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Oct. 22, 1946.
H. E. MCWANE ET AL
2,409,779
‘APPARATUS FOR’. INTRODUCING MOLTEN MATERIAL INTO MOLDS
Filed Oct. 2, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet l
N
31410014430467! '
' HAW/er 5/7‘W6WE
M" #116” KHcé?l/OG/f
22, 1946- V
H. E. M‘CWANE ETIAL
2,409,779
APPARATUS FOR INTRODUCING MOLTEN MATERIAL INTO MOLDS
Filed Oct. 2, 1942
L.
I
. 4 Sheets-‘Sheet 2
Oct, 22,3946.
H. E. MCWANE ET AL’
2,
,7'79
APPARATUS FOR INTRODUCING MOL‘I‘EN MATERIAL INTO MOLDS
Filéd Oct. 2,v 1942
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30’
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l//Il /l
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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.4/
occzz', 1946.
H. E. McwANE ET AL
' 2,409,779
APPARATUS FOR, INTRODUCING MOLTEN MATERIAL INTO MOLDS
Filed Oct. 2, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 4 v
2,409,779
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT; QFFICE
'
APPARATUS FOR INTRODUCING MOL'IV‘EN
MATERIAL INTO MQLDS
Henry
‘
' ‘
McWane and Hugh ‘K. MvcGavcck,
Lynchburg, Va7 ; said McGavock assignor to'said
Application October 2, 1942, Serial No. 460,566.
1
3 Claims. (01. 122-19),‘
2.
The present invention relates .to a method and
basin and the, other or thebpyvlsm is a retaining
apparatus for introducing molten metal into the
basin. Incorporated with
retaining 'b'?i‘s‘in
casting cavity of molds and more particularly
and arranged at substantially, right. ahslésth‘erei
to a method and apparatus for introducing the
to is a pouringbaSm that is calibrated. ‘65 mild a
metal into thev casting cavity of a permanent
quantity of molten ‘metal either egual'to or slight-v
metal mold by so-called “top-gating.”
1y. more‘ than. the metal. eraser ‘fill? tiilgle'
Heretofore much difficulty has been experi
-casting.- V
enced in producing a completely satisfactory
Fitted within the pouring basin is a nozzle hav
chilled casting in a metal mold when top-gating
mg an annular stepped here the smeller'éiai?eiéf
was used. This is primarily due to, the fact that 1O of which is governed by thesize of the stream
the pouring has been done by hand from a con
of molten metal that is necessary.‘ A" ‘sea'f‘i's'j
ventional foundry ladle. This hand pouring
formed in the upper. end ‘if. the nozzle 'a?d‘ii‘is
causes a parabolic ?ow of molten metal and, due
adapted to be closed by a reciprocatingvs‘tbpp'er,
to the human element involved, the metal is not
which can be actuated by ‘any suitable mean-ti"
introduced into the cavity at a controlled rate of 15 During operatiom-the ladle is movedsd ‘that
?ow or at a controlled velocity.
We have found that to produce a casting that
the charging bowl willbreyin substantially a “hori
zontal plane and the measuring tewrwm be‘ in
will be properly chilled and free from air holes
and other ?aws, the streamof the molten metal
entering‘the mold gate must ?rst be centered 20
properly directly over the center of the gate.
the vertical plane, ét' this position‘ measuring
basin and the discharge‘ nozzle will also‘be" dis
posed vertically. and ‘the: 150365316551 ktthen
mtmeucedintotherqwt
Moreover, the size of the ‘stream of molten metal
must be controlled and more speci?cally, it must
"
“
"
‘
'
“
The ladle is then moved about its trunnions so
that the Charging bowl will be‘ in ‘tile-‘vertical
be confined to a size that is less than that of the
plane and the measuring bowl will‘ bein the‘l'iori
zontal plane. thereby, enabliii‘s' the ’ 1140158“ metal
gate. In other words, the section of the stream of
molten metal must be less than the section of the
to flow from the charging bowl" into'themea’sé
mold gate. This is in order that the metal, when
urine bowl. The 1ad1e is then" returned to"“‘its
entering the gate, will not contact and freeze to
initial position and‘the metal ‘with'lthe exception
the surface of the gate, thus restricting its size
of that which fills the’ pouring‘basm'wm ?‘ow‘into
or, in extreme casesrclosing it entirely. In ad 30 ‘the charging bowl.
