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Патент USA US2409749

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Patented Oct. 22,1946
2,409,746
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘
2,409,746
MOTOR FUELS
Theodore W. Evans, Oakland, and Alfred G. Cat
taneo, Berkeley, Calif., assignors to Shell De
velopment Company, San Francisco, Calif., a
corporation of Delaware
No Drawing. Application July 31, 1940,
Serial No. 348,838
4 Claims.
(Cl. 44-56)
2
This invention relates to motor fuels for use
i
.
tion of supercharged spark ignition engines than
in high compression internal combustion spark'
the latter.
ignition engines and relates more particularly to
As is known, supercharging is one method of
markedly raising the power output of gasoline
motor fuels blended with an agent which tends to
reduce the knocking of the fuel in supercharged 5 engines. This method comprises boosting the in
gasoline enginestake pressures to above atmospheric pressure, thus
Branched Chain ethers. Such as di-iSOD-I'ODVI
increasing the compression pressures. The de
ethel‘, have been suggested as blending agents to
gree of supercharging is limited by the knocking
raise the octane rating of low octane fuels. Their
property of the fuel, for an fuels have a critical
Primary Value lies in their own high octane mt‘ 1° compression pressure above which they detonate
ings: and by virtue of this Property raise the
spontaneously. Obviously the fuel which permits
octane rating of the hydrocarbons which are the
the highest degree of Supercharging is the most
primary source for motor fuels.
desirable.
Low octan? fuels have ‘beer? conslflered- the
Response to supercharging may be measured by
most susceptible to_the bene?clal action of the 15 a unit known as the “allowable boost ratio» or
ethers. Blendmg with hydrocarbon fuels having
octane ratmgs equal to or greater than those of
A_ 3 ratio which is determined as follows:
The intake pressure of an engine running at
Egg:5:13;:aggg‘xgingiiegggg??iitéiéiaglai?é
constant speed and constant compression ratio is
fuel
is effected,
is reduced,
whileitthe
being
B. t.well
u. content
known that
of the
theblended
B. t. u. 20 ?gjllli?d
r
g tgginpgcgertarggégage
f
f’ 1 t 1711'
(Egg;
d d
?g?zscazgggs ethers are muc
'
h below those of
.
We naive now found that .certa‘m blends of
un on a re erence u_e a
_e same spee
an
compression rat1os,- with var1ed intake pressure
until the same degree of knocking is obtained.
The intake pressure of the blended fuel divided
ethers w1th hydrocarbons, wh1ch blends possess 25 b the intake ressure of the reference fuel iv
. octane numbers not substantially greater ‘than
as:
. p
. e A. B. ratio of the blended fuel.
g . es
By convention
those of the hydrocarbons alone prove vastly
the A B ratio i s based on 1sometime a s the refer "
charged engines.
em?
superior to the straight hydrocarbons in- super
Such blends are obtained when
ue ‘
_
.
.
.
mixing certain ethers with hydrocarbons having 30 Examples of fathers Swtable for our mventlon
octane ratings equal to or higher than the particare methyl ternary 'buwl ether’ methyl ternary
ular ethers. Some few hydrocarbons of lower
aimyl ether’ methyl tertlary heXyl ether, ethyl ter
’ octane than the ethers produce blends which have
{nary butyl ether’ n'pmpyl telilary butyl ether,
still lower octane number than the hydrocarbons.
lsopmpyl ternary butyl ether’ lsopmpyl ternary
Certain asymmetrical dialkyl ethers, one alkyl 35 amyl ether, etc.
'
group of which is a tertiary alkyl radical, preferThe amounts of the ethers used 1n the blends
ably of 4 to 6 carbon atoms such as tertiary butyl
radical, and the other alkyl group of which con-
are advantageously at least about 5% and prefer
ably from 5% to 50%, although quantities Outside
tains 1 to 3 carbon atoms in a straight or branched ‘
these limits may be used if desired
' chain, have octane ratings of 100 or slightly lower. 4n
Blends thereof with hydrocarbon fuels of equal
or higher octane number have octane ratings not
higher than those’ of the hydrocarbon fuel alone,
but peculiarly enough permit more efficient opera-
In the table below, examples of blends of hydro
carbons with the above ethers are shown, which
blends have equal or lower octane ratings than the
hydrocarbons, but possess materially increased
A. B. ratios.
Hydrocarbon
Blend
Ether
Percent
Name
as
eels
Methyl tertiary butyl ether-___ Triptane ________________ __
1.35
11035
Do _______________________ _- 60%iso-octane,50%xylene_
Do _______________________ __ 80%iso-octane,20%xylene_
Methyl tertiary amyl'ether..__ Isa-octane _______________ _.
1.15
1.10
1.0
97
100
100
1 Determined with the aid of iso-octane containing .05 cc. tetra. ethyl lead.
50
33%
50
50
a.
110134
96%
99%‘
99
1. 45
1.30
1.30
1.20
2,409,746
4
2. An improved motor fuel for supercharged
spark ignition engines comprising a mixture of
It will be seen that the addition of various
quantities of our ethers, while failing to improve
the octane rating, markedly increases the allow
methyl tertiary butyl ether and gasoline hydro
able boosting of the intake pressure without caus
carbons containing a substantial amount of trip
ing knocking.
tane, said mixture having an octane rating lower
than said hydrocarbons, and said fuel having an
A. B. ratio greater than that of said gasoline
Suitable gasoline hydrocarbons with which to
blend the ethers are, for example, iso-octane, neo
hydrocarbons.
hexane, triptane, mixtures of polymer or alkylate
3. An improved motor fuel for supercharged
gasoline with triptane, mixtures of iso-octane,
neohexane, triptane, isopentane, etc., blends of 10 spark ignition engines comprising a mixture of
methyl tertiary butyl ether and gasoline hydro
relatively low boiling aromatic hydrocarbons such
carbons containing a substantial amount of neo
as toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, etc. with high
hexane, said mixture having an octane rating
octane aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc.
lower than said hydrocarbons, and said fuel hav
If desired, anti-detonants such as, tetraethyl
lead, aniline, mono methyl aniline, or anti-oxi 15 ing an A. B. ratio greater than that of said gaso
line hydrocarbons.
dants such as phenols, aminophenols, may be
4. An improved motor fuel for supercharged
added to our blended fuels.
spark ignition engines comprising a mixture of
We claim as our invention:
methyl tertiary butyl ether and gasoline hydro
1. An improved motor fuel for supercharged
spark ignition engines comprising a mixture of 20 carbons containing a substantial amount of hy
drocarbons selected from the group consisting of
methyl, tertiary butyl ether and gasoline hydro
iso~octane, neohexane, triptane, and mixtures
carbons containing a substantial amount of iso
thereof.
octane, said mixture having an octane rating
lower than said hydrocarbons, and said fuel hav
ing an A. B. ratio greater than that of said gaso
line hydrocarbons.
25
THEODORE W. EVANS.
ALFRED G. CATTANEO.
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