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Патент USA US2409694

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Oct '22, 1946. ,
v
E. c. oKREss
' Y
2,409,693
ELECTRON- DISCHARGE DEVICE
'Filed Jan. 6, 1942,
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
1
ATTORNEY
-'
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,693
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Ernest Carl Okress, Montclair, N. J., assignor to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts
burgh, Pa., a corporation of‘ Pennsylvania
Application January 6, 1942, Serial‘JNo. 425,715
17 Claims.
1
(Cl. 250-275)
This invention relates‘ to electron discharge
devices generally, and to the generation and
utilization of ultra high frequency currents, the
invention having reference, more particularly, to
novel high frequency radio apparatus including Cir
hollow-body resonators. _
The type of electron discharge device with
which the present invention may be classi?ed,
consists essentially of two hollow conducting cir
.cuit members or resonators within which ?elds,
comprising standing electromagnetic waves, are
adapted to. be set up by the passage‘ of a stream
of ‘electrons througha restrictedpart thereof.
Electron streams, in velocity modulated tubes,
are of relatively high‘impedance and‘matchread
ily the resonators through which they pass. The
high electron stream impedance is obtained by
means of a- high potential, but low stream cur
2.
crossing the said annular passageway to’ interfere
with electron ?ow except for the provision of ‘
resonator grids, whenever such‘ be necessary.
A still further’ object of the‘ present invention '
lies in the provision of novel forms of internally
resonant hollow-body resonator members and. in.
combination with novel forms of cathode,
buncher, catcher‘and collector arrangedito react‘
with the electron stream for useful and effective
purposes.
Further objects‘ of the invention include pro.
vision of a structure adaptable tobetter cooling,
simplicity of fabrication, stability of operation;
and other advantages and results which will ap
pear to those skilled in. the art, both’ by direct
statement thereof and» by implication from. the
context.
In the accompanying drawings, wherein like
rent. This procedure‘ in the microwave‘ region of
numerals of reference indicate similar parts
a few centimeters wavelength encounters dini 20 throughout the several views, and wherein pre
culties by seriously limiting the output of the os
ierredphysical embodiments of the invention are
cillators, etc. to almost uselesslevels. Sinceprac
disclosed by way of example;
tically there is a de?nite limit to the stream elec
Figure 1. is a longitudinal‘ sectional view of" an
tron density the only other factor in‘ increasing.
electron discharge device or highv frequency os
current is to increase the cross section’ area of: the cillator of the character'indicated‘ and: forming‘
stream. However, in the prior art, asirelated to
the primary embodiment of the‘ invention;
the short microwave region, the resonators are
scaled down to such an extent that the ori?ce
area through which the'stream passes is much re
stricted. This reduces the stream current.
The effective Q of such a small resonator is ap
preciably in?uenced by the extent of the orifice;
Hence, the‘ ratio of ori?ce to‘ resonator surface
must be kept as small as possible andthisis not
Figures 2 and-3 are cross-sectional views there‘
of on. lines I[——1I and III-—III', respectively, of
Fig. 1.
Figure 4 is a longitudinal sectional View similar
to Fig. 1, showing the device constructed‘ and con-1
nected to function as an‘ auxiliary wave mixerfor
obtaining a beat output; and
‘
possible with conventional methods of enveloping ‘
Figure 5 is an elevation of thedevice shown-in‘
Fig. 4, but with: indication of connection for use
the resonators around electron streams'without
as an ampli?er.
serious loss in‘ electron stream current and hence
output.
An object of the present invention is accord
ingly
overcome
to improve
eifectivelyupon
the‘ de?ciencies
prior art structures‘
therein‘ and:
to
particularly to {increase power output in this
micro-wave range with an increase» rather than
decrease in the size of mechanism‘ employed.
Another object of the invention is» to obtain
a microwave discharge device of practical‘. con
struction‘and‘ dimensions with tuning adjustment
for ori?ce-or grid spacing. of resonators situated‘
withinv the central space.‘ de?ned by an annular
electron-stream passageway or conduit.
A- further‘object of the invention’ is‘ to provide
a relation of resonators‘zsituated within the cen
tral: space defined by an‘ annular'electron: stream
passageway andiat theisame time‘ provide for: ad
justment and: support. by‘ means? having no; part: .
