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Oct. 22, 1946.
2,409,623
H. c. GRANT, JR
GUN CHARGER
Filed Nov. 14, 1941
.4 Sheets-Sheet l
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~ BY
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ì ATTORNEY '
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t. 22, i946.
H. c. GRANT, JR
GUN CHARGER
2,409,623
Filed Nova, 14; 1941
4 sheets-sheet a
[1474
INVENTOR
Hmz? ¿.*óìdzz?dr
BY
ATToRN
_
Oct. 22, 1946;
H. c. GRAN-lv', JR
A
2,409,623
GUN CHARGER
Filed Nov. 14, 1941
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4 sheets-sheet 4
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ATTORN
Patented Üct. 22, 1946
UNITED
man?.
STATES
PATENT
GFFICE
'
2,409,623
GUN CHARGER
Harry C. Grant, Jr., New York, N. Y., assignor to I
Specialties Development Corporation, Bloom
field, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey
Application November 14, 1941, Serial No. 419,053
8 Claims. (Cl. 89---1)
l
2
The present invention relates to automatic ma
-chine guns and the like, and more particularly
to devices, known as gun chargers, for initiating
the operation of a gun charging mecha
vice which is accurately controlled, can stand
rough usage and is adapted to return the gun to
ñring action in a minimum period of time.
An object of the present invention is to pro
vide an improved gun charger which is light in
nism which normally is operated by the recoil
resulting from the explosion of cartridges.
In automatic machine guns, for example, of
the “Browning” type, release of the ñring pin,
weight and occupies a
amount of space.
Another object is to provide a gun charger hav
ing a minimum number of mechanical parts.
either mechanically or electrically, fires a car
Another object is to provide a gun charger
tridge in the chamber of the barrel of the gun. 10 adapted to be mounted on either side of a ina
The resulting recoil causes a bolt mechanism or
chine gun, as may be decided in the ñeld or prior
charging mechanism to move backward to with
to the installation of the guns in airplanes, tanks
or other craft.
.
.
draw the exploded or fired cartridge case and, at
the same time, to present a Succeeding >cartridge
Another object is to provide a gun charger
on a cartridge feed belt adapted to be fed into the 15 which is readily adjustable to compensate for
chamber. After the bolt mechanism has been
variance in the stroke of the guns, whereby the
fully retracted, it returns to the iiring position
gun charger may be transferred from one gun to
and in the course of its return stroke ejects the
empty or iired cartridge case and feeds the suc
another.
Another object is to provide a gun charger hav
ceeding cartridge into the chamber. While the 20 ing a minimum number of parts which are in op
eration while the gun is firing normally.
firing pin is released, the gun iires when the bolt
Another `object is to provide a gun charger
returns to the full forward position. If no
trouble develops, the cycle of operation of the
adapted to be operated by a high pressure fluid
charging mechanism is repeated at a rate of be
medium and apply a force of a suiiicient mag
nitude to initiate the movement of the bolt or
tween about 400 and 1G00 shots per minute.
charging mechanism.
Once the gun has been loaded, iiring should be
Another object is to provide a detecting mech
automatic unless any one of a number of possible
anism adapted to be used in connection with gun
difñculties occurs. For example, a shell may fail
chargers, which is inactive during the normal
to explode or may fail to develop a recoil force
sufficient to move the bolt mechanism through 30 motion of the operating mechanism of the gun
the shell ejecting and loading cycle. Also, the
andA is operative in response to the lack of such
normal motion.
charging mechanism may fail to extract the car
tridge from the belt or a shell may jam in the
Another object is to provide an accurate de- '
barrel and resist removal on the ñrst attempt.
tecting mechanism for gun chargers and the like
In addition, any one of the many elements of the 35 which can withstand shock and vibrations With
bolt or charging mechanism may fail momentar
out getting out of adjustment or repair.
ily to perform its designed function and prevent
Another object is to provide an electrically op
the ejecting and loading cycle from being prop
erated detecting mechanism comprising a mini
erly performed. In the event that the bolt or
mum number of parts, electrical connections and
charging mechanism fails to function properly 40 wiring circuits.
for any of the foregoing reasons, it is necessary
Another object is to provide a detecting mech
to pull the bolt mechanism fully backward and
anism for gun chargers which operates in re
then release it-to complete the ejecting and re
spense to failure of the gun to fire regardless of
loading operation normally carried out by the
the position of the bolt or charging mechanism
45 when stoppage occurs.
gun itself after it has once been ñred.
Another object is to provide a gun charger
Heretofore, devices known as gun chargers
have been employed for mechanically actuating
adapted to operate the bolt or charging mech
the charging mechanism in response to failure
anism through at least one complete cycle of op
of the gun to continue firing. None of these de
eration~
vices has been found fully satisfactory because 50
Another object is to provide a gun charger
of the complexity of design, unreliability of per
having a detecting mechanism adapted to put the
gun charger back into operation within substan
formance and relatively long delay occasioned be
fore putting the gun into action again.
tially the same period of time required for one
The present invention aims to provide an irn
cycle of operation of the gun, whereby the gun
proved, practical, and reliable gun charging de 55 remains` out` of action a minimum length of time.
