Patented Oct. 22, 1946 2,409,764 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,409,764 ‘ PISTON RING Sellers E. J essup, Los Angeles, Calif. Application November 15, 1944, Serial No. 563,523 8 Claims. (01. 809—4) 1 2 My invention relates broadly to improved pack vation of one form of the ?exible piston ring actuator which cooperates with my improved pis ton ring shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is a vertical cen tral section of a composite piston assembly and a portion of a cylinder having my improved pis ton ring structure applied thereto; Fig. 6 is a ing means for use between the members of a piston and cylinder couple, and further to a pis ton ring assembly wherein the expansive force produced by ?uid compression within a cylinder is applied to force the piston ring when seated in one member of the couple into ?uid tight con vertical section, showing my improved piston ring nection with the working surface of the compan assembly applied to another form of composite ion member of the couple, automatically. My piston structure, and Fig. 7 is a vertical central improvement further relates to a piston ring as section of a detail, showing a modi?ed form of sembly which is applied to the end of a piston my improved piston ring assembly applied to the and which is exposed to the pressure of ?uid cylinder instead of to the piston. medium in the cylinder and through the use of an My improved piston ring assembly is shown actuator is forced laterally into ?uid tight con in one of its simplest forms in Figs. 1 to 4 inclu tact between the working surfaces of a piston 15 sive, in which A represents a portion of a cylinder and cylinder. and B a portion of a piston, it being understood My improvement is applicable for use with in that my improvement is applicable to various types of piston and cylinder couples which are ternal combustion, steam and other types of en gines, compressors, pumps, valves, shafts and used in motors, compressors, valves, engines, other devices which employ the equivalent of a 20 shafts and other devices. The piston is provided piston and cylinder. My improvement further with a peripheral groove or channel ID in its head provides improved means which may be assem end which is open forwardly and radially out bled into a composite piston structure whereby wardly and is formed with a radially extending the invention is applicable for more extended use annular lock shoulder II at or near its forward for various purposes. 25 end. My improved packing ring of one form re The present improvement provides an auxil sembles an annulus C which is split at l2 to pro iary means by which the ring structure is posi vide a lap joint in the usual manner. This lap tively applied mechanically as well as by the force joint permits the ring to expand or contract of compressed ?uid automatically, whereby a freely. The body of this annulus has an inner more effective leak proof bearing between the 30 channel l3 to receive the lock shoulder II, and piston and cylinder wall is produced. E?iciency an annular inwardly extending key M, which in operation is further increased by my improve freely engages below said lock shoulder to hold ment both for high 01‘ low pressure uses, leakage the ring on the piston. of compressed ?uid and lubricating medium is ‘interlocking connection for holding the ring in materially reduced, and the packing ring proper; ‘place on the forward end of the piston. The forward end of this packing ring is provided with is protected from over heating and detrimental effects of compressed ?uid medium and the com This means provides an ' a packing head I5 which has an annular broad bustion of fuel. My improvement also provides bearing surface 16 and an inwardly and rear a metallic packing for gases, liquids or chemicals wardly beveled surface 11. Said bearing surface by which more lasting rubbing surfaces and seals, 40 is preferably a ground sliding ?t against the in are produced to prevent leaks. ner cylindrical Wall of the cylinder and said More particularly this application is a continu beveled surface I‘! constitutes a guide with ation in part of my companion applications, Serial which a resilient actuator D cooperates to expand No. 472,585, ?led January 16, 1943, and Serial No. the ring into tight working ‘connection with the 539,879, ?led June 12, 1944. inner wall of the cylinder. In the accompanying drawings forming part of The actuator D resembles a comparatively thin this speci?cation, Figure l is a vertical central disk or deck 20, having an axial hub 2| and a section of a detail portion of a cylinder and a beveled rim 22.‘ The lower beveled surface of the companion piston, showing one form of my im latter corresponds and engages with the beveled proved piston ring assembly applied thereto; Fig. 50 surface I‘! of the ring so that when the actuator 2 is a side elevation of my improved split or over presses downwardly‘ the ring is expanded and its lapping piston ring, a, portion thereof being cylindrical surface I6 is pressed radially out broken away and in section; Fig. 3 is a plan of wardly into ?uid tight working contact with the my improved piston ring which is employed in inner wall of the cylinder. The head end of the ' the structure shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is a side ele 55 piston is provided with a central opening 23 ‘to 2,409,764 9 4 receive and engage the hub 2| of the actuator and assist in holding the latter concentrically on the piston. A bolt 24 having its shank thread edly connected in the hub serves to fasten the actuator in ?xed position on the piston. A sup tional piston rod. This piston rod is composed of the threadedly engaged tie bolt section 48 and hollow section 49. Suitable spacing nuts 50 are placed between the piston body sections, and helical springs 5| and 52 are employed between plemental lock bolt 25 having its shank thread the body section 40 and