In the speci?c embodiment-of the invention il
lustrated in. said drawings, and with attention di
rected initially to Figures 1 to 3,. inclusive, the
‘reference numeral I0 designates an evacuated
housing or envelope, the major portion whereof
may be considered as comprising in general three.
parts, namely; one end‘ portion I l constituting a.
chamber for the cathode, a second or adjoining‘
, portion 52‘ within which is situated‘ a pair‘ of
resonator chambers l3; l4, ?eld-free space‘ l5
and grids [6; H, I8 and. I9; and ?nally a third
portion 20 constituting a collector chamber and
housing a collector 2|.
Heretofore it has been the general practice in'
connection with short-wave apparatus. of this
general type, to provide a cathode which pro
duces a concentrated pencil~like beam of elec
trons to pass throughv constricted? openingslcen
trally through resonators and'to be. received by a
2,409,693 .
'4
3
collector of ?at disk conical shape. Such con
struction imposes limitations on input and out
and opening into the second resonator chamber
put due to physical considerations. According
to the present invention, however, the electron
The resonators, as indicated above, are included
within the hollow of inner cylindrical wall 213
which accordingly forms the outer peripheral
M
stream is made to surround the resonators and
affects the alternating electric ?eld thereof by
wall for each resonator.
wherein the cathode 22 is of substantially con
A transverse partition
26 midway of the length of said cylindrical wall
24 constitutes a common wall to both resonators,
constricted peripheral openings communicating
with the surrounding electron stream. In gen
eral, my improved device provides a construction
said partition being situated midway of the length
10 of the cylindrical wall so the resonators will be of
equal size. End walls 27, 28 are provided parallel
to and equally spaced from and at opposite sides
of the partition thereby de?ning the length of said
mirror 22' a beam or stream of electrons which
resonators in an axial direction. These end walls
assumes the form of a hollow tube, this stream
being directed through grids of ?at ring shape 15 have an outer diameter substantially equal to the
diameter of the cylindrical wall 24, and have their
and through a ?eld-free space which is tubular in
peripheries opposite the ends of said cylindrical
con?guration, ?nally arriving at the collector
wall with appropriate spacing therefrom to there
which is preferably of hollow cylindrical forma
by provide the peripheral constricted openings 25
tion with an end wall hollowed and directed to;
caved ring formation and accordingly produces
with the aid of the cylindrical concave electrical
ward the electron stream so as to receive the elec
trons within an annular cavity 23, the cross sec
20 above mentioned, one in each resonator. The end
tion of which may preferably be V-shaped.
wall Zl' of resonator 13 next the cathode end of
the device has its outer periphery secured to the
inner periphery of the ?rst grid l6, and similarly,
Furthermore, and generally speaking, the prior
the far end wall 28 of the second resonator has
art has provided grids of relatively small diame
ter and large resonator chambers which have 25 its outer periphery secured to the inner periphery
of the last grid 19 of the series of grids. The
been annular in formation extending around the
resonators are further de?ned by an inner cy
grids, said grids having been foraminous disks
lindrical wall concentric with the Wall heretofore
in central openings of the resonators. Accord
described as cylindrical. This said inner cylin
ing to the present invention, the grids have a
larger diameter than the resonators, which are 30 drical wall is constituted, for the second reso- '
nator, by a portion of a tubulaar coaxial con
likewise substantially within the con?nes of the
ductor, the tube part 29 of which extends inwardly
portion of the device constituting the tube-like
of said resonator from the far end thereof through
?eld-free space, and which accordingly have an
outside diameter no greater than the inner diam
eter of the grids. The construction thus obtained, .
provides a very considerable cathode area with at
tendant copious ?ow Of-electrons, and at the same
time permits the utilization of the small resona~
end wall 28 as far as partition 26. An extension
38 of this tubular wall is situated in the ?rst
resonator from said partition 25 to the forward
end wall 21 forming a support for said end wall.
Accordingly, in cross section, the ?rst resonator
is de?ned by cylindrical and concentric walls 24
tors operating at the fundamental microwave
frequencies of a few centimeters wavelength.