2,409,623
4
larly to Figure l, there is shown a machine gun,
A further object is to provide a gun charger
havinCf a detecting mechanism adapted to be cut
for example, of the “Browning” type which, gen
erally, comprises a barrel assembly lll and a bolt
mechanism or charging mechanism (not shown),
which is located in a housing or casing Il. The
charging mechanism is of the usual design and
includes a number of slidably movable or recip
rocating parts which are moved rearwardly by
the recoil resulting from the explo-sion of car
l() tridges and which are moved forwardly by a re
panying drawings, wherein:
turn spring or the like. During reciprocation of
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic side view of a ma
these parts, the operating cycle of the gun is car
chine gun having a gun charger attached thereto.
ried out. This cycle comprises removing a car
Figure 2 is a schematic View of the essential
tridge from the cartridge belt and inserting it
operating parts of a gun charger, illustrating an
out of operation when the gun charger initiates
operation of the bolt or charging mechanism and
adapted to remain out of operation until the gun
is restored to normal firing operation.
Other and further objects, not specifically enu
merated above, will be apparent when described
in greater detail in connection with the accom
embodiment of the invention.
into the chamber, firing the cartridge, withdraw
'
Figure 3 is a wiring diagram of the electrical
circuits of a gun charger, in accordance with the
invention.
Figures ¿i and 5 are simpliñed wiring diagrams,
illustrating the operation of the detecting mech
anism of the gun charger.
Figure 6 is a simpliñed Wiring diagram, similar
to Figures ¿i and 5, illustrating the detecting
,
mechanism cut out of operation while the gun
charger moves the bolt or charging mechanism.
Figures 7, 8 and 9 are simplified wiring dia
grams, illustrating a modified circuit for the de
tecting mechanism of the gun charger.
In accordance with the invention, it has been
found that the foregoing objects may be accom 30
plis'hed by providing a detecting and initiating
device, suitabie for machine guns and other pur
poses, having electrical detecting and controlling
means which is operable in response toa current
pulse of a predetermined minimum time interval,
and which is not aiîected'by current pulses of less
than the minimum time interval.
In a .practical embodiment, illustrative of the
invention, such a device, generally, may comprise
a circuit> supplied with a continuous current from
a direct current source; relay means or the like
ing the fired cartridge from the chamber and
ejecting the empty cartridge case from the hous
ing ll. Since the construction and operation of
such a charging mechanism is well known to
those skilled in the art, a detailed illustration
and description is not believed to be necessary.
In the event the normal operating or iiring
cycle of the gun is interrupted and iiring ceases,
the gun must be recharged or recocked before it
can be put in operation again, To accomplish
this, a gun charger l2, suitably encased, may be
attached to either side of the gun housing H
and may be operatively connected to the bolt or
charging mechanism by a bolt or stud member
hl which extends through an elongated slot l5 in
the housing l! and is movable with the recipro
cating parts of the charging mechanisml The
gun charger l2 preferably is operated by a fluid
pressure medium, such as high pressure carbon
dioxide, air or any suitable gas stored in a pres
sure vessel I6 and adapted to be supplied to the
gun charger by a hose or tube l1. A cable i8
containing electrical conductors for the electrical
devices of the gun charger is attached to one end
` of the gun charger.
In Figure 2, the essential operating parts of
the gun charger are illustrated schematically.
connected in the circuit, the relay means being
The reciprocating bolt or stud member E4 or the
constructed and arranged to be actuated by a
gun charging mechanism is shown adjacent and
current rpulse of a predetermined minimum time
interval in either direction, but being unaffected 45 in the path or a ram E9, or tl e like, adapted to
engage the member 615 and move it towards the
by current pulses 0f less than Vthe minimum time
left along the slot l5, that is, rearwardly with
interval; and means associated with the bolt or
respect to the gun, in the event the gun ceases
charging mechanism of a machine gun for peri
ñring during operation thereof. The ram i0
odically interrupting the continuity of a portion
oí vthe circuit, whereby the relay means is sub 50 comprises a cylinder 2Q and a slidable member
2l_ adapted to be telescoped in the cylinder 2i?.
jected to current pulses of less than the minimum
V time interval during normal movement of the bolt
The member 2l has a piston 22 at one end and
a ramming head 24 at the other end for moving
or charging mechanism, Thus the relay means,
the bolt or stud member it.
during continuous iiring of the gun, is not
The ramming head 2t >has a recessed end face
affected by the periodically interrupted current 55
25 for engaging an adjustable stop 26 threaded
or current pulses of less than the minimum Vtime
through the bolt or stud ifi. The stop ‘25 may be
interval, but upon failure of normal movement
utilized to accurately determine the distance the
of the bolt or charging mechanism, the inter
bolt or stud i/«l and the slidable parts of the
ruption of the current ceases for a sui‘ñcient dura
tion to permit current of a substantially continu 60 charging mechanism can be moved rearwardly
by the ram. The ramming head may be slidably
ous character or a current pulse of the minimum
mounted on a pairV of spaced apart parallel guide
time interval to energize the relay means and
tubes or rods 2.7 which extend respectively
effect operation thereof. The invention further
contemplates the use of such a detecting and con
trolling device in combination with a fluid pres
through guide apertures in outwardly extending
65 lugs or ears 29 carried by the head 2li.
One of
the lugs 29 of the head 24 may have a down
wardly depending extension 3B provided with a
charging mechanism through its operating cycle.
pair of arms 3l and 32 which .extend in a direc
In addition, the gun charger may be provided
tion parallel to the movement of the head and
with means for rendering the detecting and con
trolling device inefîective when the ram com 70 are adapted to operate devices described herein
after.
mences ’to function and may be provided with
sureV operated ram for mechanically moving the
other cooperating devices and improvements
which will 'be pointed out more particularly here
inafter.
