefore, the principal object of niy insuit in a large series of indications on the indi
vention to accomplish both of the desired results
catineimechanism‘ is. ‘If a true defect Occurred
settforth above. I reduce'the regionof end efadjacent this region 0i, and effect, it would be
iect of the tubing by causingr thetubes to be. fed _ impossible 130‘ dis’frillglli?hv it from the indications
through the detector mechanism in end to end 35 caused by'the end e?ect, Therefere, as Sta-ted in
contact. This has been found to reduce the to- ' the introductionkit is desirable first that the end
tal end effect to a substantial degreebelowf that
effect behcld‘to a minimum‘and second, that the
which would exist if the tubes'urere, fed'insepindicating mechanism bej'rendered ineffective ‘dur- ‘ ‘
arately in spaced relation. For accomplishing
ing the interval thatthe portion ofthe tubing
the second object, namely, cutting out the new 40 subject jttoend effect is passing the detector coils
indication during the passage of the tube end past
‘ '
v;
‘ “ ‘
>
the detector coils, I provide the ‘novel mechanism . ' I l2.
‘_ For
accomplishing
the
?rst of ‘these objectsQI
to be describedhereinafter. ‘ '
‘
'
I“ \' I U
provide ‘for feeding the tubes through the detec
Further objects and advantages of this invene
tor-mechanism in ‘end-to-end' contact.’ Thus the
' tion will become apparent inthe following; de- 45 forward end of. tube H1’ is in contactv with the
tailed description thereof.
,In the accompanying drawings,._ .
, A
’
,
f
‘Fig.’ ‘l isv aefront' elevation,v largely ‘diagram?
niaticjand.
partly sectioned,'showing"one
,f oi‘roy invention.
‘ .
. - . '
_ '
Fig.‘_2_is.a§view similar to Fig.‘ l“‘,'“bu_tshowing
rear'end of tube“ l9, forming Va'closed joint. ‘in
'
this...fashion‘v it ‘has been found that the ‘total
lengthoi‘t
‘hing subjecttov
end e?ect
is substane
reducedjf‘rom;
that which
would
result it
‘1 the"
ti; “ ub'es‘jwere
H ‘
V
v
v
‘
60
ifed V through the
detéctorrriechw
nisiniri'spacedlrelation.
‘ '
\'
'
the parts in ‘adifierent operative‘ position.
j
' or accomplishing-the second‘ of the‘above ob‘
) liteferringvtoehig. 1 of ‘the. drawings, there
7 ijects, namely, to cutout the indicating mecha
di'sclosed a form ‘of Eperryl ‘flaw detector for tub-v
nisn'ii‘rthat is,_to ‘render it ineffective, ‘during'the
ins which; 31 length‘ ‘or "canine j is: ,tofbe tested as interval-‘that the ends of the‘tuhes- subiectrtd end
3
2,409,554
eifect are passing the detector coils I2, I provide
novel means for short-circuiting the indicating
mechanism during this interval. This novel
means insures that the indicating mechanism Will
trolled by the passage of the tubing through the
detector mechanism. To accomplish these re
sults, the succeeding
is fed toward the
upper end of roller 20 and then passing the tube
underneath a roller 26 whose lower end is below
the lower ends of upper guide rollers i8 and H3.
ergized when slide 32 drops from the rear end of
tube E0 to the forward end of tube l0’ which is
at a lower level. However, tube I ll’ soon rides
up on roller 20 to the same level as tube ll], thus,
again opening contacts 33 and 34.
normally de-energize magnet 40 and cause latch
4! to engage the surface of roller 4.3. Because the
time interval during which contacts 33 and 34 are
closed is very short, it is possible for latch 4| to
drop and engage lug 42 before the roller 43 has
rotated suf?ciently to prevent such engagement.
This is not desirable and therefore
60 is provided on the roller 43 with its leading edge
The result is shown in Fig. 1 wherein the forward
i so positioned that a set Of contacts 62 is closed
as soon as .roller, 43 starts to rotate. This set of
end of tube in’ strikes the rear end of tube I0,
but is below the level of tube l8. As the tube It?
contacts closes a holding circuit through mag
net 40, said circuit including the battery 64 so
rides up on power roller 29, ‘
that even when contacts 3-3 and 34 open, magnet
43 remains energized until the rear end 65 of cam
60 passes beyond contacts 62 to permit said con
in level between the incoming and the outgoing
tacts to open. This releases the latch 4| which
is then in position to engage lug 4?. when the roller
43 completes a revolution.
