Патент USA US2409781код для вставки
ocr. `22, 194e. ' L. A. MEKLER REACTOR ' Film1-feb. 11. 1942 2,409,780 Patented Oct. 22, 1946 2,409,780 UNITED ’STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,409,780 REACTOR Lev A. Mekler, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Universal Oil Products Company, Chicago, Ill., a corpora tion of Delaware Application February 11, 1942, Serial No. 430,507 4 Claims. ' (C1. 23-288) l 2 . This invention relates to an improved form of apparatus in which fluids may be intimately con tacted with solid granular materials. The fea In its preferred form the invention also pro vides a combined cooling and separation zone im tures of the invention make it especially appli-V products from the conversion zone to prevent undesired secondary and side reactions and to separate entrained particles of the ñnely divided solid material from the outgoing fluid reaction cable to catalytic processes for .the conversion of hydrocarbons such as in the dehydrogenation of butanes and/or butenes to butadienes and especially in such processes wherein the solid contact material is maintained in a highly tur mediately -adjacent the exit point of the reaction products. Another feature of the invention resides in the bulent huid-like state. 10 provisions for maintaining a relatively shallow In designing equipment for this class of service dense lower phase in a bed of finely divided ma terial. This makes it possible to operate the the conditions of operation must be considered. In the dehydrogenation process above mentioned above mentioned process with low pressure drop these conditions include relatively high operating through the bed. l temperatures of the order of approximately 800° F. to 1300" F. and loW operating pressures rang In order to more fully explain and illustrate ing for example from substantially atmospheric to low sub-»atmospheric pressure, corresponding the features and advantages of the invention, reference is made to the accompanying diagram matic drawing and the following description say to about 100 mm. of mercury. It is also im thereof. l ` portant in this particular process that the reac 20 In the drawing Fig. 1 is a plan view, shown par tion products be quickly cooled after the desired tially in section, of one specific form of the reac tor provided. . reaction has been accomplished, in order to pre Fig. 2 is an elevational view of the same appa vent undesired secondary and side reactions ratus illustrated in Fig. 1 taken along line 2--2 which would normally occur'at the high tem perature of these products. . 25 in Fig. 1. Another item of importance is the substan Referring now to the drawing, the reactor is made up of a short cylindrical outer shell I which, tially uniform distribution of the iiuid reactants and finely divided solid material throughout the lin the casehere illustrated, has longitudinal re-` reaction zone during the conversion period to inforcing ribs 2 secured thereto, by welding or insure intimate and uniform contacting there 30 other suitable means, at spacedpoints about its between. periphery. The‘upper and lower ends of shell l are provided with relatively iiat heads 3 and 4 A suitable reactor for conducting the above mentioned process must be capable of satisfying respectively.` Tube sheets 5 and 6 extendingi transversely across the shell and secured thereto all the above conditions and in addition present a low resistance to the passage of fluids there 35 are spaced fromV heads 3 and 4 and from each through in order to minimize pressure drop ` other and an intermediate tube sheet 1 is dis through :the reaction zone and provide for low posed between sheets 5 and 6. In order to pre pressure operation throughout the reaction zone. vent the collapse of heads 3 and 4 from external pressure aplurality of tubular members 8 are The features of the invention provide a reactor in Which all the above mentioned conditions are disposed longitudinally within the reactor and satisfied to «a high degree. The apparatus is extend from head 3, to which they are Welded or designed to withstand high temperature and low otherwise suitably secured to and through head internal pressure. It provides for uniform dis 4, to which they are likewise secured. ` Adjacent their upper closed ends the tubes 8 are provided tribution of the huid reactants and contact ma terial throughout the cross-sectional area of the 4. with slotted ports 9, the purpose of which will be hereinafter explained. The tubular members 8 reacting Zone and for intimate contact between the reactants and the catalyst or contact material. in addition to being fastened to the heads 3 and 4 It also permits operation in such a manner that are also attached to the intermediate tube sheet the finely divided solid material is maintained in 'I' but preferablyV not to the tube sheets 5 and E. highly turbulent fluid-like state. 50 Extending between the tube sheets 5 and @6 and The distribution means provided in the inven attached thereto by suitable means, such as weld-v tion are also designed to serve a structural func ing, roling or the like, but preferably not -to the tion and prevent collapse of the shell of the vessel, thus permitting relatively light weight construc tion of the latter. intermediate tube sheet 1, are a plurality of shorter tubular members I0. Tubes I0 serve to 55 reinforce or stay tube sheets 5 and 6 and thus 2,409,780 3 4 assist in preventing collapse of cylindrical shell fastened to only alternate tube sheets 5, 6 and 'l in order to prevent the accumulation of stresses material may also be introduced in regulated quantities and in heated state in order to assist in controlling the temperature in the reaction zone. When desired and preferably the outer surfaces in any one member. The tube sheets 5, 6 and 1 are provided with a plurality of communication ports Il disposed intermediate the several tubes thereby ’providing additional reactor space be of the reactor and distribution chamber and cones may be covered with suitable heat insulating ma terials, not shown, to reduce heat losses due to radiation. of the reactor. The tubes 8 and l0 are preferably In order to accommodate differential expansion tween said tubes, in which the desired contacting 10 and contraction between the reactor shell and may take place. the heat exchangers due to their temperature dif The upper head 3 is provided with a plurality ference suitable expansion joints 32 