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Patented Oct. 22, 1946
2,409,764
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,764
‘
PISTON RING
Sellers E. J essup, Los Angeles, Calif.
Application November 15, 1944, Serial No. 563,523
8 Claims. (01. 809—4)
1
2
My invention relates broadly to improved pack
vation of one form of the ?exible piston ring
actuator which cooperates with my improved pis
ton ring shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is a vertical cen
tral section of a composite piston assembly and
a portion of a cylinder having my improved pis
ton ring structure applied thereto; Fig. 6 is a
ing means for use between the members of a
piston and cylinder couple, and further to a pis
ton ring assembly wherein the expansive force
produced by ?uid compression within a cylinder
is applied to force the piston ring when seated
in one member of the couple into ?uid tight con
vertical section, showing my improved piston ring
nection with the working surface of the compan
assembly applied to another form of composite
ion member of the couple, automatically. My
piston structure, and Fig. 7 is a vertical central
improvement further relates to a piston ring as
section of a detail, showing a modi?ed form of
sembly which is applied to the end of a piston
my improved piston ring assembly applied to the
and which is exposed to the pressure of ?uid
cylinder instead of to the piston.
medium in the cylinder and through the use of an
My improved piston ring assembly is shown
actuator is forced laterally into ?uid tight con
in one of its simplest forms in Figs. 1 to 4 inclu
tact between the working surfaces of a piston 15 sive, in which A represents a portion of a cylinder
and cylinder.
and B a portion of a piston, it being understood
My improvement is applicable for use with in
that my improvement is applicable to various
types of piston and cylinder couples which are
ternal combustion, steam and other types of en
gines, compressors, pumps, valves, shafts and
used in motors, compressors, valves, engines,
other devices which employ the equivalent of a 20 shafts and other devices. The piston is provided
piston and cylinder. My improvement further
with a peripheral groove or channel ID in its head
provides improved means which may be assem
end which is open forwardly and radially out
bled into a composite piston structure whereby
wardly and is formed with a radially extending
the invention is applicable for more extended use
annular lock shoulder II at or near its forward
for various purposes.
25 end. My improved packing ring of one form re
The present improvement provides an auxil
sembles an annulus C which is split at l2 to pro
iary means by which the ring structure is posi
vide a lap joint in the usual manner. This lap
tively applied mechanically as well as by the force
joint permits the ring to expand or contract
of compressed ?uid automatically, whereby a
freely. The body of this annulus has an inner
more effective leak proof bearing between the 30 channel l3 to receive the lock shoulder II, and
piston and cylinder wall is produced. E?iciency
an annular inwardly extending key M, which
in operation is further increased by my improve
freely engages below said lock shoulder to hold
ment both for high 01‘ low pressure uses, leakage
the ring on the piston.
of compressed ?uid and lubricating medium is
‘interlocking connection for holding the ring in
materially reduced, and the packing ring proper;
‘place on the forward end of the piston. The
forward end of this packing ring is provided with
is protected from over heating and detrimental
effects of compressed ?uid medium and the com
This means provides an
' a packing head I5 which has an annular broad
bustion of fuel. My improvement also provides
bearing surface 16 and an inwardly and rear
a metallic packing for gases, liquids or chemicals
wardly beveled surface 11. Said bearing surface
by which more lasting rubbing surfaces and seals, 40 is preferably a ground sliding ?t against the in
are produced to prevent leaks.
ner cylindrical Wall of the cylinder and said
More particularly this application is a continu
beveled surface I‘! constitutes a guide with
ation in part of my companion applications, Serial
which a resilient actuator D cooperates to expand
No. 472,585, ?led January 16, 1943, and Serial No.
the ring into tight working ‘connection with the
539,879, ?led June 12, 1944.
inner wall of the cylinder.
In the accompanying drawings forming part of
The actuator D resembles a comparatively thin
this speci?cation, Figure l is a vertical central
disk or deck 20, having an axial hub 2| and a
section of a detail portion of a cylinder and a
beveled rim 22.‘ The lower beveled surface of the
companion piston, showing one form of my im
latter corresponds and engages with the beveled
proved piston ring assembly applied thereto; Fig. 50 surface I‘! of the ring so that when the actuator
2 is a side elevation of my improved split or over
presses downwardly‘ the ring is expanded and its
lapping piston ring, a, portion thereof being
cylindrical surface I6 is pressed radially out
broken away and in section; Fig. 3 is a plan of
wardly into ?uid tight working contact with the
my improved piston ring which is employed in
inner wall of the cylinder. The head end of the
' the structure shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is a side ele 55 piston is provided with a central opening 23 ‘to
2,409,764
9
4
receive and engage the hub 2| of the actuator
and assist in holding the latter concentrically on
the piston. A bolt 24 having its shank thread
edly connected in the hub serves to fasten the
actuator in ?xed position on the piston. A sup
tional piston rod. This piston rod is composed
of the threadedly engaged tie bolt section 48 and
hollow section 49. Suitable spacing nuts 50 are
placed between the piston body sections, and
helical springs 5| and 52 are employed between
plemental lock bolt 25 having its shank thread
the body section 40 and actuator 45 and between
edly connected in the shank of bolt 24 and its
head impressed against the outer surface of the
the actuators 46 and 4“! to augment the expansive
force imparted by the actuators 45, 45 and 41
deck of the actuator serves to assist in holding
against the Packing rings C.
