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Oct. 22,1946.
{ 2,409,672
'Filed larch l8,_ 1944
2 Sheets-Skeet 1“ 1
REM!) Fischerw Mam/4min '
Fig'. ‘2mm;
' '
Oct. 22,194&
Filed March 18,- 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
E'L'edHc/a Fischer
and Wgmer Amrein
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
Friedrich Fischer, Zurich, and Werner Amrcin,
Rumlang, Switzerland
Application March 18, 1944, Serial No. 527,060 I
, In Switzerland May 1, 1943
14 Claims.
(Cl. 250-—41.5)
'2 ,
the projectile through the slit images. The reg
istering apparatus may suitably include an ap
pliance for measuring distances, and also a mech
anism controlling displacement in direction and
The devices hitherto known for measuring the
velocity of projectiles involve the drawback that
the registering appliances, or at least part of
these, must be located in the projectile trajectory.
Examples are the known ballistic pendulum and
. elevation and a wheeling inrnechanism.
the Boulengé apparatus. The newest electric
methods in which the passage of the projectile
through electric ?elds is measured also require
de?nite parts of the appliances to be located in
the projectile. trajectory. It is obvious that 10'
hitherto, in order to be able to measure the pro
jectile velocity at all, ?ring practice had to be
specially arranged with a w'ew to this purpose.
As for accuracy of measurement, existing meth
Figs. 1 to'5 show the whole‘device and particu
lars of its working.‘ Fig. 1 shows the registering
apparatus set up 'parallelly to' the projectile
trajectory and by the side of the gun. Fig. 2 is
a section through the registering apparatus, leav
ing away the lower parts of the mounting. Fig.
3 is a section through the objective of the regis
tering apparatus, perpendicular to the projectile
trajectory, intended to convey a plainer idea of
ods fall far short of perfection. The far reaching 15 the‘ distance measuring appliance of the register
ing apparatus. Fig; 4 is a representation of the
improvements which have in recent years taken
current and voltage impulses arising in the elec
place in ballistic investigation methods make it
trical equipment in connection with the passage
to-day necessary to arrive at a degree of measur
of the projectile through the slit images. Lastly,
ing accuracy of the velocities of projectiles of one
per thousand. On the other hand, the consider 20 Fig. 5 shows the full switch system of the meas
uring appliance connected by cable with the reg
able increase in the velocities of projectiles pre
istering apparatus and. by means-of which the
vailing in present-day artillery practice results in
time interval between the impulses just men
a rapid wearing-out of gun barrels, and conse
tioned can be measured.
quently in a continuous reduction of the initial
Aside, and in front of gun I is set up the regis
velocity of the projectiles. There is therefore an 25
tering apparatus 2. The registering apparatus 2
imperative need to be able to verify on gum set up
consists of a mounting 3 equipped with a machine
under conditions corresponding to actual warfare
4 for swivelling (see Fig. 2) with a range of rota
the initial velocities 'of the projectiles within
tion from 0 to 360°, a, machine 5 for pointing in
short time intervals by means of suitable ap
pliances easy to move about, rapidly set up on 30 elevation, with a range of rotation from 0 to 90°,
and a wheeling in machine 6. Consequently, the
any ground and designed for accurate measure
casing ‘I ?tted on the mounting 3‘ and containing
the registering mechanism is adjustable in direc
The aim was therefore to evolve an appliance
tion, in elevation and round its axis. The casing
by means of which it would be possible to measure
'- 1 consists of the measuring base body 8, the ob
the velocities of projectiles from de?nite dis
tances without requiring part of the appliances
to be placed within the projectile trajectory. An
obvious ‘possibility was to select optical instru
ments for this purpose. The available light in
tensities, however, are so insigni?cant that they
could not be utilized by the existing methods.