‘
' ‘
' '
dition, the velocity of the stream of molten metal
At this point the pouring basin is completely
?lled and the stopper closes the ‘discharge‘noz
must be controlled to prevent undue agitation
and in trapping air in the casting. That is to
say, the variations in the velocity of the metal
stream should be controlled ‘.to provide‘ the best
casting and similarity between the original and
all subsequent castings. Lastly, the amount of
metal that, is permitted to ?ow into the mold has
to be controlled within relatively close limits and
su?icient metal should be allowed to ?ow from 40
the ladle to ?ll completely the casting cavity
without over?owing ‘the gate.
zle. Means are then ‘operative to elevate the stop
per the required distance‘ a'nd'the molten metal
then flows from the pouring basin 'dijr‘ectly‘into
the penter or _,the gate “at afcontrolled 'rate of
?ow and at acontrolled velocity.“
After a predetermined perliod'of time means are
effected to lower the stopper to‘arrest'lth’e’ ?ow
of‘molten metal so that there will be a substan
tial pool of metal in the basin after the casting
cavity‘ has been ?lled completely. ‘It is also ad
In its broadest sense, our invention is directed
visable to incorporate with .the control means
to the idea of admitting a given amount oflmolten
for
‘the stopper, a mechanism whereby the amount
metal into the casting cavity at a controlled rate 45a of lift of the stopper can‘be regulated to control
of flow and‘ at a ,con-trollednvelocity in a stream
. the rate of pouring. This supplemental adjust
less in section than the section of the gate posi
ment“ will en'ableany minor variations in ‘ the
tioned directly over .the ‘center of the gate, there
by affording a casting free of air holes andwith
a uniformity of chill.‘
'
.
In its more limited application ‘and with the
speci?c embodiment shown herein, we provide
a ladle that is tilted upon trunnionsl and which
includes a pair [of (bowls disposed at‘ right ‘angles
to each other: 9.116 off the led-WIS is ‘wage
?uidity of the {metal being poured or change‘in
50 the nozzle resistance ‘to'be taken care of.
“
Oneof the objects of’ the‘p‘resent'invention is
to provide a methodand apparatus for introduc
ing molten metal into the casting cavity of metal
molds in‘ such a manner that the‘ casting pro
duced thereby will be properly chilled and com
2,409,779
3
pletely free from air holes and other ?aws which
are due to pouring.
Another object is to provide a method and
apparatus for introducing molten metal into the
casting cavity of a mold at a controlled rate of
flow and at a controlled velocity in a stream
less in section than the section of the gate.
4
arcuate arm It‘ in which is jo-urnalled for tilt
ing movement about the horizontal axis as indi
cated at M, the ?lling bowl 9.
Secured to the
pivot I4 (Figure 3) is an arm i5 which is pivoted
as shown at is to a push-pull link II‘.
The arm
15 may be detached from the link by a connec
tion Ill’. The opposite or free end of the link
ii is hinged to the upper end of a bracket 18
Yet a further object is to provide a ladle which
supported by the movable mold part 3 as at Hi.
is so constructed that the molten metal will be
In Figure 2, it can be seen that the ladle 1
maintained therein at the desired temperature 10
comprises an outer metallic shell or casing 20
and the metal will be introduced into the casting
which contains the charging bowl 8 consisting
cavity in a stream less in section than the sec
of an insulated section 2i and a lining 22 of
tion of the gate at a controlled rate of flow and
a suitable refractory material. A cover 24 is
at a controlled velocity.
hinged to the top of the bowl 8 as shown at 23
Still a further object is to provide a method
for the purpose of permitting molten material to
and apparatus for introducing molten metal into
be admitted into the bowl.
the casting cavity‘ of a metal mold by “top
A discharge spout 25 is provided at the front
gating” that will enable all of the castings to
end
of the bowl and the cover 26 ?ts closely into
be uniform in metallurgical structure.
In the drawings in which like numerals desig 20 the spout when it is in its closed position.
