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Патент USA US2409580

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Oct. 15, 1946.
*A. F. MESTON
2,409,579
COMPOSITE ELECTRODE
Filed June 16, 1944 '
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4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Oct. ‘15, 1946;
A. F. MESTON
2,409,579
COMPOSITE ELECTRODE’
Filed‘June 16, 1944 i
FM
Y 4 Sheets-Sheet 2
0a. 15, 1946.
\ l
A. f'F. MESTON
2,409,579
COMPOSITE ELECTRODE
Filed Ju‘ne‘ 16, 1944.
4 Sheets-Sheet‘ 3
_ Oct. 15,1946. _
-
A, F, MEs'roN
COMPOSITE
ELECTRODE
Filed June 16, 1944
'I
2,409,579
_
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
r59. 1:.
2,409,579
Patented Oct. 15, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
I
2,409,579
COMPOSITE ELECTRODE
Archibald F. Meston, Bound Brook, N. J ., assign
or to Research Corporation, New York, N. Y.,
a corporation of New York
Application June 16, 1944, Serial No. 540,609
11 Claims. (Cl. 183-7)
,
1
2
‘This invention relates to a system of electrodes
useful in establishing an electric ?eld or electric
tary electrodes arranged to provide discharge
?elds across a gas~?lled space for the purpose
ing zones; one of the electrodes being a composite
of ionizing the gas and electrically transporting
particles suspended in the gas. It relates in par
ticular to a composite electrode comprising one
discharge electrode having extended non-dis
charge surfaces with longitudinally spaced de
or more attenuated elements from which corona
7 members in the depressions for initiating dis
zones alternately with non-discharge precipitat
pressions therein and a plurality of attenuated
charges which will have low energy output due
discharge can be caused to emanate and an ad
to electric shading by the adjacent extended
jacent element of extended surface upon which
a strong non-discharging electric ?eld can be 10 surfaces.
These and other objects and advantages are
caused to terminate.
obtained by the provision in an electrical pro
In the following description and exposition, the
cipitator of complementary electrodes including
term “composite electrode” refers to an electrode
a composite electrode comprising an extended
which functions as a discharge electrode, but dif
fers from the more usual types of discharge elec~ 15 surface portion free from surface elements of
radius of curvature small enough to produce
trodes in construction and in the electrical con
corona discharge under operating conditions and
ditions it provides, as will be pointed out here
having grooves or depressed regions spaced lon
inafter. More descriptively, it is sometimes re
gitudinally therealong, and a plurality of at
ferred to as a “discharge electrode” or “precipi
tenuated members of very small radius of our
tating electrode.” The term “collecting elec
vature supported in the depressed regions for
trode” will be used to designate those electrodes
producing corona discharge when the appara
which in common electrical precipitation practice
tus is energized, no discharge producing portion
provide surfaces for the reception or collection
of said attenuated members extending outward
of particles which have been'driven from a gas
stream by an electric ?eld, andupon which a 25 ly toward a complementary electrode beyond the
extended surface portion adjacent said discharge
portion, at least, of the electric ?eld terminates.
portion.
‘
The gas treating apparatus described in illustrat
While the character of surface which will pro
ing the present invention comprises one or more
duce corona, discharge will vary with such con—
composite electrodes and one or more comple
mentary collecting electrodes. Electrodes are 30 ditions as potential difference, electrode space
and character of the gas, theextended surface
complementary to each other when they are
member of the composite discharge electrode
maintained, respectively, at different electrical
should not, in general, include surface portions
potentials and serve as the opposite terminals of
having a radius of curvature substantially less
the electric ?elds which exist in the medium or
35 than one-tenth inch while the attenuated dis
space between them.
charge members will include surface portions
A principal object of the invention is to provide
having very small radii of curvature. For ex
electric treating means including a composite
ample, in the preferred embodiment of the in
discharge electrode which, when energized at a
ventiondirected at applications where the pro
complementary electrode of the so-called “col 40 duction-of ozone is to be held to low values, the
radii of curvature of the discharge members are
lecting” type, effects the formation of a charg
of the order of ?ve-thousandths of an inch or
ing ?eld, comprising an ionizing discharge, and
less.
a transporting or precipitation field, without dis
The invention will be more particularly de
charge, in closely adjacent zones.