40 and 3E! and by end wall 2'! and partition 26, where
as the second resonator is de?ned by cylindrical
The ?eld-free space i5 is formed as an an
and concentric walls 24 and 29, partition 26 and
nular passage, between two concentric cylindrical
end wall 28, the areas thus de?ned being substan
walls, of which the outer one is also the envelope
tially equal to each other. By proportioning the
wall for the mid-portion i2 thereof, whereas the
inner cylindrical wall 24 of the ?eld-free space q; in' resonator chamber M with respect to its grid
spacing and with respect to the resonator cham
is also the outer cylindrical walls of the resonators
ber 13 and grid spacing of grid l6, H, the reso
l3, M, of which more detail description will fol
nance of these two resonator chambers may be
low shortly. Su?ice it to say for the moment,
made identical. The partition or disk-shaped wall
that the inner cylindrical wall 24 is shorter than
the outer cylindrical wall an amount sufficient to 50 26 which separates the two chambers l3, M is
provided with an appropriate Opening 3! and
obtain a proper peripheral constricted opening 25
feed-back 32 therethrough as will be understood
at each end thereof for the corresponding reso
by those skilled in the art as a means for obtain
nator, and proper spacing of the grids thereat.
ing oscillation in the ?rst resonator chamber l3
As shown, the ?rst grid i6 is in a plane at the
near end of the outer wall, that is to say, the end 55 by oscillations produced in the second resonator
chamber 54.
nearest to the cathode, and the second grid [1 is
The tubular conduit or chamber i5 surrounding
substantially parallel thereto at the near end of
the resonators peripherally, constitutes the ?eld
the inner wall 24 with a spacing between the grids
free space for travel of electrons and the length
and with the constricted opening 25 communicat
of this ?eld-free space is proportioned with re—‘
ing therebetween, to impress a modifying in
spect
to the wavelength with which the particular
fluence upon the electron stream passing through
device is concerned. It will be understood that
those grids in consequence of the resonance of
electrons emitted from the cathode arrive at the
the ?rst resonator chamber I3. Similarly, the
?rst grid I 6 and due to the resonance of chamber
second pair of grids l 8 and I9 are situated in par 65 [3 the passage of electrons between the ?rst grid
allelism to each other and to the ?rst two grids
[6 and the second grid I‘! is modi?ed such that
and preferably separated substantially the same
some electrons pass through unaffected as to ve
distance as the ?rst two grids, the grid l8 nearest
locity and other electrons are minutely slowed
the cathode of the second pair being shown in the
down whereas other electrons are minutely
end plane at the far end of inner cylinder 24 and 70 speeded up. The magnitude of the modulation
the second grid N of this pair is situated at the
is partially dependent upon the ?eld strength be
far end of the outer wall of the intermediate
tween the grids l6, I‘! of the resonator £3. The
housing portion I2. ‘The construction accordingly
electrons then pass through the ?eld-free space
:5 with the electrons having normal or unaffected
also provides a constriction or gap 25 existent be
tween the inner peripheries of the grids l8, i9 75 speed overtaking previously dispatched somewhat
5
2,409,693
slower electrons and in turn being overtaken by
somewhat speeded-up electrons which started at
a later moment. The proportional length of the
?eld-free space is such that the proper concen
tration of electrons thus effected takes place be
tween grids l8 and H3 at the far end of the field
free space. The electrons accordingly represent
a concentration of energy and are capable of giv
ing up energy to the second resonator when acted
on by oscillating electric ?elds between grids I8,
6
opposite parts thereof so that the heating cur
rent divides and passes from‘ one lead to the
other through both halves of the ?lament. The
lead-ins for the ?lament have the same struc
tural elements as heretofore described with re
spect to the lead-ins and supports for the col
lector and are attached to and support the oath
ode. Accordingly the same reference numerals
are applied thereto and distinguished by utiliza
tion of double prime marks thereon.
In order that the resonator chambers may be
con?ned at their ends and tuned with respect to
each other, the opposite end walls 21, 28 are
I 9 of the resonator M in the proper phase in ac
cordance with classical theory. A small amount
of this energy is utilized, as indicated above, as
feed-back through loop 32 to the ?rst resonator
shown ?exible, being of resilient metal, and ?xed
in order to modifyv the ?ow of other electrons be 15 only at their middle parts, with means provided
tween initial grids I6, I‘! that the cycle of opera
tions above explained may continue.
for ?exing the peripheral parts thereof.