Referring to the drawings, and more particu
The slidable ram Vmember 2l, preferably, is
moved out of the cylinder 2D bysupplying a iiuid
pressure medium in back of 'the .piston 22 and is
75 returned to the position shown in Figure 2 by
2,409,623
5
6
suitable springs 34. A valve 35 is utilized to conj
trol the admission and the exhaust of the pres
dium is admitted to the cylinder 2li to move the
ram member 2| outwardly. The head 24 of the
sure medium to and from the cylinder. This
slidable ram member, as it moves along its path,
valve may comprise a body having a chamber
engages the stop 26 of the bolt'l or stud I4k
wherever it may be along the slot I 5, and moves
therein; a valve seat 36 in communication with
thechamber and an inletport 3l connected to
the bolt I4 and the reciprocating parts of the
the pressure medium supply hose Il; a second
charging mechanism to their extreme rearward
or leftward position.
valve seat 38 in communication with the cham
When the ramming head approaches its rear
ber and an exhaust port 33; a _valve member 40
in the chamber; and a conduit 4I leading from 10 most position, it is desired to shut off the supply of
pressure medium and exhaust the cylinder. This
the chamber to the cylinder 2B. When the valve
is accomplished by the arm 3l which engages, for
member 45 abuts the seat 35, the inlet port 3'.'
example, the ilange 56 of the rod 52 and pushes «the
is shut off and the exhaust port 35 is open to
rod through the collar 55 to reload the spring 55
enable pres-sure medium in the cylinder 20 to es
cape, whereby the springs 34 may rapidly re 15 and cause the projections 60 and 6I to reengage.
turn the slidable member 2l to the position shown
.in Figure 2. When the valve member 45 is moved
towards the right and abuts the seat 39, the ex
haust port is closed and the inlet port is opened
to admit pressure medium to the cylinder. The
valve member 4i! is provided with a stem 42
extending outwardly through the valve body and
adapted to be engaged by a suitable valve con
trolling device about to be described.
The device for controlling the valve may com
prise an arm or linger 44, for engaging the valve
Upon further movement of the head 24, .the
slightly shorter arm 32 comes in contact with the
latch memberV 6l and releases the projection 69
from the projection 74. This enables the spring
55 to swing the lever 45 into its initial position,
whereby the rod 45 is moved to cause the ñnger
44 to operate the valve stem 42 which in turn
causes the valve member to close the inlet port 3l
and open the exhaust port 35. The sudden ex
haust of the fluid pressure medium from the cyl
inder enables the springs 34, which are relatively
stem 42 which is mounted on one end of a slid
strong, to return the ram member 2i and its asso
able rod 45 extending through one of the tubuu
ciated parts to their forward position.
lar guides 2l; a lever 46 pivoted at 4l and hav
It will be understood that, while an illustrative
ing the other end of the rod 45 connected thereto 30 embodiment of a device or devices for con-trolling
at 45; and a spring operated device connected to
the mechanical operation of .the ram has been
the other end of the lever 45. The spring oper
described, other devices suitable for accomplish
ated device may comprise a tubular collar 55 piv
ing this purpose may be utilized and that the
otally connected to the lever 45 at 5I; a slidable
present invention is not intended to be limited to
bai- or rod 52 extending through the collar 5l! .. the illustrative control means just described.
and limited for sliding movement with respect
The present invention, as illustrated in the
thereto by a ñange 54; and a cylindrical helical
embodiment thereof, is morey particularly con
spring 55 which is telescoped about the rod 52
cerned with a method and apparatus for detect
and is compressed between a ñange 56 adjacent
ing when the reciprocating movement of the stud
one end of the rod 52 and the collar 55. The end 40 or bolt I4 and its associated parts is interrupted,
of the rod 52 adjacent the ilange 55 has one end
is slowed down in some manner or ceases, due to
of a. tension 'spring 5l attached thereto and the
failure of the gun to fire and recoil. These de
other end of the spring is secured to a suitable
tecting means then control the operation of the
fixed point at 59. 'I'he other end of the rod 52
solenoid 65 which permits mechanical action of
is provided with a projection, tooth, or dog 5G
the ram and its control devices. These detecting
adapted to be engaged by a projection 5I on a
means may be structurally associated with the
latching lever 52 pivotally mounted at >64.
reciprocating bolt I4 to detect lack of motion
When the projections 60 and 6l are in engage
thereof by a current pulsing means such as an
ment, the spring 55 is compressively loaded and
interruptor or alternator operated, actuated,
bears against the collar 50 to swing the lever 45 50 driven or otherwise associated with the recipro
in a direction to slide the rod 45 into a position
cating parts of the gun charging mechanism.
whereby the finger 44 holds the valve stem 42
In Figure 2 of the drawings a current inter
to cause the valve member 4G to close the inlet
rup-ter is illustrated as a'ñxed elongated com
port 37. The projections C55 and 5I may be un
mutator bar or frame 15 on which is mounted a
latched by a solenoid 65 or other suitable device
series of alternately arranged electrical conduct
to be actuated when movement of the ram is de
ing members 76 and non-conducting members 'Il'.