45 scribed with reference to the accompanying draw
A particular object of the present invention is
ings in which:
to provide for gas treaters comprising comple
Fig. ,1 is a fragmentary elevation in partial sec
mentary electrodes, a discharge electrode of the
tion of an electrical treater embodying the prin
composite type having extended non-discharge
ciples of the invention;
surfaces including depressed portions, and at
Fig, 2 is a section on line 2—2 of Fig. 1;
tenuated discharge elements positioned in said
'Fig. 3 is an end view of the composite electrode
depressions, no discharge portion of said elements
of'Fig. 1;
extending outwardly toward a complementary
Fla. 4115 a fragmentary elevation of an embodi
electrode beyond the adjacent extended surfaces.
ment of the invention comprising electrodes in
Another object of the invention is the provision
‘
of an electrical precipitate!‘ having complemen 55 the form of ?at plates;
suitable potential difference with respect to a
2,409,579
3
4
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary longitudinal section
through the precipitator illustrated in Fig. 4 on
line 5-5 of Fig. 4;
The position of prongs V differs from the po
sition of prongs W in that the former are elec
trically shaded or masked by extended surface
on one side only. With equal lengths of prong,
ending an equal distance from the surface of tu
Fig. 6 is an enlarged sectional view of a de
tail of the composite electrodes illustrated in
Figs. 4 and 9;
bular electrode 2|, greater discharge can be ex
pected from prongs V than from prongs W, which
Fig. 7 is a sectional elevation of a treater con
structed in accordance with the present inven
tion, and including a composite electrode with
bulging portions and discharge elements sup 10
ported in grooves in the bulging portions;
Fig. 8 is a plan view of a discharge element
useful in the composite electrode shown in Fig. 7;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary sectional elevation'
taken on line 9—9 in Fig. 10 of a treater With 15
electrodes comprising extended ?at plates and
embodying bulging portions about the discharge
is often desirable because the gas passing prongs
V has not been subjected to prior ionizing dis
charges. But the discharge from the V prongs
can be diminished if desired by shortening them
or otherwise varying the discharge distance to
complementary electrode 2| or, by adjusting their
position so as to vary the shading provided by
surface I6.
An effective treating apparatus of the form
illustrated in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 may comprise ex
elements;
tended surface portions I0, I! approximately two
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary longitudinal section on
inches in diameter, with a groove 29 one-quarter
inch deep and two-inch overall in width, the min
imum radius of the surface of the groove being
line I0—Ill in Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary view, partially in sec
tion, of an alternate composite electrode which
can be used in the treater illustrated in Fig. '7;
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary plan view and Fig. 13
is a fragmentary end View of a treater with ex
one-half inch. The collecting electrode tube 2|
may, in such case, advantageously be about four
inches inside diameter.
Eight prongs W having a length of one-eighth
inch and eight prongs V having a length of 136
inch made of .005 inch diameter tungsten wire
tended plate collecting electrodes and comprising
another embodiment of a composite electrode
with bulging portions constructed in accordance
with the present invention; and
may be used, spaced about 91/2 inches apart along
member Ill.
Fig. 14 is an enlarged perspective view of a con
3O
structional detail of the composite electrode of
Figs. 12 and 13.
Figs. 1, 2 and 3 illustrate the application of the
principles of the invention to electrical treaters
having a cylindrical or “pipe” collecting electrode.
In this embodiment of the invention the com
posite precipitating electrode consists of a piece
of smooth straight tubing Iii joined to a similar
piece of tubing II by two intermediate parts I2
With an apparatus of the form and dimensions
described, effective precipitation of suspended
particles from air, with no spark-over and little
or no production of ozone, can be obtained with
a voltage of 30 to 35 kv. (root mean square)
maintained across the electrodes by connecting
the precipitating electrode to a source of recti
?ed high potential alternating current, such as
the transformer and rotary mechanical switch
arrangement, commonly used in electrical pre
and I3 and a rounded structure on the other end 40 cipitation circuits and grounding the collecting
of tube member I!) made up of members I6 and
electrode.