Flexing of the ?rst disk-like end Wall 2'! is pref
The majority of the energy derived by the sec
erably by means of a pressure foot 44 arranged
ond resonator is carried on through a suitable
with a peripheral engagement against the near
output. As here shown the coupling means to 20 face of said ?exible end wall in the area thereof
the output comprises a coaxial line heretofore
inward from the periphery. Suitable means is
brie?y mentioned and formed by a tube 29 ex
provided for applying pressure to this pressure
tending from within the second resonator,
foot 44 normal to and for purposes of ?exing
through the collector and ?nally to the exterior
the wall inwardly and reducing the gap or con
of housing 10. Within the coaxial-line tube 29
stricted opening 25 between the same and the
is a central conductor 33 having a loop 34 at its
cylindrical wall 24, which accomplishes the de
outer end connected to the wall of tube 29 and
sired tuning. A stop 45 is preferably situated at
having a loop 35 next its inner end which pro
the middle or ?xed part of the end wall 21 for
J'ects into the resonator by means of an ori?ce 36
engagement by the pressure foot to limit possible
and is secured to a wall thereof, as for instance
movement of said pressure foot. This construc
to partition 25. The outer end of tube 29 is suit
tion will accordingly prevent undue depression of
ably sealed, as by an electromagnetically trans
the pressure foot and undue ?exing of the end
parent cap 31, and as the tube is likewise sealed
wall and its attached grid, especially during evac
to the housing It] where protruding therefrom,
uation of the envelope. Thev pressure means
the interior of said tube and housing are main 35 shown is constituted by a post-like structure 46
tained at the same vacuum. Loop 34 in the outer
extending centrally from the pressure foot 44
sealed end of tube 29 forms a coupling means to
through the hollow central portion of the cathode
a suitable output circuit or apparatus indicated
to a ?exible outer envelope Wall 4'! the periphery‘
generally by tank or rectangular wave guide G.
of which is suitably vacuum sealed with respect
The collector 2| is suitably supported by one or 40 to housing II]. A header 48 overlies the flexible
more spoke-like rods 38 radiating therefrom and
wall and receives the threaded shank of a thumb
one or all constituting lead-in connections as
screw 49, said shank being directly opposed to
well as supports. Said rods are shown passing
post 46 and therefore capable of moving the post
through electrically insulating collars 39 which
have thimbles 40 sealed therein, said rods being
longitudinally inward as the thumbscrew is fed
soldered or otherwise secured to said thimbles.
For lead-in purposes the said rods may be con
Because of the presence of the coaxial-line
tinued through the thimbles, in which event the
in that direction.
’
connector tube protruding from the far end of
the envelope, it is not feasible to operate a pres
rod and thimble must be secured with a vacuum
sure foot against the disk-like end Wall 28 of the
tight seal. As indicated in Figure 3 there are 50 second resonator l4 precisely as described above.
three mountings provided for the collector, one
of said mountings being shown in detail in Fig
ure 1. It maybe furthernoted that the inner
end of the insulating collar 39 above mentioned
Flexing may accordingly be obtained by other
appropriate means.
As shown, a pressure foot
comprising a ring 56 is attached, by solder or
otherwise, on the far side of the said disk-like
is secured with a vacuum seal in the outer end
end wall 23 near the periphery thereof, and from
of a nipple 4| protruding from the peripheral
said ring project a plurality of posts 5| parallel
wall of the collector housing portion 20. ‘Within
to the axis of the envelope and normal to said.
this nipple is situated a cup 42 concentric upon
ring and wall. These posts are each sealed
the rod with the closed end of the cup outwardly
through a ?exible bellows-like Wall portion 52 inv
and with the side walls ofthe cup parallel to 60 the far end wall of the envelope. Flanges 53- on
and spaced from the nipple 4!. This construc
said posts next said end wall of the envelope en
tion is helpful decreasing microwave energy pas
gageable against underlying detents or ?ngers
sage to the exterior by means of the lead 38.
,
54 prevent excessive flexing of the resonator end
The rear part of electrical mirror 22' is an
wall and its attached grid. The outer protruding
annulus and support therefor is obtained in a 65 ends of the several posts 5| are in engagement
manner similar to that described with respect to
with the near face of an adjusting nut 55 screw
the support for the collector and the parts con
threaded at 56 upon an outer threaded hub sun.
stituting such ‘support and lead-in connection
rounding and ?xed to the coaxial—line tube 29
are designated by the same reference numerals‘
next the end wall of the envelope. The outer
to which a prime mark has been added.
’
70 periphery of this nut 55 is knurled that it may
The cathode 22 is preferably indirectly heated
by use of a coiled spring-like ?lament 43 which
has a central disposition immediately behind the
annular emitting surface of the cathode. . The
lead-ins for the ?lament connect at ‘diametrically,
be turned by hand for adjusting‘or other pur
poses.
-
‘
The construction shown and thus far described
accordingly provides an oscillator for micro-wave
oscillations wherein the resonators are reduced tov
2,409,693
.