' Now, the present invention refers to a device
enabling to measure velocities of projectiles‘ by
optical means. The device according to the pres
ent invention includes a registering apparatus
jective 9, the combined photo-electric celland
electronic multiplier 30,- and the input-ampli?er
32 to 4|. The measuring base body is equipped
at its ends with pentagonal mirrors I0 and II,
and in‘ the middle with two cross mirrors l2 in
clined at 90° against each other. The objective
includes a system of lenses l3, a hollow mirror
l4, a plane mirror l5. In front of the photo
electric cell 30 is ‘arranged a slit l6 adjustable in
_ length and width and displaceable in the optical
aXis;' In the middle of the measuring base body
is arranged a distance measuring appliance l1
by means of which a distance measuring sta? it
containing a photo-electric cell with electronic
multiplier, a slit arranged in ‘front of this cell,
an optical implement and systems of mirrors‘, for
set on the gun can be ‘aimed at;
the purpose of depicting the slit in two spots of
the projectiles trajectory lying at a de?nite dis 50 To make the ‘matter-quite clear, the working
stance from each other—furthermore a measure
ing appliance connected ‘by cable with- the regis
tering apparatus and in which, in two‘cathode
ray tubes at least, is made visible the time interval
between the impulses generated by'the passage'of.
of the registering apparatus shall be explained in
the ?rst place.
x "
' ~
According to-the Fig. 1 the registering appa
ratus 2 is setup laterally in front of the gun, the
' interval being selected larger or smaller accord
ing to the bore of the gun. The measuring base
body 8 is then set up parallelly to the trajectory,
i. e. the barrel of the gun I, according to the
methods in general use in the artillery. With the
help of the distance measuring appliance I1 and
of the wheeling in machine 6, the measuring
base body is then adjusted in such a manner that
The slit l6 arranged in front of the combined
photo-electric cell and electronic multiplier 30 is
depicted at two spots 29 of the trajectory over
mirror IS, the objective consisting of mirror l4
and lens system I3, over cross mirrors [2, pen
tagonal mirrors l0 and H. The ?ne adjustment,
i. e. the sharp focussing of the slit imagesdn the
the optical plane is passing through the trajec
tory. The distance between the registering ap
trajectory is effected by displacing the measuring
paratus and the trajectory can be simultaneously
ascertained by means of the distance measuring
measured by means of a scale, so that once the
appliance IT.
The exact method of working of the distance
measuring appliance, the correct handling of
which is of primary importance for the perfect
functioning of the whole equipment-shall be
more fully described with the assistance of Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 is a section, perpendicular to the projectile
trajectory, through the objective 9 of the regis
slit l6.
This displacement is preferably to be
distance of the trajectory from the measuring
base body has been ascertained by means of the
distance measuring appliance I"! the slit can be
set accordingly,
In this way, through the cross mirrors I2, it is
made possible to control two spots of the trajec
tory with one single photo-electric cell and one
ampli?er channel.
The passage of the projectile through the meas
tering apparatus 2 with the lens system IS, the 20 uring spots 29 results, in the combined photo
hollow mirror M, the plane mirror l5 and the
electric cell and electronic multiplier 30, in modi~
distance measuring appliance H. The measuring
?cations of the current the time interval of which
base body 8 standing perpendicularly to the ob
shall now be measured. The electronic multi
jective axis is indicated by the dotted circle I9.
plier 30 is contained in the casing 31 in which
The two circles drawn round the projectile
is further located an input-ampli?er consisting
trajectory 20 standing perpendicularly to the
of the two ampli?er tubes 32 and 33 with corre
drawing plane indicate the projection of the gun
sponding switch elements, and designed to bring
barrel I. In order to ascertain the distance, the
about the ?rst ampli?cation of the signal supplied
distance measuring staff I8 is now set up on the
by the electronic multiplier. The voltages and
gun barrel, in doing which the condition must
currents required for the working of the elec
be complied with that this distance measuring
tronic multiplier and of the amplifier are sup
stall’ l8 shall be perpendicular to the plane 2lplied over the lines 35, 36, 3'1 and 38; on the other
indicated by a dash line formed by the gun barrel
hand, the ampli?ed signal is led over the line
axis and the axis 22—standing perpendicularly to
39 to the measuring appliance, to be further
the drawing plane-01? the measuring base body
ampli?ed and worked out. The line 35 is specially
8 (center of the dash circle I9). In order to
intended for feeding the magnet coil 40 of the
comply with this requirement, the telescope 23
electronic multiplier 30. Line 36 is connected
of the distance measuring appliance ll shall
with the earth (earthing connection). The
?rst-by means of the adjusting screw 24--be set
anodic tension of the input ampli?er is supplied
parallel to the plane formed by the axis of the 40 over the line 31, whilst the line 38 is connected
objective 9 and the axis 22 of the measuring base
with the voltage divider 4| with which are con
body 8. The distance measuring staff set up per
nected the various electrodes of the electronic
pendicularly on the gun barrel is then adjusted
multiplier 30.