II; also, attenuated prong members W clamped
The conditions realized by energization of the
in joint i5 between members I2 and I3 and simi
arrangement just described can be summarized
lar prong members V clamped. in joint I9 be
as follows:
tween members I6 and I7. Portions of the ex 45
An electric ?eld is established which is most
terior surface of members I2 and I3 are cut down
intense, on the average over its entire length, be
to form, when joined together, a broad groove
tween electrode surfaces from which no corona
29 with rounded shoulders and it is at the bottom
discharge emanates. This portion of the elec
of this groove that prongs W are attached. Mem
tric ?eld is designated as a precipitating ?eld.
ber I2 has a boss I2’ which ?ts into a comple 50 Portions of the electrical ?elds of appreciably less
mentary recess in member I3 for purposes of
average intensity terminate on attenuated por
alignment. A stud I4 screwed into member I 3
tions of that electrode known as the discharge
extends through a hole in member I2 and the two
electrode and cause local corona discharges there
members are pulled tightly together clamping
from. This portion or portions of the ?eld is des
prongs W between them by screwing up nut I 4’.
ignated as the ionizing ?eld though it may func
The free ends of members I2 and I3 are pressed
tion to some extent as a precipitating ?eld.
into the interior of tube members I0 and II, re
The average strengths of the precipitating and
spectively, making a carefully aligned continu
ionizing ?elds will vary with the distance of the
ous structure of the electrode at this point,
non-ionizing and ionizing portions, respectively,
Tip member I7, like intermediate member I6,
60
has an arcuate outer surface. The inner surface
where it joins member I6 is formed as the frus
tum of a cone with apex at the point of gener
ation of the arcuate surface. The conical surface
is normal to the arcuate surface where it joins 6
the latter. In this example the apex angle is 84°.
A stud I8 projects out of the back of member I‘I,
extends through a hole in member l6 and, with
of the discharge electrode from the collecting
electrodes. The relative values of precipitating
and ionizing ?elds can thus be made to vary by
changing the shape and dimensions of the elec
trodes, particularly of the discharge electrode.
The ?atter and smoother the non-ionizing sur
faces of the complementary electrodes, the closer
they can be positioned at a given voltage differ
ence Without disruptive discharge and the strong
nut I8’, fastens the two members together,
er the resulting electric ?eld.
clamping prongs V in joint I 9 and causing the 70
The more attenuated and isolated the discharge
prongs to project normally from the surface.
elements. the more intense will be the discharge
The boss IS’ on member I6 projects into mem
from them, conditions of voltage and electrode
ber I9 and makes a friction ?t therewith.
spacing remaining constant.
A cylindrical collecting electrode concentric
When the discharge elements are positioned in
with the precipitating electrode is indicated at 2|. 75 close proximity to a portion of the non-discharg
2,409,579
5
6
_
ing surface, but no closer to the. collecting elec
trode than adjacent portions. of the non-dis
charging surface, the discharge elements will be
masked or shadowed by the close-by non-dis
charging surface and a very high voltage drop. 5
suitable reciprocating source of power by means
of rod as- Rod 44. is, for practical purposes, an
extension- of rod 45; also, of rod d5.’ which may
across the electrodes will be required, if, the elec
tric field at the discharge elements is to become
intense enough to cause corona discharge. Under
these conditions, the precipitating ?eld will have
become very strong and effective for migrating 10
The partial telescoping of the. several pipe por
tions provides for cleaning selected areas on the
inner surface of electrode 35 where the electric
charged particles when the ionizing ?eld is still
relatively weak and comprises low energy dis
charges only. Such conditions are especially de
sirable when air is to be cleaned for human con
sumption. The‘intensity of the discharges and
the resulting yield of ozone can be controlled while
the precipitating field is maintained at .as near
maximum strength as is practical.
As indicated above, the preferred embodiment
43, respectively, and which'is connected to any
be attached to the operating mechanism of an
electrode (not shown) similar to electrode 35.