8
7
as small a diameter as desired and yet provides
a cathode of considerable size and capable of pro
ducing a very considerable energy input, and at
the same time enables the resonators to be tuned
with precision, the precise tuning assuming
greater importance as the Wave length employed
comes within the range of micro-short-waves.
The features described above in their general
other suitable material. Within said tube parts
of the invention depicted in Figure 4 as an aux
pressed on the collector 63 as a beat output,
which, for that purpose is shown with its face
29, 29' and coaxial therewith are alined rods or
central conductors 33, 33’, the outer ends of which
are provided with loops 34, 34’ within said caps
31, 37', the far ends of said loops attaching to
the metallic portion of the tube. At the end of
the tube part 29' which passes through the cath
ode chamber, said loop and cap project into a
suitable wave guide or other source of oscillating
aspects of resonators entirely within the con?nes
of the volume de?ned by the tubular stream 10 energy which may be derived from an antenna.
The opposite end of the tube part 29 which pro
of electrons and with the resonators adjustable
trudes from the collector chamber is situated
for tuning purposes, can be incorporated in other
within another wave guide which, in turn, may
short Wave apparatus and oscillators, for in
receive its oscillations from any suitable oscilla
stance, may be incorporated in auxiliary mixers
tor. The energies thus received at opposite ends
and ampli?ers as disclosed respectively in Figures
of the tube will be propelled as waves character
4 and 5. So far as they apply, therefore, like
ized by the frequency of the particular source
numerals of reference are carried over from the
from which derived. By virtue of loops 35, 35’ in
preceding description and additional numerals
the resonators 60, 6| connected with the said rods
are used. on both of these ?gures where parts are
33, 33’, respectively, the energy is introduced into
the same, and with addition of prime and double
the respective resonators and obtains correspond
prime marks in some instances.
ing oscillation therein. The result Will be im
The basic principle and a further embodiment
iliary mixer will be described.
For use of the
device as an auxiliary mixer, it is desirable to
duplicate the centrally disposed coaxial-line
through the end portion of the envelope consti
tuting the cathode chamber, and to omit the
feed-back between the resonating chambers.
In Figure 4, the reference numeral 51 desig
nates an evacuated housing or envelope, the ma
jor portion whereof may be considered as com
prising in general three parts, namely, one end
portion 58 constituting a chamberfor the oath
ode, a second or adjoining portion 59 within
which is situated a pair of resonator chambers
6!), 6i, ?eld-free space [5 and grids l6, ll, [8 and
I9, and ?nally a third portion 62 constituting a
collector chamber and housing a collector 63.
Within the ?rst portion 58 is situated an annular
cathode 22 activated by a heater 43 behind the
same, the lead-ins for which are shown at 38"
protruding from the portion 58 in diametrically
opposite parts thereof and sealed in the same
manner as described in connection with Figure 1.
The cathode is provided with an electrical mir
ror 22’, and the grids and collector are of an
annular formation situated in opposition to the
annular cathode in the same manner as described
with respect to Figure 1. In the present showing
grid it next the cathode chamber and ?nal grid
l9 next the collector chamber are each secured
at their inner peripheries to disk-like end-walls
64 of the respective resonators, which said end
toward the cathode flat and parallel thereto,
The resonator end walls 64 are adjustable by
?exure at their peripheral margins, and substan
tially duplicate means may be provided for ob
taining adjustment of each. The means selected
for the present showing for adjusting said end
walls of the resonators and constricted openings,
is essentially the same as heretofore described
with respect to Fig. 1, at the collector end thereof,
which description is believed su?icient for this
present showing and like numerals of reference
are accordingly applied in Fig. 4 to the adjusting
means at both ends of the device.
If it is desired to use the device as an ampli?er,
the internal construction above described with
respect to Figures 1 to 4 may be utilized with
appropriate selection of parts. Thus, a feed-back
55 is provided through partition 86 between res
onators B7 and G8. The output is obtained at
the end of the concentric-line tube 29 through
an appropriate wave guide associated therewith;
Collector 2! may be in duplication of the showing
thereof in Fig. l.
I claim:
'
.