In accordance with the provisions of the patent
tubes is utilized to operate the cutout mechanism
for rendering the indicator ineffective for the in
terval that the ends of the tubes subject to end
eifect are passing the detector coils l2.
For this purpose, a lever 38 is provided,‘ said
lever being pivotally mounted at 3| and carrying
statues, I have herein described the principle and
at its forward end a slide 32 adapted to slide on
the upper surface of the tubes and having at its '
other end an electric contact 33. The slide 32
normally rides upon the upper surface of tube it!
to maintain contact 33 out of engagement with
contact 34. When the slide 32 passes over the
rear end of tube In and drops down to the lower
level of the forward end of tube I 0', before the
latter rides up on roller 28, the lever 30 is rotated
by spring 35 to cause contacts 33 and 34 to close
and energize a magnet 40 which then attracts
a, latch 4| normally in engagement with a lug
42 on a roller 43 which is adapted to ‘be driven
from power roller 20 by any suitable means such
trative and that the invention can be carried out
by other equivalent means. Also, while it is de
signed to use the various features and elements
in the combination and relations described, some
. of these may be altered and others omitted with
out interfering with the more general results out
lined, and the invention extends to such use.
Having described my invention, what I claim
and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
.
1. In a flaw detector mechanism for tubing,
as ?exible drive 45 through reduction gear 44
and a friction clutch 41. Normally
Since the drive of roller 43
and the feeding of tubes i0 and I0’ have de?nite
correlation, means are provided whereby after a
for moving said last-named end into alignment,
and means actuated by said last-named end when
moving into alignment for rendering effective the
means for rendering the indicating means inef
fective during the passage of the joint past the
?aw responsive means.
2. In a ?aw detector mechanism for tubing,
said mechanism comprising means for energizing
sponsive means, the ends of the tube causing ?ux
variations similar to those caused by a flaw.
short circuit the input to ampli?er l5 and hence
to render the indicator l6 ineffective. The length
means for moving the tubes through the detector
mechanism‘with the ends of adjacent tubes ‘in
contact to form a closed joint whereby the re
gion of end effect is reduced, means for rendering
of_-_lcam 5| is such that the rear end 53 thereof
the indicating means ineffective during the pas~
willypass contacts 52 and permit the-.‘s'ame to
openlwhenieintd has reached" ositi‘on‘D“ f .
As described hereinbefore} the magnet teaser:
sage of said joint past the ?aw responsive means,
said last-named means comprising ‘rotatable
means normally,helda'gainst rotation, means for
maintaining the adjacent end'of cheer the tubes
2,409,554
at a joint initially out of alignment, means for
end to alignment and until said joint has passed
beyond the flaw responsive means.
moving said last-named end into alignment, and
means actuated by said last-named end when
mechanism comprising means for energizing the
moving into alignment for setting said rotatable
means into rotation.
3. In a ?aw detector mechanism for tubing,
said mechanism comprising means for energizing
the tube with ?ux, means responsive to variations
4. In a flaw detector mechanism for tubing, said
tube with ?ux, means responsive to variations in
flux in the tube, and indicating means adapted
to be actuated by variations in the responsive
means, the ends of the tube causing ?ux varia
tions similar to those caused by a flaw, means for
in flux in the tube, and indicating means adapted 10 moving the tubes through the detector mechanism
with the ends of adjacent tubes in contact to
to be actuated by variations in the responsive
form a closed joint whereby the region of end
means, the ends of the tube causing ?ux varia
effect is reduced, means for rendering the indi
tions similar to those caused by a flaw, means for
cating means ineffective during the passage of
moving the tubes through the detector mechanism
flaw responsive means, said
with the ends of adjacent tubes in contact to form ~ said joint past the
last-named means comprising rotatable means
a closed joint whereby the region of end effect
normally held against rotation, means for main
is reduced, means for rendering the indicating
taining the adjacent end of one of the tubes at a
means ineffective during the passage of said joint
joint initially out of alignment, means for moving
past the flaw responsive means, means for main
said last-named end into alignment, means actu
taining the adjacent end of one of the tubes at
20
a joint initially out of alignmen , means for mov
ing said last-named end into alignment, and
means actuated by said last-named end when
moving into alignment for rendering effective the
means for rendering the indicating means ineffec
tive, and means for maintaining effective the
means for rendering the indicating means inef
fective after the restoration of said last-named
ated by said end when moving into alignment for
setting said rotatable means ‘into rotation, and
means for continuing the rotation of said rota
table means after the restoration of said last
named end to alignment and until said joint has
passed beyond the ?aw responsive means.
HARCOURT C. DRAKE.
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