?elds are the most intense and most apt to cre
ate back discharges from that electrode.
The composite type discharge electrode in Fig.
'l is made‘ up of a tube 48 on which are mounted
tapered ferrule-like members, 49 with bulging
portions 55. They are preferably placed on tube
48 in pairs with the bulging portion of one adja
cent the bulging portion of the other. Mem
bers 49 are so shaped‘ that when a pair of them is
positioned on tube 48, asshown, a trough or de
of the invention includes prongs or just points,
pression 5|‘ exists between the members, and, in
ionizing discharge. The closer together the
1944).
this depression, appropriate discharge elements
rather than edges or wires, as discharging ele—
52 are positioned. These elements can be simi
ments. A prong projecting out from a surface
lar to those disclosed in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, and a
can be the terminal of lines of force extending
method of preparing a grid structure with such
in every direction except back along the prong.
This means that an electric ?eld which is rela 25 elements is described in applicant’s copending ap
plication Serial No. 391,791, filed May 3', 1941
tively weak a short distance from the prong will
(now U. S Patent No 2,352,651, dated July 4,
be strong enough at the prong itself to cause an
A member 53, preferably with rounded
closed end as shown, is mounted on the end of
prongs are placed, the weaker will the field at
tube
5.8. In this embodiment of the inven
30
each prong become, or, putting it another way,
tion the discharge points are positioned more
the more intense the adjacent ?eld must be to
closely to collecting electrode 35 than is the sur
cause corona to emanate from the points. When
face of member 48, but the bulging portions 59
the prongs touch one another the condition pre~
project as far, or- farther, toward complementary
sented by an edge is obtained. A wire, posh
electrode 35 than do elements 52, receive much of
tioned adjacent and parallel to an extended sur~
the electric ?eld which terminates on the com
face, for instance, can be used as a discharge ele
posite electrode, and thus electrically shade the '
ment in the present invention as will be pointed
discharge elements and depress the discharges
out below.
that form upon or immediately adjacent them.
Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate how the invention can
The voltage between the complementary elec
be applied advantageously to treaters with ver
trodes just described is usually held at values
tical plates that divide the gas to be treated into
which causes the portions of the electric ?eld
horizontally extending streams and serve as elec
adjacent the bulging portions to be Very intense.
trodes for the collection of material electrically
Under such conditions, while collecting certain
removed from the gas. Such collecting electrode
45 sorts of particulate matter, at least, trouble from
plates are designated‘by numeral 25. The com~
back corona
be realised unless the collected
posite electrode is made up of two plates 26, pref
material
is
removed
almost as ‘soon as it is de
erably of metal, which have trough-like defor
posited. The cleaning mechanism attached to
mations 2'! therein, the troughs extending verti
electrode 35 is arranged to remove the material by
cally in the sheets. The plates are fastened to
scraping
the collecting surfaces ‘ opposite the
50
gether with, for example, hollow rivets, such as
bulging portions and the discharge elements be
rivet 2-9 shown in Fig. 6, with the under sides of
tween the bulging portions. ,
the troughs touching back to back and in ion
Fig. 8 shows a discharge member made from a
g~=itudinal alignment. Pins 35 are inserted in
thin
metal sheet and comprising a plurality of
the holes in at ve'least some of the rivets and, in
holes or slots 3i near the ends of pins '35, dis 55 sharp prongs 54. Hole 55 is for the insertion of
a supporting rod. This member can be used in
charge wires 32, which may be of tungsten or
nichrome
eter, are supported
and of thelongitudinally
order of .085in,
inch
but spa
making up a composite electrode such as the one
illustrated in Fig. '7 in which case it takes the
place of the wire grid with prongs 52 indicated in
cially removed from the walls of, the troughs.
The electrode ‘may be supported from high ten 60 Fig. 7.