1. An electron discharge device comprising
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
conductive part providing a ?eld-free space en
closed thereby and said ?eld free space surround
ing said resonators peripherally, said resonators
having constricted openings at ends of said ?eld
walls are adjustable by ?exing at their periph 55 free space, a cathode in said envelope opposite
an end of said ?eld-free space for directing an
eries. Such ?exing is for purposes of varying
electron stream through said ?eld-free space, and
the constricted openings 25, respectively, between
a collector opposed to the cathode at the other
those disks and the outer peripheral walls 24 of
end of, said field-free space.
the resonator chambers. It may be here noted
2. An electron discharge device comprising
that the resonator chambers 60, Bl are divided 60
resonators situated end to end and having pe
from each other by a disk-like partition 26' the
ripheral constricted openings next the most dis
periphery of which is secured to the peripheral
tant ends thereof, an envelope having a conduc
wall 24 to situate said partition midway between
tive part providing a ?eld-free space at the pe
the ends of said peripheral wall.
ripheral outside of the resonators extending the
Centrally of the housing or envelope '5'! is pro
vided a coaxial-line connection of which one tube
part 29 extends through the far end of the en
full length of said resonators from one said con
stricted opening to the other, and a cathode in
velope as described in connection with Fig. 1, and
another aligned tube part 29' which extends op
positely outward from said partition 26' and pro- .
said envelope opposed to one end of said ?eld
free space, said cathode being annular and rela
tively large in comparison to the said resonators
jects from the near end of the device, necessarily,
both as to diameter and area.
therefore, passing centrally through the cathode
3. An electron discharge device comprising a
tube are vacuum-sealed as by means of electro
conductive envelope having axially alined oppo
site end chambers and an intermediate portion,
magnetically transparent caps 31, 31' of glass or
an annular cathode in one end chamber substan
chamber,
Both end parts of this coaxial-line
2,409,693
l0
tially in a plane transverse to the axis of said
envelope, an annular collector similarly ‘disposed
in the opposite‘end chamber and alined with said
cathode, and a cylindrical wall within said inter
mediate portion of the envelope dividing said
portion into resonator “space within the con?nes
opposed to the last of the series of grids for re
ceiving electrons passing through said grids, and
a coaxial-line coupling connection centrally dis
posed with respect to the resonators and having
a loop in one of said resonators.
of said cylindrical walland into a ?eld-free space
for the entire part of said portion between the‘
*8. An electron discharge device comprising
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
‘conductive part providing a ?eld~free space en
envelope wall ‘and ‘said cylindrical wall, said. ?eld
"closed thereby and-‘said field-‘free space ‘surround
free space thereby being tubular and being alined
10 “ing said resonators peripherally, said resonators
with and between the cathode and collector.
‘havingconstricted openings at ends or" ‘said ?eld
4. An electron ‘discharge device comprising a
‘i'ree space, grids ‘at opposite ends of said ?eld
conductive ‘envelope having axially‘ alined oppo
‘iree space and at *end walls of said resonators,
site end chambers and an intermediate portion,
an annular cathode in one end chamber substan
the mid-‘portion of "one ‘of said end walls being
fixed
‘and the peripheral margin of ‘said one ‘end
tially in a plane transverse to the axis of said 15 ‘wall being ?exible, said grids being in pairs at
envelope, an annular collector similarly disposed
opposite sides of said constricted openings, means
in the opposite end chamber ‘and alined with
for flexing said margin ‘of said ‘one resonator end
said cathode, and a cylindrical wall within said
wall and grid ‘for varying the constriction of ‘said
intermediate portion‘of the envelope dividing said
constricted ‘opening, a cathode in said envelope 7
portion into resonator space within the con?nes 20 oppositean end of said ?eld-free space for direct
‘of said cylindrical wall and into a ?eld-free space
ing a stream ‘of electrons to and through said
for the entire part ‘of said portion between the
grids ‘and ?eld-‘free space, and a collector beyond
envelope wall and said cylindrical wall, said ?eld
and opposed to the last of the series of grids for
free space thereby being tubular and being alined
receiving electrons passing through said grids.
with and between the cathode and collector and 25
9. An electron discharge device comprising hol
said cylindrical Wall being shorter than and sym
low-body resonators, an envelope having ‘a con
metrically disposed with respect to the said res
ductive part providing an annular ?eld-free
onator space for providing constricted peripheral
space enclosed thereby and said ?eld free space
openings at the ‘distant ‘ends of the said resonator
surrounding‘ ‘said resonators peripherally, said
space into the ends of the ?eld-free space, and 30 resonators ‘having constricted openings at ends
means for varying the said constricted openings
of said ‘field-free space, annular grids at opposite
for tuning purposes.