until the telescope 23 can be aimed at through
The cable 34 leads to the measuring appliance
the collimator 25 swivelling round the axis of the 45 schematically represented in Fig. 5 which may
distance measuring staff H! which is proof that
conveniently be placed in a two-wheeled trailer._
the distance measuring staff is perpendicular to
The appliance includes a power supply trans
the plane 2|.
former 42 for connection for the power net, for
In the course of this process care must simul
converting the various power voltages into the
taneously be taken, by actuating the wheeling in 50 feeding voltage of the appliance; the transformer
mechanism 6, to have accurate aim taken through
is connected with the switch 43. With a view,
the telescope 23 at the collimator 25, thus secur
however, to enable the appliance to work inde
ing that the axis of the objective 9 coincides ex
pendently from any available power voltages the
actly with the plane 2| in which lies the projectile
bottom part of the trailer includes a continuous
trajectory 20. Following on these preliminary 55 current generator 45 driven by a benzine engine
adjustments, in order to carry out the distance
44. This continuous current generator drives a
measuring operation proper, the telescope 23, by
continuous current motor 46 coupled with an
means of the adjusting screw 24, is made to rotate
alternating current generator 41' leading the feed
round an axis 26 parallel to the axis 22 of the
voltage to the two-way switch 43. By reversing
measuring base body into the position indicated 60 the two-way switch 43 the power feed may be
by dash outlines-in which position aim is taken
supplied at will either by the transformer con
at a mark situated at the upper end of the dis
nected to the network or by the own generating
tance measuring rule. In order to enable these
aims to be taken through the telescope 23 in any
The insertion of the motor converter group
case, the telescope is arranged swivelling round 65 46, 41 between the benzine engine group 44, 45
the axis 21 which is perpendicular to the axis 26.
and the feed line 48 is intended to compensate
Out of the value, read on a scale, of the angle
the effect on the feed voltage of the unavoidable
formed by the rays 28 and the known length of
considerable ?uctuations in the number of revo_
the stretch delimited on the distance measuring
lutions of the benzine engine. The motor 46 of
staff l8 by these two rays it is easy to ascertain 70 the converter group is equipped for this purpose
the distance of the registering apparatus from
with a centrifugal governor whose contact 49, by
the projectile trajectory.
short-circuiting the resistance 5| connected in
After these adjustments have been completed
series with the exciting winding 50, influences
the course of the optical path of rays is as fol
the excitation of the motor 46 in such a manner
76 that the number of revolutions of the motor
use two cathode ray tubes in view of the fact that
in order to secure a high reading accuracy the
rotating speed of the cathode ray must be so high
that, in the interval between the two impulses, the
remains practically constant. The exciting wind
ings of‘the generators 45 and 41 are designated
with'52 and 53. The regulating resistances 54'
serve to regulate the tensions.
cathode ray shall describe an angle which is a
The other parts of the measuring appliance
serve to’amplify further the signal supplied by
multiple of the full angle of 360°. Since, in this
case, the number of the full turns of the cathode
ray is inde?nite, the cathode rayon the second~
the input'ampli?er over cable 34. Cable 34 ?rst
gets to the'cable sheave 55, and from here to the
cathode ray tube is made to rotate at a lower
entrance to an ampli?er and regulating connec
tion' consisting of the tubes 56-454. At the cable 10 speed. The angle read On the second tube is then
used to determine with accuracy the number of
outlet the various lines are designated by the
rotations of the cathode ray of the first cathode
same ?gures as at the cable inlet of the input
ray tube. In the case of Fig. 5 the cathode ray of
ampli?er. Line 38' leads to the low voltage supply
the lower cathode ray tube rotates at high speed.
device 65, line 31 to the anode voltage supply
The circular de?ection of the cathode ray is’
device 66 which also supplies the anode potential 15
effected 'by known means, by applying at the pairs
for all other tubular connections of the register
of de?ecting plates 13, ‘I4 sinusoidal de?ecting po
ing apparatus. With the assistance of the regu
tentials displaced'in phase by 90°. The de?ecting
lating resistance 61 the exciting current of the
potential for the plate pair ‘I3 is supplied by the
electronic multiplier ?owing over line 35 can be
The connection consisting of the amplifying
tubes 56-54 now works out—-in a manner to be
more fully described below—the ' signals supplied
by the input ampli?er. > The uppermost curve of
oscillatory circuit 15, 16, whilst the de?ecting po
tential, displaced in phase, of the plate pair 14
is supplied by the ‘phase displacement junction
11 in connection with the same oscillatory cir-'
cuit. In order to secure the exact circular shape
Fig. 4 represents the time course of these signals. 25 when de?ecting the cathode rays,vthe de?ecting
potential of the plate pair 13 can be set to the cor
At the moment of the passage of the projectile
rect value by means of the potentiometer 18.
