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Патент USA US2409781

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ocr. `22, 194e.
'
L. A. MEKLER
REACTOR
' Film1-feb. 11. 1942
2,409,780
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
2,409,780
UNITED ’STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,780
REACTOR
Lev A. Mekler, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Universal
Oil Products Company, Chicago, Ill., a corpora
tion of Delaware
Application February 11, 1942, Serial No. 430,507
4 Claims. ' (C1. 23-288)
l
2
.
This invention relates to an improved form of
apparatus in which fluids may be intimately con
tacted with solid granular materials. The fea
In its preferred form the invention also pro
vides a combined cooling and separation zone im
tures of the invention make it especially appli-V
products from the conversion zone to prevent
undesired secondary and side reactions and to
separate entrained particles of the ñnely divided
solid material from the outgoing fluid reaction
cable to catalytic processes for .the conversion
of hydrocarbons such as in the dehydrogenation
of butanes and/or butenes to butadienes and
especially in such processes wherein the solid
contact material is maintained in a highly tur
mediately -adjacent the exit point of the reaction
products.
Another feature of the invention resides in the
bulent huid-like state.
10 provisions for maintaining a relatively shallow
In designing equipment for this class of service
dense lower phase in a bed of finely divided ma
terial. This makes it possible to operate the
the conditions of operation must be considered.
In the dehydrogenation process above mentioned
above mentioned process with low pressure drop
these conditions include relatively high operating
through the bed. l
temperatures of the order of approximately 800°
F. to 1300" F. and loW operating pressures rang
In order to more fully explain and illustrate
ing for example from substantially atmospheric
to low sub-»atmospheric pressure, corresponding
the features and advantages of the invention,
reference is made to the accompanying diagram
matic drawing and the following description
say to about 100 mm. of mercury. It is also im
thereof.
l
`
portant in this particular process that the reac 20 In the drawing Fig. 1 is a plan view, shown par
tion products be quickly cooled after the desired
tially in section, of one specific form of the reac
tor provided.
.
reaction has been accomplished, in order to pre
Fig. 2 is an elevational view of the same appa
vent undesired secondary and side reactions
ratus illustrated in Fig. 1 taken along line 2--2
which would normally occur'at the high tem
perature of these products.
.
25 in Fig. 1.
Another item of importance is the substan
Referring now to the drawing, the reactor is
made up of a short cylindrical outer shell I which,
tially uniform distribution of the iiuid reactants
and finely divided solid material throughout the
lin the casehere illustrated, has longitudinal re-`
reaction zone during the conversion period to
inforcing ribs 2 secured thereto, by welding or
insure intimate and uniform contacting there 30 other suitable means, at spacedpoints about its
between.
periphery. The‘upper and lower ends of shell l
are provided with relatively iiat heads 3 and 4
A suitable reactor for conducting the above
mentioned process must be capable of satisfying
respectively.` Tube sheets 5 and 6 extendingi
transversely across the shell and secured thereto
all the above conditions and in addition present
a low resistance to the passage of fluids there 35 are spaced fromV heads 3 and 4 and from each
through in order to minimize pressure drop ` other and an intermediate tube sheet 1 is dis
through :the reaction zone and provide for low
posed between sheets 5 and 6. In order to pre
pressure operation throughout the reaction zone.
vent the collapse of heads 3 and 4 from external
pressure aplurality of tubular members 8 are
The features of the invention provide a reactor
in Which all the above mentioned conditions are
disposed longitudinally within the reactor and
satisfied to «a high degree. The apparatus is
extend from head 3, to which they are Welded or
designed to withstand high temperature and low
otherwise suitably secured to and through head
internal pressure. It provides for uniform dis
4, to which they are likewise secured. ` Adjacent
their upper closed ends the tubes 8 are provided
tribution of the huid reactants and contact ma
terial throughout the cross-sectional area of the 4. with slotted ports 9, the purpose of which will be
hereinafter explained. The tubular members 8
reacting Zone and for intimate contact between
the reactants and the catalyst or contact material.
in addition to being fastened to the heads 3 and 4
It also permits operation in such a manner that
are also attached to the intermediate tube sheet
the finely divided solid material is maintained in
'I' but preferablyV not to the tube sheets 5 and E.
highly turbulent fluid-like state.