sired. When the projections 54 and Si are un
A slidable frame 'I5 is mounted on the guide rods
latched, the spring 55 expands, and the rod 52
or tubes 21 and is attached to the stud I4 for
slides within the collar 5E! to a position lwhere
movement therewith. The frame 'I9 carries a
the flange 54 abuts the collar 55 and the spring 60 brush or Wiper 85 for alternately contacting the
55 has no effect on the lever 45. The spring 5l
members 'I6 and 'VI while reciprocating with re
then pulls the rod 52 to 'swing the lever 45 into
spect thereto. The conducting members 16 and
the position, indicated by the broken line (de
noting- the longitudinal axis of the lever), and
the brush 89 are operatively connected in an elec
trical
circuit about to be described. The mem
65
the lever moves the rod 45 to enable the linger
bers 75 and 'Il preferably are of >substantially
44 to release the valve stem 42. Movement of
equal eiîective length whereby the period of flow
the rod 45 may be further assisted by a spring
of current and the period of interruption of cur
66 attached to the end thereof or to the finger
rent are of a substantially equal duration of time.
44. Preferably, the lever 46 is latched in this
position by a latch member 5l carried by the 70 Any suitable number of elements,> members or
contacts 'I6 and 'I'I may be provided. Instead of
lever and having a projection 69 adapted to en
using a fixed interrupter bar l5, as illustrated, it
gage a ñxed litch projection l0.
will be understood that the stud I4 could carry
i When the stem 42 is released, the pressure of
any suitable linkage for driving a rotatable in
the pressure medium moves the valve member
4I) away from the seat 36 and the pressure rne 75 terrupter, commutator or alternator adapted'to
aaoacas
8
be contacted by a stationary brush, Without de
parting from the scope of the invention.
Referring to Figure 3 of the drawings, thereA is
-is in a “firing” position.
The pole |.0| is elec
shown a wiring diagram of a preferred electrical
detecting and operating circuit or “brainf’ This
.circuit is illustrated as a modiñed bridge type cir
lare electrically connected to each other by a
trically connected to the current supply line 92
by a Wire |09, and the terminals |04 and |06
wire i I0 and .to a, wire ||| through which cur.
rent is adapted to pass when the switch 8B is in
cuit, and will be described in Ydetail hereinafter.
The circuit shown is particularly adapted for ma
chine guns installed in airplanes, tanks or other
either of its closed positions.
„
and the various circuits v may be respectively
relay 9.6 and normally is in position to close the
firing circuit, as shown in Figure 3. The switch
|25 when in this position, is adapted to permit
The wire ||| is connected to a wire ||2 which
is connected to one terminal of the thermostat
craft wherein the gun may be operated locally or 10 ically responsive switch QI. The other terminal
of the switch 9| is connected to one terminal of
from a remote location. Generally, to accom
the heater 90, which has its other terminal
plish this the electrical devices of the circuitare
grounded at Hd. The wire ||| is also connected
arranged in three groups designated as the con
to a wire ||5 which is connected to one terminal
trol panel, the relay panel and the gun charger.
The control panel has mounted thereon, a pilot 15 of the manually operable switch 81 and the other
terminal cf the switch 8'! is connected by a
light 85 adapted to vbe illuminated when the gun
wire || 6 to one terminal of the pressure medium
charger ram |S is operating; a switch `iîii having
valve controlling solenoid 05, which has its other
a “safety,” “off” and “ñring” position; and a
terminal grounded at ||'|. The wire ||| also is
switch 81 for effecting operation of -the gun
charger at the will of the gunner or operator. A 20 connected to one terminal of the pilot light 85 by
a wire ||9 and the other terminal of the pilot
firing or trigger switch 39 is operatively `asso
light 85 is connected to one terminal of the pilot
ciated with the control panel, and may be located
light operating switch 99 by a wire |20. The
adjacent the gun or at a remote location where
other terminal of the switch 99 is grounded at 12|.
the gunner Aor operator may .centrally control the
The pole |02 of the switch 86 is adapted to
ñríng of vone or more machine guns. An elec
Contact the switch terminals |05 and |01. In the~
trical heater 90 may be provided for the vessel
circuit shown, the terminal |05 is not electrically
i6 containing the pressure medium to prevent ,the
connected because it is superiiuous, but the termi
pressure from dropping below a desired minimum
nal |01 is connected to the ñring circuit by a wire
when the vessel is exposed lto Very low tempera
tures, such .as may be encountered at high .alti 30 |22, as described hereafter. The pole |02 is con
nected to one terminal of the firing or trigger
tudes. The heater circuit may lead to the con
switch 89 by a wire §24 and the other terminal of
trol panel and preferably has a thermostat EH
the switch 80 is connected to the supply line 62,
therein which is operative in response to ltem
whereby when the switch 86 is in iiring position
peratures at which the heater 90 is desired to
operate. A source of direct current is supplied by
and the trigger switch ââ is closed, current ñows
through the iiring circuit by way of the wire |22.
a line 02, conventionally indicated as having a
positive polarity. The negative pole of the source
The ñring circuit includes a single pole double
of current (not shown) may be suitably grounded
throw switch |25 which is associated with the
grounded at desired points to complete the Apaths
through which current may ilow.
The relay panel has mounted thereon three
resistance elements 94A, 94B and 04C, the pur
pose of which will be described hereinafter; a
relay 95 adapted to be operated by continuous
current and unaffected by rapidly interrupted
current to pass from the wire |22 to a wire |26
connected to one terminal of the iiring pin sole
noid H50, which has its other terminal grounded
' at
l |27.