through the two measuring points the light fall
The other parts of the cathode ray tubes, includ
ing the cathodes ‘I9, anodes 80 and auxiliary elec
course corresponding to this curve. In order to 30 trodes 8|, 82 together with the corresponding,
partly adjustable switching elements 83 and volt
secure full accuracy in time measuring, two
age supply device 84, are generally known. The
exactly de?ned points of'this course of the curve
ing on the multiplier undergoes each time a cer
tain weakening, thus bringing about a potential
must be considered; the most suitable way to do
this is to utilize for this purpose the two ?anks
cathode ray tubes are further provided with a
sary to take special measures in order to make
?uorescent screen may ?ash up more brightly.
these two ?anks stand out prominently in the
Since the de?ection amplitude of the cathode ray
is dependent on the extent‘ of the after accelera
after acceleration electrode 85 which, as is known,
of the signal accounted for by the projectile base 35 is intended for further speeding-up of the oath
ode ray, in order that the luminous spot on the
and rising almost vertically; it is, however, neces
time course of the signal.
In our case this is
e?ected by a time di?‘erentiation of the signal, 40 tion potential, this fact is utilized in our case
to enable the ?rst light impulse to be distinguished
which differentiation is brought about by electric
from the second.
means, the result being that out of the original
In the time interval between the two impulses
signal is evolved the potential course according
the after acceleration voltage is reduced by means
to the middle curve of Fig. 4 showing to potential
of the ampli?er tube 86 so that the second light
peaks. ’
impulse is caused to fall on another diameter and
Finally, in order to measure accurately the time
can be easily distinguished from the first, thus en
interva1 between the two potential peaks, these
abling the angle between the two impulses to be
potential impulses are converted by means of a
tipping ampli?er into two rectangular potential
unobjectionably determined. Before a fuller ex
impulses of equal duration and size, as shown by 50 planation of this potential lowering can be given
it is necessary to explain the'function of the relay
the bottom curve of Fig. 4. According to Fig. 5
8‘!v actuated by the tipping device 63, 64. This
the'signal is ?rst ampli?ed further by means of
relay serves to interrupt the line 10, shortly after
the ampli?er tube 55, after which the above men
the two potential impulses shall have reached the
tioned differentiation of the signal is e?ected in
the usual manner by means of the suitably sized 65 cathode ray tubes over this line, since otherwise,
as a result of the shock in?icted on the ampli?ers
condenser 68 and resistance 59. The ampli?er
by the muzzle blast of the gun, furtherundesirable
tubes 51, 58, 59, together with the corresponding
potential impulses would make themselves felt
switching elements constitute a tipping ampli?er
on the control grids of the cathode ray tubes. The
of known design for carrying out the conversion
into the rectangular signals of the potential peaks 60 tipping device 63, 64 is connected with the line 10,
and acts as soon as the first potential impulse
resulting from the differentiation.
appears on this line. The relay 81, however,
The measure of the time interval between the
functions under the action of the condensers 88
two potential impulses is effected in the measur
as a slow-release relay, so that the contact 89 of
ing appliance by means of two cathode ray tubes,
the cathode rays of which are led on a circular 65 the relay is only opened after the passage of the
second impulse. The time‘characteristic of the
path over the ?uorescent screen with quite de?nite
tipping device 63, 64 to tip over immediately upon
frequencies, and which are blocked in their nor
the ?rst potential impulse, is used for lowering
mal state. If new the two rectangular potential
the after acceleration voltage of the cathode ray
impulses reach over line 10 the control electrodes
tubes in the time interval between thetwo im
1| of the cathode ray tubes 12, two luminous cir
cular traces will ‘appear on the ?uorescent screens
pulses. For this purpose, they tipping device 63,
of these two tubes. Out of‘ the angle between
these luminous traces can be determined the time
interval if the de?ecting velocity of the cathode
rays‘ is known. It has been found convenientto 75
64 is switched over the line 90 on the grid of the
amplifier tube 86, whilst the anode of this am
pli?er tube is connected with the after"accelera
tion electrodes“. The after acceleration elec-'
trodes are put under tension by the voltage sup
ply device 9l. As a result of the sudden positive
and lasting rise in voltage taking place as soon
denser I02, and the line I03 leads from here, over
the resistance I04, to the grid of the tube 60.