In Fig. 11 a composite electrode is illustrated in
sion bus bars 33 by means of straps 34. The
which the supporting member 51 has been ex
embodiment of the invention shown in Figs. ‘1
panded by hydraulic pressure. for instance, while
and 5 provides zones of suppressed corona dis~
being held in a demountable forming die, to form
charge—at the wires extending in troughs ‘21,
alternating with extended regions of strong uni~ 65 bulging portions 58. Between each pair of bulg
ing portions 58, a groove or depression 59 is left
form electric fields free from discharge--which
for the reception of a discharge member Bil.
exits between the flat portions of plates 25 and
Member 65 is made, preferably from a coil spring,
plates 25.
‘
of very ?ne wire, and has the advantages of sim
Fig. '7 illustrates a unit of a pipe type precipi
plicity
in shape, ease in manufacture, and ef?
70
tator with collecting electrode 35 made up of
ciency in discharge performance which have been
pipe portions 36, 3?’ and 33 which partially tele
disclosed in U. S. Patent No. 2,231,330, issued to
scope one within the other in the order men
C. M. Gove, February 11, 1941. The discharges
tioned. The telescoping is accomplished by
emanate from the outer portions of the several
means of operating mechanism which is attached
to portions 315, ‘31 and33 at fastenings 4!, 42 and " helices of the coil spring and the intensity of the
7
2,409,579
8
discharges-for a given voltage difference be
tween the complementary electrodes, can be de
creased by decreasing the pitch of the spring——
which spaces the turns of wire more closely, and
material and prevent discharge from the top
edges of the members.
It will be seen that the composite electrode of
the invention may be varied in form and con
struction over a wide range without departing
from the principles of the invention as de?ned in
the claims.
This application is a continuation-in-part of
by decreasing the diameter of the coi1—which
positions the discharge portions more closely
within the electric shading of the bulging sur
face portions. The end of the composite elec
trode may be closed with a plug 6|.
my application Serial No. 391,789, ?led May 3,
Figs. 9 and 10 illustrate a construction which 10 1941, now U. S. Patent #2364541, dated Decem
permits the use of bulging portions with a dis
ber 12, 1944.
charge element positioned in a depression therein,
I claim:
in accordance with the teachings of the ‘present
1. In an electrical treater including comple
invention, in electric-treaters comprising par
allel plate electrodes. The collecting electrodes
are represented by plates 64 (to which baffles,
scrapers and the like may be attached in accord
ance with the knowledge of the gas treating art),
mentary discharge and collecting electrodes, a
discharge electrode comprising an extended sur
face member including a surface portion depressed
below the level of adjacent surface portions to
provide a concavity in said extended surface
and a cover plate for the treater is designated by
member, and attenuated discharge elements posi
numeral 65, the cover including, in this example, 20 tioned in said concavity wholly below the level
a housing 66 for a bus bar 6‘! from which depends
of said adjacent surface portions.
strap 63 for the support of composite discharge
2. In an electrical treater with complementary
electrode 63, and similar straps, not shown, for
discharge and collecting electrodes, a discharge
supporting other composite electrodes. Com
electrode comprising an extended surface mem
posite electrode 68 is built about a ?at plate 69.
ber, said extended surface member including non
Spaced longitudinally along both sides of plate
discharging surface portions convex toward the
89 and attached thereto are a plurality of mem~
complementary surfaces of the collecting elec
bers "50. These members 10 are shaped with a
trodes and concavities adjacent said convex sur
pair of bulging portions ‘H, with a depression 12
face portions, and discharge elements supported
between, which extend transversely of plate 69. . wholly in said concavities.
A discharge member 15, which is here indicated
3. In an electrical treater with complementary
as a very ?ne wire, is supported in each depres
discharge and collecting electrodes, a discharge
sion, but spaced from adjacent surfaces, by pins
electrode comprising an extended surface mem
39. Members 10 are preferably spaced along
ber substantially parallel to the complementary
plate 69 so that a member on one side of the plate
surface of a collecting electrode, said extended
is immediately opposite a similar member on the
surface member including concavities therein
opposite side and a single row of rivets 29, shown
which open only toward the complementary sur
in more detail in Fig. 6, can be used to attach
face of one collecting electrode, and discharge
both members. Members 10 are preferably
producing elements supported wholly within said
shaped to slope gradually from the bulging por
40
concavities.