The ?lling bowl 9 also contained within the
nate the same or similar parts:
outer metallic shell 20 has an insulated section
Figure l is a view in side elevation of a cast
21 and a refractory liner 28.
ing machine having incorporated therewith my
The interiors of the bowls S and 9 communi
novel charging and pouring ladle.
cate with each other. A conical metering cup
Figure 2 is a fragmental longitudinal sectional
39 is provided in the bottom wall of the bowl
view taken through my novel charging and pour
3 and it is also made of a refractory material
ing ladle.
and preferably it is replaceable. The capacity of
Figure 3 is a transverse sectional view taken '
this cup is somewhat in excess of the capacity of
along the line 3-3 of Figure 2 looking in the
direction of the arrows.
30 the casting cavity 3 since, as a practical matter,
it is not desirable in casting operations to empty
Figure 4 is a sectional view taken along the
completely a ladle. This is due to the fact that,
line 4—4 of Figure 2 looking in the direction of
if emptied, there is always a small amount of
the'arrows.
residue in the form of beads or pools and conse
Figure 5 is a fragmental sectional view show
ing the stopper for closing the metering cup and 35 quently it is desirable to have a substantial pool
of molten metal in the cup 30 after the cavity
its mode of attachment to its support means.
5 has been ?lled completely.
Figure 6 is a View taken along the line 6-3
Fitted within the apex of the cup 33 (Figure 5)‘
of Figure 5 looking in the direction of the arrows.
is a pouring nozzle 3| and it can be seen that the
Figure 7 is a diagrammatic representation of
the time circuit for controlling the operation of 40 nozzle is formed of a refractory material. The
nozzle is provided with a stepped bore 32 which
the stopper.
communicates at its upper end with the meter
Figure 8 is a fragmental view in side elevation
ing cup 30. The inner end of the nozzle is coun
of the charging and pouring ladles having in
tersunk to form a conical valve seat 33 and the
corporated therewith an electrical are for main
outer end is enlarged as shown at 34 to a diam
taining a constant heat therein.
eter that is substantially greater than the diam
Figure 9 is a sectional view taken along the line
eter of the stream of molten metal. By having
9-9 of Figure 8 looking in the direction of the
the enlarged diameter 34, an insulating sleeve
arrows.
is formed about the spout and the molten metal
As clearly illustrated in Figure 1, the casting
is prevented from freezing in the nozzle and stop
machine comprises a frame I, a ?xed mold body
ping the bore. The pouring nozzle 3| is subjected
2, a movable mold body 3 and a piston and cylin
to considerable wear during the casting process
der assembly 4 that is adapted to move the mold
and by having this unit replaceable will enable
part 3 toward and away from ?xed mold part
the worn nozzle to be removed and replaced in a
2. When the mold parts 2 and 3 are in theroper
minimum of time.
ative position (Figure 2), they de?ne therebe
In order to close the bore 32, we employ a stop
tween a pouring gate 5 that communicates with
per 35 that is made of a refractory substance and
a‘ casting cavity 6. In the copending application '
S. ,N. 422,912, filed December 13, 1941, by Henry
E. McWane, the structure and operation of the
casting apparatus is described and hence no fur
which is capable of vertical reciprocation. The
lower end of the stopper is tapered as shown at
36 to ?t closely within the conical valve seat 33.
The upper end of the stopper extends through an
opening 3'! formed in the upper wall of the bowl
9 and is ?xed within a socket 38 as shown at 38'.
Our novel ladle designated generally 1 corn
The socket 38 is bolted eccentrically as shown at
prises a molten metal charging bowl 8 and a
?lling bowl 9 and in Figure 2 it will be noted 65 39 in a ?ange 40 formed on a support element 4|.
The support element 4| is attached as shown at
that these bowls are positioned substantially at
42 to an armature 43 which in turn is mounted
right angles to each other. The charging bowl
ther' description of the apparatus is necessary
here.
for sliding movement in slide tracks 44 secured
8 is supported for tiltable movement about the
to a bracket 45 supported by the metal shell 20
horizontal axis as shown by the numeral It in
brackets H which are secured to the ?xed mold 70 of the ?lling bowl 9. The upper end of the arma
ture extends into a solenoid (S5 of conventional
part 2. Extending from the pivot I0 is a handle
construction and is provided, of course, with the
l2 that will enable the bowl 8 to be moved for
.wardly about its pivot to pour excess molten: necessary coil 41. An adjustable stop 41' is po
sitioned in the upper end of the sleeve to act as
metal therefrom.