In this way the tube 60 receives such an initial
negative grid voltage that only the highest peaks
as the ?rst impulse appears at the grid of the am
pli?er tube 86, and of the subsequent anode cur C1 of noise voltage-of rare occurrence——cause the
rent impulse there takes place at the resistance
tipping device to tip over, to an extent just suf
92 a drop in voltage which is transmitted to the
?cient to keep up the negative potential of the
after acceleration electrodes.
condenser I02. Now, the tube 58 as well receives
In order to complete the explanation relating
its grid voltage from the condenser I02 over the
to the mode of working of the cathode ray tubes 10 resistance I05, with the insertion, however, of a
further information shall be given as to the
potentiometer I01 fed from the battery I06, which
method of feeding the oscillatory circuits 75, 16.
potentiometer makes it possible to set this nega
These oscillatory circuits are each directly con~
tive grid voltage 1-2 volt below the critical limit.
nected with the push-pull ampli?er tubes 93, 94,
Consequently, in a state of rest, these peaks of
which in their turn, are controlled by a quartz
the noise voltage will not cause the tipping am
oscillator and frequency subdividing device in
cluding the ampli?er tubes 95, 96, 91 and 98.
pli?er 5T, 58, 59 to tip over, whilst the effect of
the signals generated by the projectile is not im
The use of such a network ensures that the de
paired. Through the automatic peak of noise
?eeting frequencies always retain a value de
control described above the grid voltage of the
termined with the utmost accuracy. The oscil 20 tube 58 is automatically lowered when the noise
ator tube 95 is controlled by the quartz oscillator
voltage increases, and vice versa. Of course, the
99 oscillating with the frequency of 100,000
value adopted for the inertia of the peak of noise
C. P. S. whilst the ampli?er tube 96 separates the
control is su?icient to ensure that no change
oscillator part from the frequency subdivision
worth mentioning shall take place in the grid
device 91, 98. The subdivision of the oscillator 25 voltage within the time interval between the two
frequency is effected according to known methods,
impulses brought about by the projectile.
in the relation l00,000:10,000:1,000. The ampli
We claim:
?er tube 91 thus gives out to the lower cathode
1.. In an installation for measuring projectile
ray tube the frequency 10,000 C. P. S., whilst the
velocities, in combination, a registering appara
upper cathode ray tube receives from the ampli 30 tus adjustable parallel to a projectile trajectory
?er tube 98 the frequency 1,000 C. P. S. The
and comprising a combined photo-electric cell
choice of a decimal relation between the two
and electronic multiplier an electronic pre
de?ecting frequencies for the cathode rays facili
ampli?er connected with said cell, means con
tates the working out of the measurement result
stituting a slit located in front oi" said photo
which has to be recorded by photographing the 35 electric cell, and means comprising an optical
?uorescent screens of the two cathode ray tubes.
set and systems of mirrors for depicting said slit
Finally, the purpose and the Working of the
in two,v points of said projectile trajectory lying
network consisting of the tubes 60-62 shall be
at a predetermined distance from each other, a
explained. This is an automatic peak of noise
cable connected to the output of said preampli
control, somewhat similar to the devices used in
?er, a measuring apparatus comprising at least
wireless receiving sets for automatic volume con
two cathode ray tubes, and means connected
trol. Its purpose is to set automatically the grid
with said cathode ray tubes and said cable for
initial voltage of the tube 58 to such a value that
making visible the time interval between theim
in a state of rest the tipping ampli?er consisting
pulses generated by the passage of the projectile
of the tubes '51, 58 and 59 is just on the brink of
through the slit images.