When the relay 96 is operated, the switch
|25 is adapted to be moved into its other position
to permit current to ñow from the wire |22 to
a wire |29 connected to the wire IIB leading to
the pressure medium valve controlling solenoid 65.
current; and a second relay Qûvadapted to be op
erated by the relay 95 to close a `circuit adapted
to supply current to the pressure medium Valve
controlling solenoid E5. Ii desired the relay 96 50 A preferred method for supplying interrupted
current to the relay during the normal operation
may be omitted by providing the `relay 95 with
of the gun and continuous current during stop
contacts for closing the solenoid circuit.
page or slowing’down of the gun charging mech
The gun charger has associated therewith-«the
anism may comprise connecting the relay into a
current interrupter, indicated by the interrupter
bar l5 and the brush 80; a resistance element
04D; a switch 97 for cuttingrout ,the detecting cir
cuit when the ram i9 is operated; and a switch
99 movable into a position for closing the >pilot
circuit including 4a current supply and an inter
ruptor, in such a manner, that it is normally
light circuit responsive to the operation >of the
poles |0| and |02; a pair or" contacts or terminals
tinuous current when the charging mechanism
has stopped for a given period.
A preferred circuit for carrying out this method
of `detecting the lack of reciprocating `movement
of the gun charging mechanism and for initiating
operation of the gun charging ram will'now be de
scribed in detail. IThis circuit is illustrated in
Figure 3 and is illustrated in simplified form in
Figures 4, 5 and 6. Generally, this circuit com
prises the current interrupter 15; the brush 80
moved by the reciprocating parts of the gun
charging mechanism; the resistance elements
|04 and |05 adapted to beengaged'by. the poles
95A, 94B, 513C and StD; the relay 05; and the cut
ram. The solenoid 65 for controlling the pressure
medium valve 35 also may be associated with the
gun charger and a circuit may pass through the
gun charger housing for energizing a ñring pin
solenoid |00 associated with the iiring mechanism
of the gun.
The electrical circuits, illustrated in Figure »3,
will now be described.
The switch 66 «is of the
double pole double Ithrow type having a `center
“01T” position. The switch comprises apairof
subject to a rapidly interrupted current by which
it is not aiîected, and that it is subject to a con
out switch 91 adapted to render .the circuit in
eiîective during operation of the ram -|55. Elec
trical energy is adapted to besupplied tothe cir
minals |06 and |01 adapted tofbe engaged by the
poles |0| and |02, respectively, when the switch 75 cuit from the >source of direct Vcurrent _92 con
|0| `and |02, respectively, when the switch is 1in a
“safety” position; and a >pair of 4contacts or ter
2,409,623
9
io
nected through the switch 86 and the firing or
lay of the foregoing character is preferred, other ,
trigger switch 89, when in firing position, to the
devices having similar electrical characteristics
wire |22 which in turn is connected to a wire |30.
may be employed.
The relay .05 may be provided with a single pole,
single throw switch |39 (Figure 3) which normal-`
ly is in open position and is adapted to be closed
by the operation of the relay 95 to close a circuit
leading from wire |22 through the coil of the re-lay 9S to the grounding connection at |40. Thus,
when the switch |39 is closed, current is supplied
to the relay 96 to operate the switch |25 which
closes the‘pressure medium valve controlling sole
noid circuit to effect operation of the ram |9.
The path of the current which may pass through
the circuit is completed by grounding the brush
80 at I3! and the resistance element 94C at |32
(Figure 3) or by electrically connecting the brush
80 by a wire |34 to the grounding connection at
|32 (Figures 4, 5 and 6) .
In the detecting circuit the resistance elements
94A and 04B each have one terminal connected
to the current supply wire |30. These elements
have substantially the same electrical resistance,
to provide an electrically balanced circuit under
certain conditions of operation, which will be de-,
scribed hereafter. The other terminal of the ele
ment 94A is connected to one terminal of the
element QQD by a wire |35 and the other termi
nal of the element 94D is connected to a wire
|36 which is connected to all of the conducting 20
members 76 of the interrupter l5. The other end
of the element 94B is connected to one terminal
of the element 94C which has its other terminal
grounded at |32. The elements 913C and 94D
have substantially the same electrical resistance
for the reasons described hereafter.
In effect, and as illustrated more particularly
in Figures 4, 5 and 6, the elements B and C and
the elements A and D, respectively, are connected
in series. The respective pairs of elements pro
vide, in effect, parallel circuits leading from the
wire |30 to the grounding connections at |32.
The relay 95 is connected across these “parallel
circuits” by connecting one terminal of the relay
95 to the wire |35 or the connection between the
elements 06A and 04D and connecting the other
terminal of the relay 05 to the connection be
tween the elements B and C, indicated at |37.
The relay 95, as previously explained, is of the
type which is adapted to be operated by continu
ous current flowing in either direction, for a pre
determined period but is not affected by current
which alternates its direction of flow or is inter
rupted at a frequency higher than a predeter 4.. .i
mined frequency. Such a relay may be of the so
called “time delay” type in which a heavy copper
The relay 95, when connected in the circuit just
described, is normally supplied with alternating
or rapidly reversing current while the gun charg
ing mechanism is reciprocating or is operating to
load and fire the gun at its normal speed. The al
ternation of the direction of flow of the current
is accomplished by the circuit, shown in Figures
3, 4, 5 and 6, and the interrupter 'l5 or other suit
able device therein in the following manner. -Y
When the brush 80 contacts any one of the cur
rent conducting elements 'l5 (Figure 4), current
from the wire |30 divides and flows through the
resistance elements 04B and 94C to the grounding
connection at |32, as indicated by the arrows a.