ends of said ?eld-free space and at end walls of
5. An electron discharge device comprising
said resonators, said grids being in pairs at op
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
posite sides of said constricted openings, an an
conductive part providing a ?eld-free space en 35 nular cathode in said envelope opposite an end
closed ‘thereby and said ?eld-free‘ space surround
‘of said ?eld-free space for directing a hollow
ing said resonators ‘peripherally, said resonators
cylindrical stream of electrons to and through
having ‘constricted openings at ends of said ?eld
said ‘grids ‘and ‘?eld-free space, an annular col
free space, a cathode in said envelope ‘opposite
40 lector beyond and opposed to the last'of the series
an end of (said ‘?eld-free space for directing an
of ‘grids ‘for receiving electrons passing through
' electron ‘stream through said ?eld-free space, a
said grids, and a coaxial-line coupling connection
collector opposed to the cathode at the other end
centrally disposed with respect to the resonators
of said ?eld-free space, and a coaxial-line cou
and having a loop in one of said resonators.
pling connection centrally disposed with respect 45
to the resonators and having a loop in one of
said resonators.
6. An electron discharge ‘device comprising
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
conductive part providing a ?eld-free space en
10. An electron ‘discharge device comprising
cylindrical hollow-body resonators, a cylindrical
envelope coaxial therewith and having a conduc
tive part ‘providing an annular ?eld-free space
enclosed thereby and said ?eld-free space sur
50 rounding said resonators peripherally, said res
onators having constricted openings at ends of
closed thereby and said field-free space surround
ing said resonators peripherally, said resonators
said field-free space, a cathode in said envelope
having constricted openings at ends of said ?eld
opposite an end of said ?eld-free space for di
free space, grids at opposite ends of said ?eld
recting an-electron stream through said ?eld-free
free space and at end walls of ‘said resonators, 55 space, a collector opposed to the cathode at the
said grids being in pairs at oppositev sides of said
other end of said‘field-free space, ‘means concen
constrictedopenings, a cathode in said envelope
trio with said envelope and projecting from one
opposite an end of said ?eld~free space for direct
end thereof ‘for wave propagation with respect to
ing a stream of electrons to "and through said
one resonator, and means projecting at ‘opposite
grids and ?eld-free space, and a collector beyond
end of the envelope concentric ‘therewith for
and opposed to the last of the series of grids for 60 tuning ‘the other resonator with respect to said
receiving electrons passing through said grids.
7. An electron ‘discharge device comprising
one resonator.
11. An electron discharge device comprising
cylindrical hollow-body resonators, a cylindrical
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
conductive part providing a, ‘?eld-free space en
65 envelope coaxial "therewith and having a con
closed therebyand said ?eld-free space surround
ductive part providing an annular ?eld-free space
ing said resonators peripherally, said resonators
enclosed thereby and said ‘?eld free space sur
having constricted openings at ends ‘of said ?eld
rounding said resonators peripherally, said res
free space, grids at opposite ends of said ?eld
onators having constricted openings at ends of
free space and at end walls of said resonators, 70 said ?eld-free space, a cathode in said envelope
said grids being in pairs at opposite sides of said
opposite an end of said ?eld-‘free space for di
constricted openings, a cathode in said envelope
recting an electron stream through said ?eld-free
opposite an end of said field-free space for direct
space, a collector opposed to the cathode at the
ing a stream of electrons to and through said
other end of said ?eld-free space, a coaxial-line
grids and ?eld-free space, a collector beyond and
coupling connection centrally disposed with re
15.
2,409,698
11
spect to the resonators and having a loop in one
of said resonators, a ?exible Wall at the opposite
end of said envelope from said coupling connec
tion, means extending from said ?exible wall to
the end of the nearest resonator for tuning that
resonator by ?exing said wall, and means for
?exing said wall.