50 Extending between the tube sheets 5 and @6 and
The distribution means provided in the inven
attached thereto by suitable means, such as weld-v
tion are also designed to serve a structural func
ing, roling or the like, but preferably not -to the
tion and prevent collapse of the shell of the vessel,
thus permitting relatively light weight construc
tion of the latter.
intermediate tube sheet 1, are a plurality of
shorter tubular members I0. Tubes I0 serve to
55 reinforce or stay tube sheets 5 and 6 and thus
2,409,780
3
4
assist in preventing collapse of cylindrical shell
fastened to only alternate tube sheets 5, 6 and 'l
in order to prevent the accumulation of stresses
material may also be introduced in regulated
quantities and in heated state in order to assist in
controlling the temperature in the reaction zone.
When desired and preferably the outer surfaces
in any one member. The tube sheets 5, 6 and 1
are provided with a plurality of communication
ports Il disposed intermediate the several tubes
thereby ’providing additional reactor space be
of the reactor and distribution chamber and cones
may be covered with suitable heat insulating ma
terials, not shown, to reduce heat losses due to
radiation.
of the reactor. The tubes 8 and l0 are preferably
In order to accommodate differential expansion
tween said tubes, in which the desired contacting
10 and contraction between the reactor shell and
may take place.
the heat exchangers due to their temperature dif
The upper head 3 is provided with a plurality
ference suitable expansion joints 32 may be in
of communication ports to which are attached an
corporated in the cooler shells i2. Also suitable
equal number of heat exchangers, each of which
supporting lugs 33 and 34 may be attached at
comprises a shell I2. Within each shell l2 are
spaced intervals, by welding or other suitable
disposed a plurality of bayonet type cooling tubes
means, to the outer peripheries of the heat ex
i3 through which suitable convective fluids may
changer shells l2 and shell l, respectively, and
be passed. However it is entirely within the
preferably the heat exchangers and the reactor
scope and spirit of the invention to utilize other
shell are individually supported from these lugs.
conventional types of heat exchangers when de
In order to demonstrate the utility of the in
sired. The outer members of said tubes I3c0m 20
vention, its operation when employed in the proc
municate with Va header I4 and the inner mem
ess .for Ythe dehydrogenation of butane to buta
diene will hereinafter be described. Suitable
powdered catalyst such as an oxide of chromium,
through conduit Iii. The header lll is provided
vanadium or molybdenum on supports compris
with _a hanged opening 30 communicating with
ing alumina or magnesia is introduced by means
conduit I6 .and which serves to direct convective
of conduit 2l into the distributing chamber 20.
fluid from the heat exchanger. It is entirely
rï‘hese >catalyst particles are preferably in a heat
within the scope of the invention that the ñow of
ed 'condition in order to supply a regulated quan
convective fluid through the cooling tubes may be
the reverse of that shown by the arrows and 30 tity of the heat necessary for conducting the en
dothermic reaction. Heated butane is introduced
above described. The shell of each heat ex
through conduit 25, manifold 24 and the commu
changer >is provided adjacent its upper end with
nicating Aconduits 23 to the nozzles 22. The up
the ñanged outlet connection Il to which con
ward velocity of the fluid passing from the nozzle
duits I8 are attached and which provides means
for .directing fluid conversion products from the 35 22 is of such magnitude that it will carry some
bers are in communication with header E5 to
which a suitable 4convective fluid is supplied
reactor and heat exchangers to suitable separa
tion Aand recovery equipment not pertinent to the
present invention and therefore not illustrated.
The lower head d of the reactor is provided with
a plurality of relatively large ports to which are
attached a like number of cone-shaped members
I9. The lower ends of these members communi
cate with a distributing chamber .20 or, when de
sired, suitable pipe manifolds may be substituted
for the latter. Conduit 2| communicates with
distribution chamber 2D and provides means for
introducing the desired contacting material to
the reactor. Disposed adjacent the lower end of
each of the cone-shaped members i9 is va dis
tributing nozzle 22 through which fluid reactants
are. directed upwardly intothe reaction zone at
the .same time picking up' a portion of the solid
granular contact material from the distribution
chamber .22. These nozzles ^communicate by
of the catalyst particles previously introduced‘to
the distribution chamber 2S through conduit 2|
into the reactor. The velocity of this fluid how
ever only partially offsets the effect of gravity
upon the catalyst particles thereby maintaining
d relatively dense phase in the lower portion of
the catalyst bed due to recirculation there
through of a large quantity of the catalyst parti
cles. The approximate upper limit of this dense
phase is indicated in Fig. 2 lby the broken line 21.