Projecting upwardly from each bracket 1 l is an 75 a limit for the upward movement of the arma
2,409,779
5
ture~_43¢- Whenthecoil4l'5is'energized, the arma
ture-43 is drawn upwardly‘ and simultaneously the
stopper 3’5 wi1l1be‘moved upwardly to open’ the
as‘ a pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder may be em
ploy'éd;
"
,
‘
'
“
‘
'
y In-‘_ the embodiment shown in Figures 8 and 9,
we ‘provide- an electric arc to maintain a desired
bore- 32. Surrounding the armature‘ 44 is‘ a helié
cal spring 48fthat‘ is adapted to force the‘ arma 5 temperature within the ladle 1'. In construction
ture 44 downwardly when the ?ow of current to
and operation, the ladle ‘l’ is identical with the
ladle T.‘ The only differencebetween these con
the coil is arrested.
‘In operation‘ the ladle ‘I is moved so that the
struotions is that we employ carbons 50 that pro
charging‘ibowl 8 is in the horizontal plane and
je'ct into the interior of the bowl 9’, above the
the'?lling bowl 9 i'siin the vertical plane. When
level of the molten ‘metal, and a feed mechanism
5|’ which? is operatively‘connected with the car
the‘boiwls are in these positions, the metering cup
SBia-n'd the discharge nozzle vill are also vertically
bons 50, and inasmuch as thisstructure is con
disposed and the rim of the cup is in ‘a position
ventional, it is not necessary to describe it in
above the rim of the charging bowl 8. The cover
It ‘will be appreciated from the foregoing de
24 is then- opened and the‘necessary amount of 15
tails that we’have provided ‘a ladle that will per
molten-metal‘is'radmitted into the bowl 8 Where
mit‘ithe manufacture of a casting that is prop
upon the cover ‘is moved’ to its closed position.
erly chilled and completely free from air holes
The casting machine is then set in operation and
as the movable mold part 3 is moved away from
and other ?aws. Furthermore, the molten metal
is admitted into the casting cavity at'a controlled
the ?xed mold part 2, the ladle will be moved
rate of flow and at a controlled velocity in a
about its pivot l4 by virtue of the arm I5 and
stream whose cross-sectional area is less than
the link l'l, meaning, of course, that the charg
that of the mold gate. With our invention all
ing bowl will be moved to the vertical position
castings will be uniform in metallic structure.
' and the ?lling bowl will be in the horizontal po
detail.
sition so that the molten metal will ?ow into the
?lling bowl. As the casting cycle continues, the
movable mold part 3 will again be moved toward
the ?xed mold part 2 and the ladle will once again
be moved about its pivot l4 so that the charging
bowl 8 and the ?lling bowl 9 will again assume
the horizontal and vertical positions respectively.
At this point, all of the molten metal in the pour
ing bowl 9 will flow back into the charging bowl 8
with the exception of the molten metal in the
'metering cup 30. At this point, the metering cup and the discharge nozzle are positioned directly
above the ?lling gate 5 and the apparatus is ready
for pouring. However, the bore 3| is closed by
the stopper 35.
In order to energize the solenoid winding 41 at
this time, we provide a segment 60 secured to a
shaft 6| that is adapted to be driven by motor
62 through worm wheel 63 and worm gear 64. A
source of electrical energy 65 has one of its leads
in contact with ring 66 on shaft Bl as shown at
61. The other lead 68 communicates with one
'
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i
While we have shown and described the pre
ferred embodiment of our invention, we wish it
to be understood that we do not con?ne our
selves to the precise details of construction herein
set forth by way of illustration, as it is apparent
that many changes and variations may be made
therein, by those skilled in the art, without de
parting from the spirit of the invention, or-ex
ceeding the scope of the appended claims.