tions ‘H to the supporting plate 69 to present n0n~
4. In an electrical treater with complementary
turbulent ?ow conditions to the gas passing
discharge and collecting electrodes, a discharge
through the treater. At the entrance end of the
electrode comprising an extended surface mem
treating passages, members 70', with a single
ber including surface portions substantially par
bulge, can be used to advantage. In this arrange 45 allel to the complementary surface of a collecting
ment. only one nearby extended surface ‘H’ at
electrode alternating with bulging portions pre
tracts portions of the electric ?eld, which would
senting non-discharging convex surfaces toward
otherwise terminate on a wire 15, but if it is ad
the complementary electrode and defining con
visable to offset this condition, pins 3!] can be
cavities in said member, and discharge producing
shortened or bent with the result that wires 15 50 elements supported wholly within said concavities.
will be farther from plates 64, respectively, and
5. In an electrical treater including comple
closer to portions 1!’ and less corona discharge
mentary discharge and collecting electrodes, a
will emanate from them.
discharge electrode comprising a member having
The construction shown in Figs. 12 to 14 con
extended non-discharge surfaces including sur
templates limiting the charging and precipitating 55 face portions depressed below the level of adja
functions to spaced apart composite members Bil
cent surface portions to provide concavities in
which are supported on horizontally extending
said extended surface member and attenuated
bars Q8. The extended surface portions of mem
discharge elements positioned in said concavities,
bers ?t are shaped similar to members 10 in Fig. 8
' no discharge portion of said elements extending
except that where the edges 8! of the opposing 60 toward a complementary collecting electrode be
members are brought together cut-outs are made
yond the extended surfaces adjacent said con
topro-vide for bars 90. Rivets 29 project through
cavities.
the bottom of the depressed portions 83 of members 86 preferably just above or just below bars
f'ii. Discharge wires 85 are secured in the holes or
6. In an electrical precipitator including col
lecting electrodes de?ning a gas passage therebe
tween, a discharge electrode in said gas passage
comprising an extended surface member includ
ing a surface portion depressed below the level of
adjacent surface portions to provide a concavity
slots 3! in top pins 86, pass easily through open
‘
ings 5i in the pins 36 below and are held under
tension by means of a spring 83 under or adjacent
in the surface thereof extending transversely of
the bottom of the electrode. Discharge can be
70 said gas passage, and attenuated discharge ele
dire
toward the roof of the treater by having
ments in said concavity wholly below the level of
discharge wire 8?, supported by topmost pins 30,
the extended surface portions adjacent said con
pass over the top of the composite electrode as
cavity.
shown. Cover plates 38 can be fastened over the
7. In' an electrical precipitator including col
openings of members 80 to prevent ingress of 75
lecting electrodes defining a gas passage therebe
2,409,579
9
10
tween, a discharge electrode in said gas passage
comprising an extended surface member includ
tially concentrically of said collecting electrode
ing spaced convex bulges extending transversely
of said gas passage and de?ning a concave trans
verse furrow therebetween, and attenuated dis
charge elements positioned wholly within said
furrow.
8. In an electrical precipitator including a cylin
drical collecting electrode, a discharge electrode
positioned within said collecting electrode com
prising a cylindrical member extending substan
tially concentrically of said collecting electrode
and including a circumferential concavity, and
and including spaced circumferential convex
bulges de?ning a circumferential concavity there
between, and attenuating discharge elements posi
tioned wholly within said concavity.
10. A composite discharge electrode comprising
an extended surface member including a surface
portion depressed below the level of adjacent sur
face portions to provide a concavity in the surface
thereof, and attenuated discharge elements in said
concavity wholly below the level of the extended
surface portions adjacent said concavity.
11. A composite discharge electrode comprising
attenuated discharge elements positioned wholly
an extended surface member including spaced
within said concavity.
15 convex bulges de?ning a concave furrow there
9. In an electrical precipitator including a cy~
between, and attenuated discharge elements posi
lindrical collecting electrode, a discharge electrode
tioned wholly within said furrow.
positioned within said collecting electrode com
prising a cylindrical member extending substan
ARCHIBALD F. MESTON.
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