a
said fastening means from working loose. When 10
This composite structure has means of lubri
thus secured the actuator holds the split pack
ing ring tightly expanded and adjusted in ?uid
packing rings, actuators, piston bodies and cyl
tight connection with the inner surface of the
inder wall.
cation for the contacting surfaces between the
This lubricating means consists of
cylinder wall. The lap joint is also held tightly
a main longitudinal lubricating feed duct '55 lead
sealed to prevent leakage by the actuator. The 15 ing through the piston rod section 48 from the
deck of the actuator is sufficiently ?exible so that
hollow piston shaft 49, and thence through suit
pressure by the expansive force of the compressed
?uid exerted against the actuator in the com
able chambers 57 in the piston bodies 40 and 43
inclusive and spacing nuts 56, and ducts 58 which
pression chamber of the cylinder bends the body
enter clearance spaces adjacent to the surfaces
of the actuator and forces its peripheral beveled 20 to be lubricated. By this means the various parts
surface against the corresponding beveled sur
of the device are supplied with lubricating me
face of the packing ring and expands the ring
dium which may be forced through said ducts
automatically into tight working contact with the
by any suitable means to keep the parts in effi
inner wall of the cylinder to prevent leaking.
cient functioning condition. A main check valve
Thus the greater the force of compressed ?uid 25 55 in the feed duct 55 prevents return movement
against the surface of the actuator the tighter
of the lubricating medium. This lubricating
the packing ring is held against the inner wall
means, it will be noted serves to supply lubricat
of the cylinder.
ing medium to the cylinder wall in addition to
Clearance space 26 is provided in the piston
other moving parts in connection with the ring
- below the actuator to permit free expansion un
structure.
der the force of fluid compression. Also free
My invention contemplates that the outside
clearance spaces 21 in the ring and in the piston
or inside bearing surfaces of a packing ring may
are provided to permit free expansion of the ring
be used as a seal proof bearing between the mem
and tight seating connection between the ring,
bers of a piston and cylinder couple, Fig. '7 illus
cylinder and piston. The seating surfaces be
trating a modi?cation by which my improved
tween the ring, piston and cylinder and between
piston assembly is seated movably in a cylinder
the beveled seating surfaces of the actuator and
wall and my improved split packing ring is con
ring are preferably a ground ?t to produce leak
tracted under the force of compressed ?uid from
proof and freely working joints.
within a cylinder by a suitably disposed actuator
My improved piston ring assembly is adapted
which is the equivalent of the actuator described
for use in various composite piston structures,
in detail above. In this illustration, E is the hol
Figs. 5 and 6 showing two. It will be understood
that various other uses of my invention are con
low cylinder and F a piston which is reciprocable
therein. The cylinder is provided with an annu
lar channel 653 in its inner wall in which is an
templated within the spirit thereof. In Fig. 5,
the piston structure is composed of three of my 45 inwardly projecting annular lock shoulder 6L
improved piston ring assemblies, in which por
tions of piston bodies such as 30, 3| and 32 are
provided with my improved expansion packing
My improved split and freely expansible and con
tractible packing ring G has an annular body 62
formed with an annular lock groove 63 and an
rings C, which are secured on the ends thereof
annular key 64. The shoulder 6| engages in the
by interlocking engagements which are substan .50 lock groove over the key for locking the ring in
tially similar to the corresponding interlocking
said channel. The ring also has the annular
means above described, Flexible actuators, such
packing head 65 which is formed with the inner
as 33, 34 and 35, of slightly modi?ed design are
cylindrical bearing surface 66 which has sealing
tightly secured in the positions shown by bolting,
movable contact against the perimeter of the
to expand the rings by bolting and by the force 65 piston. The forward end of the _head is formed
of compressed ?uid medium exerted against the
with the inwardly and rearwardly extending bevel
flexible decks of the actuators, in the manner
6?. A suitable actuating ring H is retained in
above described. The three assemblies are se
the channel 50 freely out of contact with the wall
cured in composite condition to form a single
of the piston and is provided with a rearward
piston structure by the bolts 36 and 31 and spacer 60 and diametrally outward bevel which corresponds
nuts 38, which also function to secure the actua
with and bears against the inward bevel 61. The
tors upon their respective piston bodies. A helical
upper surface 68 of the actuating ring is flat and
spring 39 is also employed between the piston
freely exposed in the adjoining clearance space
body 38 and the actuator 34 to augment the ex
‘H which is provided by the channel 60 above the
pansive force exerted by the latter against the 65 actuator, Said clearance space is connected with
companion packing ring C.