The divided portion of the current ñows through
the resistance element 94A, the wire |35, the
switch 91 (normally closed), the wire |36, oneV of
the conducting elements 10, brush 80, and wire
|34 to the grounding connection as indicated by
the arrows b. The resistance to the flow of cur
rent in the path of the arrows a -will be greater
than the resistance to the flow of current in the
path of the arrows b, whereby a portion of the
current in path a will divide out at |37 and pass
through the relay 95 in the direction indicated by
arrow c. It will be understood that the resistance»
characteristics of the relay coil are such that
they will not impede the ñow of current in direc
tion c.
,
When the brush 80 is moved out of contact
with any of the conducting elements 'I6 and con
tacts any one of the non-conducting` elements Tl
or is in a position between the contacts 16 (Fig
ure 5), current flows through the circuit as fol-_
lows. The current divides at'the wire |30 and a
portion thereof flows through the resistance ele
ring encircles the core of the relay. When cur
rent starts to flow through the coil of such a
relay, in either direction, a countervoltage is in 50 ments 04B and 36C to the grounding connection`
duced by the short-circuiting copper ring, re~
|32 as indicated by the arrows a. The other por-VV
tarding the build-up of magnetic flux and there
tion of the current flows through the resistance
fore retarding the operation of the relay. When
element 94a as, indicated by the arrows b and
the current has established itself, however,'the
through the coil of the relay 95 to |31 as, indie
copper short-circuiting ring has no effect and the
cated by the arrow d, because the circuit leading
relay operates in the normal manner. The only
effect 0f this ring is to delay the relay operation
for a fraction of a second.
Thus when alternat
ing current of a suniciently high frequency is ap
plied, the relay is not affected and will not operate
because the direction of the current is being re~
versed so rapidly that the magnetic flux does not
through the interrupter ‘l5 is broken.
The direction d, as will be noted, is opposite
to the direction c, and the direction in which the>>
current flows is rapidly alternated by the rapid
movement of the brush/80 from a circuit closing
to circuit opening position. Thus, if a sufficient
number of conducting elements 16 and alternate
have an opportunity to build up.
'
ly arranged non-conducting elements 'Vl are pro#
It has been found that a relay, known as a
vided in the interrupter and the interrupter brush
direct current, series, slow releasing type relay 65 30 is reciprocated at a rate of 400 to 1000 strokes'
may be utilized. Preferably this relay has an 0D
per minute the direction of the current will be
erating time of about .004 to .25 second and a
alternately reversed at a rate at which the relay
releasing time of about .020 to .350,second. Such
S5 will not be operated. For example, if the frea relay is illustrated on page 8 of Catalogue
_quency of current reversal is of a magnitude at
4071-B, published February 1940, by American 70 `which current flows in either direction for a pe
Automatic Electric Sales Company, Chicago, Illi
riod of time, shorter than the time required by
nois. Since such relays are generally known and
the relay to build up magnetic iiux, the, relay will
not be aifected. The relay will be operated only
are commercially available, a detailed description
when the brush 80 stops moving or slows down
of the construction thereof is not believed to be
to an extent where the frequency of the currentnecessary. It will be understood, that while a re
»
2,409,623
ll
reversals is relatively low. The latter condition
would indicate that the gun is not firing proper
ly. In the event the brush stops while in contact
with a conducting element l5, direct current will
flow through the relay coil in direction c (Figure
4) . If the brush stops while out of contact with
12
Once the gun commences ñring and the trigger
switch 89 is held in closed position by the gunner
or operator, the gun continues to nre and the
charging mechanism goes through its cycle of op~
eration, namely, feeding, ñring and ejecting cartridges. During the operation ci the charging
mechanism, the current interrupter l5 is operated
and the direct current supplied to the detecting
an element 16, direct current will flow through
the relay coil in direction d (Figure 5).
devices is converted into substantially rapidly in
The operation of the cut-out switch al is il
lustrated in Figure 6. In the event the detecting 10 terrupted or alternating current with respect to
the relay 95. While the current is thus alter
devices initiate operation of the ram i 9, the ram
nated or interrupted, the continuous current re
ming head 24 or a member carried by the head
sponsive relay 95 is unaffected and does not op
may mechanically engage the switch 9i upon ini
erate. However, if normal movement of the re
tial movement of the ramrning head 2li and .move
it out of its normal position shown in Figures ‘l 15 ciprocating parts of the gun charging mechanism
should cease, the current through the relay be
and 5 and into the position shown in Figure 6,
comes sufficiently continuous to cause actuation
whereupon the kswitch 97 opens the connection
of the relay. Within a fraction of a second, the
between the wires |35 and |35 and connects the
relay 95 is operated to close the switch |39,
wire |36 to the grounding point lâ I .
whereby current ñows through the auxiliary re
If the brush 80 is out of contact with a con
lay 96 to operate the switch §25. The switch |25
ducting element 'i6 of the interrupter, the current
_cuts out the source of current supplied to .the
will divide at |30 and a portion will now through
ñring pin solenoid Iüil and connects this source
the resistance elements 94B and MC to the
of current to the pressure medium valve con
grounding connection |32 and the other portion
of the current will îlow through the resistance ele 25 trolling solenoid 65.