Above this line the velocity of fluid will have been
reduced to such an extent that it will no longer
offset the eiîect of gravity upon the catalyst par
ticles and a small portion thereof will be carried
with the reaction products into the heat ex
changers. The rapid cooling effected in the heat
exchangers will further reduce the velocity of
the fluid and aid in the additional separation of
solid particles therefrom. After passing through
means of conduits ‘23 with a manifold 24 which es the cooler the reaction products are directed
in turn communicates with conduit 25 to provide
means for introducing fluid reactants into the
reactor. Adjacent the upper end of each cone
shaped member I9 is a perforate plate 26, sup
through the several conduits i8 to suitable sepa
ration and recovery equipment, which, not beiner
part of the invention, is not shown.
During the conversion of butane to butadiene
ported on suitablelugsjâi, and serving as distrib Cil a deleterious deposit will accumulate on the vari
uting means lfor the commingled fluid reactants
ous catalyst particles and must be removed to
and ñnely divided s_olid materials ñowing into the
rest-ore its activity. I, therefore, provide means
main part of the reactor.
for -removing the catalyst as it becomes con
The upward flowing stream of fluid reactants,
during its passage through the main body of the
reactory has an upward velocity which only partly
offsets the eiîect of gravity upon the solid parti
cles so that a hindered settling effect is obtained
taminated. This is accomplished by employing
theY ports 9 in the tubular reinforcing members
ß through which the contaminated catalyst will
be directed out of the reactor to suitable regen
eration equipment. Steam or other inert gas may
which results >in a relatively dense phase of high
be introduced through conduits 28 and nozzles 29
turbulence in a major portion of the bed of con 70 to conduits 8 to serve as stripping means for pre
tact material. The upper limit of this zone may
venting reactants or reaction products from ac
be maintained for example at a level such as in
companying the catalyst to the regenerating zone.
dicated by the broken line 21 in Fig. 2, by con
I claim:
trolling the quantity of fluid reactants passing
l. A reaction vessel of the class described com
through the distribution nozzles 22. The contact 75 prising, in combination, a vertically disposed
2,409,780
outer shell of tubular form provided with rela
tively iiat top and bottom heads, relatively flat
tube sheets transversely disposed in spaced apart
relation within said shell and secured thereto, a
plurality of vertically disposed tubular members
extending between and secured to said tube
sheets, some of said tubular members extending
6
and means for removing fluid reaction products
from the upper portion of the vessel. .
3. A reactior vessel comprising an outer shell
having fiat top and bottom heads, perforated tube
sheets extending horizontally across the shell, said
tube sheets being spaced from each other and
from said top and bottom heads, spaced open
between and being secured to said heads and other
ended vertical tubes extending between said tube
of said tubular members terminating short of said
sheets and terminating short of said heads, ad
heads, the shorter tubes being open at their op 10 ditional spaced tubes extending between and serv
posite ends, to spaces provided between the shorter
ing as stays for the top and bottom heads of the
tubes and top and bottom heads, whereby to es
shell, the last-named tubes having open ends
tablish communication through the shorter tubes
projecting through the bottom head of the shell
between said spaces, and said tube sheets being
and being provided with openings in communica
provided with openings therethrough between the 15 tion with the space between the top head of the
tubes.
shell and the uppermost of said tube sheets, means
2. A reaction vessel of the class described com
for directing fluid and ñnely divided solids up
prising, in combination, a vertically disposed outer
wardly into the first-mentioned tubes, and means
shellof tubular form provided with’relatively flat
for removing fluid from the upper portion of the
top and bottom heads, relatively flat tube sheets 20 shell.
transversely disposed in spaced apart relation
4. A reaction vessel comprising an outer shell
within said shell and secured thereto, a plurality
having flat top and bottom heads, spaced open
of vertically disposed tubular members extend
ended tubes disposed vertically within said shell
ing between and secured to said tube sheets, some
and terminating short of said heads, additional
of said tubular members extending between and
spaced tubes extending between and serving as
being secured to said heads and other of said
stays for the top and bottom heads of the shell,
tubular memers terminating short of said heads,
the last-named tubes having open ends project
the shorter tubes being open at their opposite
ing through the bottom head of the shell and
ends, to spaces provided between the shorter tubes
being provided with openings in communication
and top and bottom heads, whereby to establish 30 with the space between the top head of the shell
communication through the shorter tubes be
and the upper ends of the ñrst-mentioned tubes,
tween said spaces, and said tube sheets being pro
means for directing iiuid and ñnely divided solids
vided with openings therethrough between the
tubes, means for admitting fluid reactants and
ñnely divided solids into the lower portion of said
vessel a perforated plate between the last-named
means and the lower ends of the shorter tubes
upwardly into the first-mentioned tubes, and
means for removing ñuid from the upper portion
of the shell.
LEV A. MEKLER.
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