the usual clearance space 10 between the piston
A further modified composite piston structure
and the inner wall of the cylinder so as to con
is illustrated in Fig. 6, in which an assembly of
nect the full force of compressed ?uid from
four piston bodies is employed to form a single
within the cylinder longitudinally against the ac
piston. This structure is somewhat similar to 70 tuator and force the actuator longitudinally with
the general type of assembly shown in Fig. 5,
its bevel against the bevel of the packing ring
except that the four piston body sections 40 to
and thus contract the latter with its sealing sur
43 inclusive are held in longitudinally spaced re
face held tightly in reciprocable connection with
lation and the actuators 44 to 41 inclusive are
the wall of the piston to produce a leak proof
tied and held in assembled condition by the sec. 75 joint, Suitable clearance spaces such as 1|, be
2,409,764
-
6
5
panding connection with the ring to produce a
?uid tight working connection between the ring
and the inner wall of the cylinder.
parts. A shoulder 12 on the actuator and a cor
4. A piston ring assembly for use'between the
responding circular groove 13 in the wall of the
' cylinder at the inner portion pf the channel 66, Cr members of a piston and cylinder couple, com
prising, a split packing ring having freely ex
provides a freely operating guide for assisting in
pandable interlocking means of engagement over
holding the actuator in freely operable position
an end of the piston, and an expander having
while the actuator is functioning. The lap joint
means of engagement on and'normally spaced
of the packing ring in this alternative construc
tion is sealed closed by the actuator in a similar 10 from said end of the piston with its rim bearing
outwardly against an inner portion of-said ring
manner as in the constructions above described.
to automatically expand the lattertightly against
Thus, the outside or inside bearing surface of
the inner cylindrical surface of said cylinder.
the packing ring can be used to form a leak proof
5. A piston ring assembly for use in a hollow
joint between the members of a piston and cylin
cylinder, comprising, an expansible packing ring
der couple within the spirit of my invention.
having interlocking means of connection on an
In accordance with the patent statutes, I have
end of a piston and an inwardly beveled annular
described the principles of operation of my im
forward end, and an expander having means of
proved piston ring structure together with the
engagement on and normally spaced from said
construction thereof which I now consider to rep
end of said piston and an outwardly beveled
resent the best embodiment thereof, but I de
peripheral surface bearing against the beveled
sire to have it understood that the constructibn
surface of the ring to continuously force the latter
shown is only illustrative and that the invention
into tight working connection with the inner wall
can be carried out by other means and applied
of the cylinder.
to uses other than those above set forth without
6. A piston ring assembly for use on a piston
departing from the spirit of the invention and
which is movable in a cylinder, comprising, an
within the scope of the following claims.
expansible packing ring having interlocking con
I claim:
tween the split packing ring, actuator and Walls
of the cylinder permit free functioning of the
1. Packing means for use in connection with a
reciprocable piston and cylinder couple, which
comprises a split ring between the members of .
said couple having interlocking connection with
nection on an end of the piston and an inwardly
beveled annular forward end, and a ?exible disk
having means of engagement on and spaced from
the forward end of the piston and an inwardly
beveled annular surface corresponding with the
beveled surface of said ring, said disk being ?exi
ing with said ring and normally spaced from the
ble and its side exposed to compressed ?uid ahead
head end of the piston to permit automatic com
pression under the action of compressed ?uid be 35 of the piston to force said beveled ends together
and tending to continuously expand said ring into
tween the members of said couple to produce a
tight working connection between said piston and
?uid tight working connection between said
one of said members, and an actuator cooperat
members.
.
i
'
2. A piston ring assembly for use in a cylinder
between the members of a piston and cylinder
couple, comprising, a packing ring having inter
locking means of engagement with one of said
members to permit free lateral movement, and an
actuator having means of engagement with and
normally spaced from one of the members of said .
cylinder.
'7. A piston ring assembly for use between the
inner wall'of a cylinder and the outer surface of
a cooperating piston, comprising, a series of pis
ton sections secured together to produce a com
posite piston, each section, comprising, a piston
body, an expansible piston ring having interlock
ing connection on an end ‘of said body and an an
couple and engaging said ring to automatically
nular inwardly beveled surface, and a ?exible
compress the latter into tight connection with the
expander having its body mounted upon said end
opposing member of said couple by force exerted
of said piston and provided with a peripheral
against the forward side of said actuator.
bevel corresponding with and engaging the
3. A piston ring assembly for use between the 50 beveled surface of said ring to expand the ring‘
members of a piston and cylinder couple, com
into tight working connection with the inner wall
prising, a packing ring having movable inter
of said cylinder by the pressure of fluid in the cyl
locking means of engagement upon an end of the
inder.
‘
'
piston in the cylinder to permit lateral expansion
8. In a structure as de?ned in claim 7, the sec
under the force of compressed ?uid in the cylin 55 tions of said composite structure having a system
der against the forward end of the piston and
of lubricating ducts leading to the bearing sur
said ring, and an expander having means of en
faces between the piston ring and expander ele
gagement with and normally spaced from the
ments and cylinder wall.
I
forward end of the piston and automatically ex—
_
SELLERS E. JESSUP.
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