The solenoid 65 is immediately effective to re
ment 94A, the wire |35, the resistance element
lease the latch and lever mechanism, illustrated
94D, the wire |35` and the switch 97 to the
in Figure 2, which in turn operates the Valve to
grounding point illl . Since the resistance of ele
admit pressure medium to the cylinder 2D of the
ment 94A is equal to element 94B, and the resist
ram. The ram is then operated to mechanically
ance of element 94C is equal to element MD, the
move the gun charging mechanism through its
sum of the resistance of elements 94A and 94D is
operating cycle to put the gun in action again.
equal to the sum of the resistance of elements MB
As the ram is operated, the cut-out switch 91 is
and 94C. Therefore, the same proportion of cur
moved into the position in which it prevents the
rents flows in paths a and b, whereby the two
flow of current through the detecting relay 95
paths-are balanced and no current flows through
(Figure 6). Also, the pilot switch 9E) is closed so
the relay 95. Thus when this condition prevails,
that current ,flows through Vthe pilot light which
the relay is insensitive and is not operated. The
indicates to the gunner that the automatic gun
switch Sl is designed to return by itself or to be
charger is in operation. When the ram returns
returned by the ramming head to its initial or
normal inactivate position when the ram is 40 to its normal inactive position and the gun is
restored to normal iiring the pilot switch S9 and
moved into its normal or at rest position, as indi
the cut-out switch Ell return to their initial po
cated in Figure 2.
sitions under the iniluence of suitable resilient
In the event the ram is operated to move the
means (not shown). As the gun resumes :firing
cut-out switch 9T out of its normal position while
the solenoids of the relays 95 and 95 become de
the brush contacts one of the conducting ele
energized to permit the switches |39 and |25 to
ments 16, the foregoing result is accomplished in
return to their initial positions under the >ini-lu
substantially the same manner. The only difier
ence of resilient means usually associated with
ence now is that the current in the path b may
relays of the type employed.
ñow to either of the grounding. connections l32
In Figures '7, 8 and 9 a modified circuit is illus
and lêl to complete the circuit. The circuits 50
trated, for interrupting the current for the de
indicated by the paths a and b then are again
tecting mechanism by alternating the direction
balanced and no current is supplied to the relay
thereof. The interrupter 15 comprises a series of
95.
conducting elements or contacts "I6 and 16', a1
In operation, the gun charger l2 is attached to
ternately arranged and spaced apart a short dis
either side of the machine gun housing H, the
tance by insulation, if desired. The contacts 16
pressure medium vessel |65 .is connected to valve
are connected by a wire M5 to one terminal of
35 by the hose |71 .and the electrical circuits are
the source of direct current indicated at |30, and
connected to a source of electric energy, while
the contacts ‘I6’ are ‘connected by a wire |46 and
the main switch 86 is in its “oiî” position. When
the switch is in this position, accidental closing 60 a resistance element IMC to the other terminal
of the source of current indicated at |32. A slider
the manually operable charging switch 'B1 or the
or brush 8B rides upon a conducting bar or slide
trigger switch 89 will not elîect operation of the
33 connected by a wire |41 'to one terminal of the
gun charger or firing of the gun. After the gun
relay 95. A resistance element l 94A has one ter
and the gun charger is set up for action, either
in the ñeld, in an airplane or other craft, the 65 minal connected at |33 to the source of current
and has its other terminal connected at |31 to
switch 85 is placed in its “safety” position. This
one terminal of a resistance element |94B, which
enables the gun to be charged by closing the Inan
has its other terminal connected at |32 to the
ually operable charging switch 8l, but accidental
other pole of the source of current. The other
closing of the trigger switch 89 will not ñre the
terminal of the relay is connected at> |31.
gun. Shortly prior to the time it is desired to
The relay S5 operates only in response to direct
rire the gun, the switch 8l is closed to charge
or continuous current of sufficient duration in
the gun and the switch 85 is placed in its “ñring”
either direction and the interrupter 15, in con
position, whereby the gun may be ñred by clos
junction with the circuit as shown, is adapted to
ing the trigger or firing switch 39 to energize the
effect a rapid reversal of the direct current sup
firing pin solenoid |90.
13
2,409,623
plied while the gun is iiring and the brush 80 is
being reciprocated. The direction of the current
through the relay is changed as follows.
When the brush 8H contacts one of the elements
'16, as shown in Figure 7, a portion of the cur- '
14
While my invention resides in certain prin
ciples of construction and operation which have
been illustrated and described in connection with
the accompanying drawings, it will be apparent
to those skilled in the art that the invention may
be embodied in other forms of construction and
modes of operation without departing in any
rent iiows through resistance elements IMA and
|94B, as indicated by arrows a. Another portion
of the current flows through wire |45, contact 76,
manner from the spirit and scope of the inven
brush 80, bar 83, and wire |41 to -the relay Q5 in „ tion, and I therefore do not wish to be strictly
the direction as indicated by arrows b.
10 limited to the disclosure, but rather to the scope
When the brush 8|) contacts one of the ele
of the appended claims.
ments 16’ as shown in Figure 8, the current ñows
I claim:
through resistance element |94A and a portion of
1. In a gun charger for a machine gun having
the current ñows through resistance element
a reciprocating membenthe combination with
I94B, as indicated by arrows a. The current di 15 said reciprocating member of a normally inactive
vides at |31 and a portion thereof flows through
recharging mechanism for operating the recipro
the relay 95, wire |47, bar 83, brush 80, contact
16', wire |46 and resistance element |940 to the
pole |32 of the source of current as indicated by
cating member, an electrical control device con
structed and arranged to be actuated by a cur
rent pulse of a predetermined minimum time in
arrows a'.