actuator 45 and between edly connected in the shank of bolt 24 and its head impressed against the outer surface of the the actuators 46 and 4“! to augment the expansive force imparted by the actuators 45, 45 and 41 deck of the actuator serves to assist in holding against the Packing rings C. a said fastening means from working loose. When 10 This composite structure has means of lubri thus secured the actuator holds the split pack ing ring tightly expanded and adjusted in ?uid packing rings, actuators, piston bodies and cyl tight connection with the inner surface of the inder wall. cation for the contacting surfaces between the This lubricating means consists of cylinder wall. The lap joint is also held tightly a main longitudinal lubricating feed duct '55 lead sealed to prevent leakage by the actuator. The 15 ing through the piston rod section 48 from the deck of the actuator is sufficiently ?exible so that hollow piston shaft 49, and thence through suit pressure by the expansive force of the compressed ?uid exerted against the actuator in the com able chambers 57 in the piston bodies 40 and 43 inclusive and spacing nuts 56, and ducts 58 which pression chamber of the cylinder bends the body enter clearance spaces adjacent to the surfaces of the actuator and forces its peripheral beveled 20 to be lubricated. By this means the various parts surface against the corresponding beveled sur of the device are supplied with lubricating me face of the packing ring and expands the ring dium which may be forced through said ducts automatically into tight working contact with the by any suitable means to keep the parts in effi inner wall of the cylinder to prevent leaking. cient functioning condition. A main check valve Thus the greater the force of compressed ?uid 25 55 in the feed duct 55 prevents return movement against the surface of the actuator the tighter of the lubricating medium. This lubricating the packing ring is held against the inner wall means, it will be noted serves to supply lubricat of the cylinder. ing medium to the cylinder wall in addition to Clearance space 26 is provided in the piston other moving parts in connection with the ring - below the actuator to permit free expansion un structure. der the force of fluid compression. Also free My invention contemplates that the outside clearance spaces 21 in the ring and in the piston or inside bearing surfaces of a packing ring may are provided to permit free expansion of the ring be used as a seal proof bearing between the mem and tight seating connection between the ring, bers of a piston and cylinder couple, Fig. '7 illus cylinder and piston. The seating surfaces be trating a modi?cation by which my improved tween the ring, piston and cylinder and between piston assembly is seated movably in a cylinder the beveled seating surfaces of the actuator and wall and my improved split packing ring is con ring are preferably a ground ?t to produce leak tracted under the force of compressed ?uid from proof and freely working joints. within a cylinder by a suitably disposed actuator My improved piston ring assembly is adapted which is the equivalent of the actuator described for use in various composite piston structures, in detail above. In this illustration, E is the hol Figs. 5 and 6 showing two. It will be understood that various other uses of my invention are con low cylinder and F a piston which is reciprocable therein. The cylinder is provided with an annu lar channel 653 in its inner wall in which is an templated within the spirit thereof. In Fig. 5, the piston structure is composed of three of my 45 inwardly projecting annular lock shoulder 6L improved piston ring assemblies, in which por tions of piston bodies such as 30, 3| and 32 are provided with my improved expansion packing My improved split and freely expansible and con tractible packing ring G has an annular body 62 formed with an annular lock groove 63 and an rings C, which are secured on the ends thereof annular key 64. The shoulder 6| engages in the by interlocking engagements which are substan .50 lock groove over the key for locking the ring in tially similar to the corresponding interlocking said channel. The ring also has the annular means above described, Flexible actuators, such packing head 65 which is formed with the inner as 33, 34 and 35, of slightly modi?ed design are cylindrical bearing surface 66 which has sealing tightly secured in the positions shown by bolting, movable contact against the perimeter of the to expand the rings by bolting and by the force 65 piston. The forward end of the _head is formed of compressed ?uid medium exerted against the with the inwardly and rearwardly extending bevel flexible decks of the actuators, in the manner 6?. A suitable actuating ring H is retained in above described. The three assemblies are se the channel 50 freely out of contact with the wall cured in composite condition to form a single of the piston and is provided with a rearward piston structure by the bolts 36 and 31 and spacer 60 and diametrally outward bevel which corresponds nuts 38, which also function to secure the actua with and bears against the inward bevel 61. The tors upon their respective piston bodies. A helical upper surface 68 of the actuating ring is flat and spring 39 is also employed between the piston freely exposed in the adjoining clearance space body 38 and the actuator 34 to augment the ex ‘H which is provided by the channel 60 above the pansive force exerted by the latter against the 65 actuator, Said clearance space is connected with companion packing ring C. the usual clearance space 10 between the piston A further modified composite piston structure and the inner wall of the cylinder so as to con is illustrated in Fig. 6, in which an assembly of nect the full force of compressed ?uid from four piston bodies is employed to form a single within the cylinder longitudinally against the ac piston. This structure