tipping over, without actually doing so. It is a
In an installation for measuring projectile
known fact that the voltage supplied by a photo
velocities, a registering apparatus for the trans—
electric cell or by an electronic multiplier, in the
mission of impulses to a measuring apparatus,
case of subsequent considerable ampli?cation, is
said registering apparatus comprising a com
subjected to greater or less ?uctuations changing
bined photo-electric cell and electronic multi
in rapid succession (noise voltage). This noise
plier, an electronic preampli?er connected with
voltage depends on the intensity of the light fall
said photo-electric cell and electronic multiplier,
ing on the photo-cathode of the electronic multi
means constituting a slit located in front of said
plier. In the appliance described above the case
photo-electric cell, an optical set and systems of
is conceivable that the signals generated by the
mirrors, and separate means for causing said
projectile do not exceed by much the peak values
photo-electric cell and electronic multiplier, said
of the noise voltage. In such a, case, the initial
preampli?er, the ?rst-mentioned means and said
negative grid voltage of the tube 58 has to be
optical set and systems of mirrors to carry out as
set very closely and must be constantly re-ad
a unit, a turning movement, an elevational move‘
justed to fit any changes in light intensity, which 60 ment and a wheeling in movement for adjusting
can only be secured by the use of the automatic
the registering apparatus parallel to a projectile
peak of noise control. In the case of Fig. 5, again,
trajectory and causing said slit to be depicted in
this control consists of a tipping device 80, BI, 62.
two points of said projectile trajectory lying at
The grid of the control tube 60 is in this case
a predetermined distance from each other.
connected with the grid of the tube 58 for alter
3. In an installation for measuring projectile
nating current, so that the peaks of the noise
velocities, a registering apparatus for the trans
voltage also reach the grid of the tube 60. Under
mission of impulses to a measuring apparatus.
the action of these peaks of the noise voltage the
said registering apparatus comprising a photo
tipping device 69, 6|, 62 should be constantly
electric cell and electronic multiplier, an elec
caused to tip over at an irregular rhythm, in the 70 tronic preampli?er connected with said photo
course of which process the resulting anode cur
electric cell and electronic multiplier, means con
rent impulses of the tube 62 are recti?ed by
stituting a slit located in front of said photo
means of the recti?er I00 and the condenser IN
electric cell, cross mirrors and pentagonal mir
is negatively charged. The potential of the con
rors, and separate means for causing said photo
denser IOI is ?ltered and transmitted to the con 75 electric cell and electronic multiplier, said pre
amplifier, the ?rst-mentioned means and said
mirrors to carry out as a unit, a turning move
ment, an elevational movement and a wheeling in
movement for adjusting the registering appara
tus parallel to a projectile trajectory and causing
said slit to be depicted in two points of said pro
jectile trajectory lying at a predetermined dis
wherein the means of the measuring apparatus
which make the time interval visible include
means connected with the cathode ray tubes for
causing the cathode ray of the cathode ray tubes
to follow a circular path.
10. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
wherein the means of the measuring apparatus
which make the time interval visible include
tance from each other.
means connected with the cathode ray tubes for
4. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
wherein said measuring apparatus comprises a 10 working them with di?erent frequencies stand
ing in decimal relation.
power supply transformer, a power plant for gen
11. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
erating alternating voltages, and a switch con
wherein the cathode ray tubes comprise an after
necting said transformer and said power plant
acceleration electrode.
with the means which make the time interval
12. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
wherein the means of the measuring apparatus
5. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
which make the time interval visible include a
wherein the means of the measuring apparatus
switching-off device and means connected there
which make the interval visible includes devices
with for controlling it by the ?rst impulse.
generating high and low voltages required for
13. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
measuring purposes.
wherein the cathode ray tubes comprise an after
6. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
acceleration electrode, and wherein the means of
wherein the means of the measuring apparatus
the measuring apparatus which make the time
which make the time interval visible include an
interval visible include means applying at said
impulse ampli?er and a tipping device connected
after-accelerating electrodes potentials which
di?er for both tubes between the two impulses,
7. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
the change occurring immediately after the re
wherein the means of the measuring apparatus
ception of the ?rst impulse.
which make the time interval visible include an
14. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
impulse ampli?er having a network for di?er
30 wherein the means of the measuring apparatus
entiating the impulses.
which make the time interval visible include
8. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
means for an automatic peak of noise control to
wherein the means of the measuring apparatus
act upon the peaks of the noise voltage.
which make the time interval visible include a
quartz oscillator connected with the cathode ray
tubes for controlling them.
9. An installation in accordance with claim 1,
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