20 terval for rendering said recharging mechanism
In the event the gun ceases firing and the brush
operative, an energizing circuit for said control
stops in an intermediate position where it con
device, and currentpulsing means in said circuit
tacts both an element 'i6 and 16', as shown in
adapted to be driven by said reciprocating mem
Figure 9, a portion of the current ñows through
ber, said pulsing means being constructed and
resistance elements |94A and | 94B. Another por 25 arranged to successively energize said control de
tion of the current ilows through wire |45 to the
vice for intervals less than said minimum time
interrupter 'l5 where it divides and a portion flows
interval during the normal operation of said re
through wire |41 and the relay 95 in the direc
ciprocating member and to energize said control
tion of arrow b and the other portion of the di
device for said time interval for rendering said
vided current ñows through the wire |46 and 30 recharging mechanism operative upon failure of
resistance element |940 to the current connec
normal operation of said reciprocating member.
tion |32, as indicated by the arrow b’. The re
2. `In the combination of claim 1, means op
sistance element | 94C prevents a direct short cir
erated by said recharging mechanism upon move
cuit and preferably has a resistance slightly
ment thereof for'rendering said pulsing means
greater than the resistance element |94B so that 35 ineffective to energize said control device.
the circuit is unbalanced and current flows
3. In the combination of claim 1, said current
through the relay 95.
pulsing means including a rcommutator, and a
During the normal firing of the gun the direc
brush adapted to be connected to said recipro
tion of the current is alternately reversed as
cating member for cooperation with said com
noted in connection with Figures 7 and 8. If the 40 mutator.
gun should cease ñring and the brush stops in
4. In the combination of claim 1, said current
any one of the positions shown in Figures 7, 8
pulsing means including a commutator, a brush
and 9, current will flow continuously in the direc
adapted to be connected to said reciprocating
tion indicated.
member for cooperation with said commutator,
From the foregoing description it will be seen
and switch means constructed and arranged for
that the present invention provides an improved
rendering said commutator ineffective when said
gun charger and improved method of operation.v
recharging mechanism is operated.
The gun charger detecting devices are adapted
5. In the combination of claim 1, said energiz
for machine guns having a relatively high firing
ing circuit comprising two portions, vsaid control
speed and quickly detect a failure of operation 50 device being connected across said portions, said
and return the gun to tiring operation in a mini
current pulsing means including a current in
mum period of time. Machine guns equipped
terrupter actuated by said reciprocating member
with gun chargers in accordance with the inven
connected in one of said circuit portions.
tion are adapted to be put in action again in a
6. In the combination of claim l, said energiz
split second vand the eifective iiring of the gun 55 ing circuit comprising a bridge having four re
is not materially decreased even under adverse
sistance elements, the total resistance in a pair
conditions, whereby the gunner is not endangered
by being subjected to enemy fire without being
of adjacent elements being equal to the total re
sistance in the other pair of adjacent elements,
able to return ñre. The parts of the gun charger
said control device being connected across said
are rugged in construction and are adapted to 60 pairs of elements and said pulsing means includ
withstand any rough usage to which they may be
subjected.
W'hile my invention has been described in con
nection with a gun charger for automatic ma
ing a current interrupter adapted to be actuated
by said reciprocating member for interrupting
said bridge at a common junction of said pairs
of elements, whereby said control device is ener
chine guns, it will be understood that the prin 65 gized.
ciples of my invention may be applied to other
7. In a gun charger for a machine gun having
mechanisms where it is desired to detect the
a reciprocating bolt, the combination with said
slowing down or stopping of any mass or parts
bolt of a normally inactive ram for operating the
normally intended to be in motion. For example,
bolt, an electrical control device including a relay
a detecting device embodying my invention may 70 constructed and arranged to be actuated by a
be utilized in connection with electrical, pneu
current pulse of a predetermined minimum time
matic or hydraulic motors, internal combustion
interval for rendering said ram operative, an
or steam engines, or other mechanisms or de
vices having parts moving in a circular, linear or
curvilinear path.
energizing circuit for said relay, and current puls
ing means in said circuit adapted to be driven
75 by said bolt, said pulsing means being constructed
2,409,623
15
and arranged to successively energize said relay
for intervals less than said minimum timeV inten`
val during the normal operation of said bolt andv
to energize said relay for said time interval for
rendering said -fam operative upon failure of nor
mal operation of said bolt.
8. In a gun charger for a machine gun having
a reciprocating bolt, the combination with said
16
means in said circuit adapted to be driven by
said bolt,~said pulsing means being constructed
and arranged to successively energize said relay
for intervals less than said minimum time inter
val during the normal operation of said bolt and
to energize said relay for said time interval for
rendering said ram operative upon failure of nor
mal operation of said bolt, and a switch in said
circuit constructed and arranged to be operated
bolt of a normally inactive ram for operating the
bolt, an electrical control device including a relay 10 by said ram upon initial movement thereof for
rendering said pulsing means ineffective to ener
constructed and arranged to be actuated by a
gize said relay during operation of said ram.
current pulse of a predetermined minimum time
interval for rendering said ram operative, an
energizing circuit for said relay, current pulsing
HARRY C. GRANT, JR.
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