is somewhat similar to 70 tuator and force the actuator longitudinally with the general type of assembly shown in Fig. 5, its bevel against the bevel of the packing ring except that the four piston body sections 40 to and thus contract the latter with its sealing sur 43 inclusive are held in longitudinally spaced re face held tightly in reciprocable connection with lation and the actuators 44 to 41 inclusive are the wall of the piston to produce a leak proof tied and held in assembled condition by the sec. 75 joint, Suitable clearance spaces such as 1|, be 2,409,764 - 6 5 panding connection with the ring to produce a ?uid tight working connection between the ring and the inner wall of the cylinder. parts. A shoulder 12 on the actuator and a cor 4. A piston ring assembly for use'between the responding circular groove 13 in the wall of the ' cylinder at the inner portion pf the channel 66, Cr members of a piston and cylinder couple, com prising, a split packing ring having freely ex provides a freely operating guide for assisting in pandable interlocking means of engagement over holding the actuator in freely operable position an end of the piston, and an expander having while the actuator is functioning. The lap joint means of engagement on and'normally spaced of the packing ring in this alternative construc tion is sealed closed by the actuator in a similar 10 from said end of the piston with its rim bearing outwardly against an inner portion of-said ring manner as in the constructions above described. to automatically expand the lattertightly against Thus, the outside or inside bearing surface of the inner cylindrical surface of said cylinder. the packing ring can be used to form a leak proof 5. A piston ring assembly for use in a hollow joint between the members of a piston and cylin cylinder, comprising, an expansible packing ring der couple within the spirit of my invention. having interlocking means of connection on an In accordance with the patent statutes, I have end of a piston and an inwardly beveled annular described the principles of operation of my im forward end, and an expander having means of proved piston ring structure together with the engagement on and normally spaced from said construction thereof which I now consider to rep end of said piston and an outwardly beveled resent the best embodiment thereof, but I de peripheral surface bearing against the beveled sire to have it understood that the constructibn surface of the ring to continuously force the latter shown is only illustrative and that the invention into tight working connection with the inner wall can be carried out by other means and applied of the cylinder. to uses other than those above set forth without 6. A piston ring assembly for use on a piston departing from the spirit of the invention and which is movable in a cylinder, comprising, an within the scope of the following claims. expansible packing ring having interlocking con I claim: tween the split packing ring, actuator and Walls of the cylinder permit free functioning of the 1. Packing means for use in connection with a reciprocable piston and cylinder couple, which comprises a split ring between the members of . said couple having interlocking connection with nection on an end of the piston and an inwardly beveled annular forward end, and a ?exible disk having means of engagement on and spaced from the forward end of the piston and an inwardly beveled annular surface corresponding with the beveled surface of said ring, said disk being ?exi ing with said ring and normally spaced from the ble and its side exposed to compressed ?uid ahead head end of the piston to permit automatic com pression under the action of compressed ?uid be 35 of the piston to force said beveled ends together and tending to continuously expand said ring into tween the members of said couple to produce a tight working connection between said piston and ?uid tight working connection between said one of said members, and an actuator cooperat members. . i ' 2. A piston ring assembly for use in a cylinder between the members of a piston and cylinder couple, comprising, a packing ring having inter locking means of engagement with one of said members to permit free lateral movement, and an actuator having means of engagement with and normally spaced from one of the members of said . cylinder. '7. A piston ring assembly for use between the inner wall'of a cylinder and the outer surface of a cooperating piston, comprising, a series of pis ton sections secured together to produce a com posite piston, each section, comprising, a piston body, an expansible piston ring having interlock ing connection on an end ‘of said body and an an couple and engaging said ring to automatically nular inwardly beveled surface, and a ?exible compress the latter into tight connection with the expander having its body mounted upon said end opposing member of said couple by force exerted of said piston and provided with a peripheral against the forward side of said actuator. bevel corresponding with and engaging the 3. A piston ring assembly for use between the 50 beveled surface of said ring to expand the ring‘ members of a piston and cylinder couple, com into tight working connection with the inner wall prising, a packing ring having movable inter of said cylinder by the pressure of fluid in the cyl locking means of engagement upon an end of the inder. ‘ ' piston in the cylinder to permit lateral expansion 8. In a structure as de?ned in claim 7, the sec under the force of compressed ?uid in the cylin 55 tions of said composite structure having a system der against the forward end of the piston and of lubricating ducts leading to the bearing sur said ring, and an expander having means of en faces between the piston ring and expander ele gagement with and normally spaced from the ments and cylinder wall. I forward end of the piston and automatically ex— _ SELLERS E. JESSUP.