We claim:
1. The combination with a separable mold for
producing castings, said mold having a stationary
part anda movable part cooperating therewith
to provide a casting cavity, of a ladle comprising
a charging bowl, a ?lling bowl communicating
therewith and arranged at substantially right
angles thereto, a metering cup communicating
with the ?lling bowl and adapted to hold a
quantity of metal either equal to or slightly more
than the metal necessary for a single casting,
means carried by the stationary mold part to
mount the ladle thereon for independent tilting
movement about the respective axes of said bowls,
end of the winding 41 and the other end of the
means carried by the movable mold part and op
winding 41 communicates with a contactor 69
eratively connected with the ladle to tilt the same
through lead 10. As soon as the segment "00
makes contact with the contactor 69, energy is 50 about the axis of the ?lling bowl whereby molten
metal in the charging bowl will flow therefrom
supplied to the winding 41 which will draw the
into the ?lling bowl to fill the metering cup, a
armature 43 upward against the action of the
nozzle communicating with the ?lling cup for
spring 48 and simultaneously move the stopper
discharging metal therefrom into the casting
35 upwardly to enable the molten metal in the
metering cup to ?ow through the bore 32 into the 55 cavity, stopper means for controlling the ?ow of
casting cavity 6. By the time the casting cavity
6 is ?lled, the segment 60 has completed its cycle,
metal from said cup, and additional means for
tilting the ladle about the axis of the charging
bowl for discharging residue metal therefrom.
2. The combination with a separable mold for
and contact is broken between the segment and
the contactor 69. Consequently, the solenoid
winding 41' is de-energized and the spring 48 60 producing castings, said mold having a stationary
part and a movable part cooperating therewith
forces the armature 43 and the stopper 35,down
to provide a casting cavity, of a ladle comprising
wardly once again closing the bore 32 and ar
a casing, a lining therefor consisting of an in
resting the ?ow of metal into the cavity.
sulating material adjacent the casing and a
While we have shown the use of a separate mo
65 refractory material adjacent the insulating ma
tor to supply current to the solenoid winding 41,
terial, said lining forming a charging bowl and a
it is, of course, obvious that this mechanism may
?lling bowl communicating therewith and ar
be synchronized with the unit for moving the
ranged at substantially right angles thereto, a
movable mold part toward and away from the
refractory metering cup communicating with the
?xed mold part. In any event, any means which 70 ?lling bowl and calibrated to hold a quantity of
will energize the solenoid winding for the amount
metal either equal to or slightly more than the
of time necessary to permit the casting cavity to
metal necessary for a single casting, a refractory
be ?lled may be employed. In lieu of the solenoid
nozzle communicating with the metering cup for
arrangement for operating the stopper 35, it is,
discharging metal therefrom into the casting
of vcourse, obvious that other control devices, such 75 cavity, means carried by the stationary mold part
2,409,77 9
7
for mounting the ladle thereon for independent
tilting movement about the respective axes of
said bowls, means carried by the movable mold
part ‘and operatively connected with the ladle
8
angles thereto and communicating therewith, a
metering cup communicating with the second
basin and adapted to hold a quantity of molten
metal either equal to or slightly greater than
the metal necessary for a single casting, means
to tilt the same about the axis of the ?lling bowl
supporting the ladle for independent tilting
whereby metal in the holding basin will ?ow
movement about the axes of each of said semi
therefrom into the ?lling basin to ?ll the meter
cylindrical basins, means for rotatingv the ladle
ing cup, means for controlling the ?ow of metal
about the axis of the second basin to cause metal
from the ?lling cup into the casting cavity, and
additional means for tilting the ladle about the 10 to flow from one to the other of said basins to
fill the metering cup, a nozzle for the cup to
axis of the charging bowl for discharging residue
discharge metal therefrom into the casting cavity
metal therefrom.
of the mold, and additional means for rotating
3. A ladle for introducing molten metal into
the ladle about the axis of the ?rst-named basin
the casting cavity of a mold to produce a cast
ing comprising a semi-cylindrical basin adapted 15 for discharging residue metal therefrom.
HENRY E. McWANE.
to hold a supply of the molten metal, a second
HUGH K. McGAVOCK.
semi-‘cylindrical basin substantially at right
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