12. An electron discharge device comprising
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
conductive part providing a ?eld-free space en
closed thereby and said ?eld free space surround
12
15. An electron discharge device comprising
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
conductive part providing a ?eld-free space en
closed thereby and said ?eld-free space surround
ing said resonators peripherally, said resonators
having constricted openings at ends of said ?eld
free space, grids at opposite ends of said ?eld
free space and at end walls of said resonators,
said grids being in pairs at opposite sides of said
constricted openings, means for ?exing one res
onator end wall and grid for varying the con
striction of said constricted opening, said means
ing said resonators peripherally, said resonators
comprising pressure foot engaging said resonator
having constricted openings at ends of said ?eld
end wall and having a plurality of posts projecting
free space, grids at opposite ends of said ?eld
therefrom and through the end wall of the en
free space and at end walls of said resonators,
velope, bellows-like means in the end wall of the
said grids being in pairs at opposite sides of said
envelope permitting movement of said posts and
constricted openings, a cathode in said envelope
the end wall of the resonator, a cathode in said
opposite an end of said ?eld-free space for direct
envelope opposite an end of said ?eld-free space
ing a stream of electrons to and through said grids
and ?eld-free space, a collector beyond and op 20 for directing a stream of electrons to and through
said grids and ?eld-free space, and a collector
posed to the last of the series of grids for re
having a ?at face opposed to the last of the series
ceiving electrons passing through said grids, and
of grids for receiving electrons passing through
externally operable means extending to one of
said grids.
the end walls of the resonator for moving said
16. An electron discharge device comprising
wall next a constricted opening and thereby
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
tuning the resonator.
conductive part providing a ?eld-free space en
13. An electron discharge device comprising
closed thereby and said ?eld-free space surround
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
ing said resonators peripherally, said resonators
conductive part providing a ?eld-free space en
closed thereby and said ?eld free space sur 30 having constricted openings at ends of said ?eld
free space, grids at opposite ends of said ?eld
rounding said resonators peripherally, said res
free space and at end walls of said resonators,
onators having constricted openings at ends of
said grids being in pairs at opposite sides of said
said ?eld-free space, grids at opposite ends of
constricted openings, means for ?exing one res
said ?eld-free space and at end walls of said res
onators, said grids being in pairs at opposite sides 35 onator end wall and grid for varying the con
striction of said constricted opening, said means
of said constricted openings, means for ?exing
comprising pressure foot engaging said resonator
one resonator end Wall and grid for varying the,
end wall and having a plurality of posts projecting
constriction of said constricted opening, said
therefrom and through the end Wall of the en
means comprising a ?exible end wall for the en
velope connected to a peripheral part of the end 40 velope, bellows-like means in the end wall of the
envelope permitting movement of said posts and
wall of the resonator by which ?exing of the end
the end wall of the resonator, a cathode in said
wall of the envelope obtains corresponding ?exing
envelope opposite an end of said field-free space
of the end wall of the resonator, a cathode in said
for directing a stream of electrons to and through
envelope opposite an end of said ?eld-free space
said grids and ?eld-free space, and a collector
for directing‘a stream of electrons to and through
having a recessed face opposed to the last of the
said grids and ?eld-free space, and a collector be
series of grids _for receiving electrons passing
yond and opposed to the last of the series of grids
for receiving electrons passing through said grids.
14. An electron discharge device comprising
through said grids.
17. An electron discharge device comprising
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
hollow-body resonators, an envelope having a
conductive part providing a ?eld-free space en
closed thereby and said ?eld-free space surround—
conductive part providing an annular ?eld-free
space enclosed thereby and said ?eld-free space
surrounding said resonators peripherally, said
resonators having constricted openings at ends
ing said resonators peripherally, said resonators
having constricted openings at ends of said ?eld
free space, grids at opposite ends of said ?eld
free space and at end walls of said resonators,
said grids being in pairs at opposite sides of said
constricted openings, a cathode in said envelope
opposite an end of said ?eld-free space for di
of said ?eld-free space, annular grids at opposite
ends of said ?eld-free space and at end walls of
said resonators, said grids being in pairs at op
posite sides of said constricted openings, an an
nular cathode in said envelope opposite an end of
said ?eld-free space for directing a hollow cylin 60 recting a stream of electrons to and through said
grids and ?eld-free space, a collector beyond and
drical stream of electrons to and through said
opposed to the last of the series of grids for re
grids and ?eld-free space, an annular collector
ceiving electrons passing through said grids, a
beyond and opposed to the last of the series of
grids for receiving electrons passing through ‘said
coaxial-line coupling connection centrally dis
grids, a pressure foot having an edge thereof in
' posed with respect to the resonators and having a
contact with a marginal part of one end'wall of
loop in one of said resonators, and externally
operable means extending to one of the end walls
one resonator adjacent an annular grid, and
means for operating said pressure foot transverse
of the resonator for moving said wall next a
constricted opening and thereby tune the res
to said end wall of the resonator and thereby
altering the constriction of the constricted open 70 onator.
ERNEST C. OKRESS.
ing for tuning purposes.
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