may be in of communication ports to which are attached an corporated in the cooler shells i2. Also suitable equal number of heat exchangers, each of which supporting lugs 33 and 34 may be attached at comprises a shell I2. Within each shell l2 are spaced intervals, by welding or other suitable disposed a plurality of bayonet type cooling tubes means, to the outer peripheries of the heat ex i3 through which suitable convective fluids may changer shells l2 and shell l, respectively, and be passed. However it is entirely within the preferably the heat exchangers and the reactor scope and spirit of the invention to utilize other shell are individually supported from these lugs. conventional types of heat exchangers when de In order to demonstrate the utility of the in sired. The outer members of said tubes I3c0m 20 vention, its operation when employed in the proc municate with Va header I4 and the inner mem ess .for Ythe dehydrogenation of butane to buta diene will hereinafter be described. Suitable powdered catalyst such as an oxide of chromium, through conduit Iii. The header lll is provided vanadium or molybdenum on supports compris with _a hanged opening 30 communicating with ing alumina or magnesia is introduced by means conduit I6 .and which serves to direct convective of conduit 2l into the distributing chamber 20. fluid from the heat exchanger. It is entirely rï‘hese >catalyst particles are preferably in a heat within the scope of the invention that the ñow of ed 'condition in order to supply a regulated quan convective fluid through the cooling tubes may be the reverse of that shown by the arrows and 30 tity of the heat necessary for conducting the en dothermic reaction. Heated butane is introduced above described. The shell of each heat ex through conduit 25, manifold 24 and the commu changer >is provided adjacent its upper end with nicating Aconduits 23 to the nozzles 22. The up the ñanged outlet connection Il to which con ward velocity of the fluid passing from the nozzle duits I8 are attached and which provides means for .directing fluid conversion products from the 35 22 is of such magnitude that it will carry some bers are in communication with header E5 to which a suitable 4convective fluid is supplied reactor and heat exchangers to suitable separa tion Aand recovery equipment not pertinent to the present invention and therefore not illustrated. The lower head d of the reactor is provided with a plurality of relatively large ports to which are attached a like number of cone-shaped members I9. The lower ends of these members communi cate with a distributing chamber .20 or, when de sired, suitable pipe manifolds may be substituted for the latter. Conduit 2| communicates with distribution chamber 2D and provides means for introducing the desired contacting material to the reactor. Disposed adjacent the lower end of each of the cone-shaped members i9 is va dis tributing nozzle 22 through which fluid reactants are. directed upwardly intothe reaction zone at the .same time picking up' a portion of the solid granular contact material from the distribution chamber .22. These nozzles ^communicate by of the catalyst particles previously introduced‘to the distribution chamber 2S through conduit 2| into the reactor. The velocity of this fluid how ever only partially offsets the effect of gravity upon the catalyst particles thereby maintaining d relatively dense phase in the lower portion of the catalyst bed due to recirculation there through of a large quantity of the catalyst parti cles. The approximate upper limit of this dense phase is indicated in Fig. 2 lby the broken line 21. Above this line the velocity of fluid will have been reduced to such an extent that it will no longer offset the eiîect of gravity upon the catalyst par ticles and a small portion thereof will be carried with the reaction products into the heat ex changers. The rapid cooling effected in the heat exchangers will further reduce the velocity of the fluid and aid in the additional separation of solid particles therefrom. After passing through means of conduits ‘23 with a manifold 24 which es the cooler the reaction products are directed in turn communicates with conduit 25 to provide means for introducing fluid reactants into the reactor. Adjacent the upper end of each cone shaped member I9 is a perforate plate 26, sup through the several conduits i8 to suitable sepa ration and recovery equipment, which, not beiner part of the invention, is not shown. During the conversion of butane to butadiene ported on suitablelugsjâi, and serving as distrib Cil a deleterious deposit will accumulate on the vari uting means lfor the commingled fluid reactants ous catalyst particles and must be removed to and ñnely divided s_olid materials ñowing into the rest-ore its activity. I, therefore, provide means main part of the reactor. for -removing the catalyst as it becomes con The upward flowing stream of fluid reactants, during its passage through the main body of the reactory has an upward velocity which only partly offsets the eiîect of gravity upon the solid parti cles so that a hindered settling effect is obtained taminated. This is accomplished by employing theY ports 9 in the tubular reinforcing members ß through which the contaminated catalyst will be directed out of the reactor to suitable regen eration equipment. Steam or other inert gas may which results >in a relatively dense phase of high be introduced through conduits 28 and nozzles 29 turbulence in a major portion of the bed of con 70 to conduits 8 to serve as stripping means for pre tact material. The upper limit of this zone may venting reactants or reaction products from ac be maintained for example at a level such as in companying the catalyst to the regenerating zone. dicated by the broken line 21 in Fig. 2, by con I claim: trolling the quantity of fluid reactants passing l. A reaction vessel of the class described com through the distribution nozzles 22. The contact 75 prising, in combination, a vertically disposed 2,409,780 outer shell of tubular form provided with rela tively iiat top and bottom heads, relatively flat tube sheets transversely disposed in spaced apart relation within said shell and secured thereto, a plurality of vertically disposed tubular members extending between and secured to said tube sheets, some of said tubular members extending 6 and means for removing fluid reaction products from the upper portion of the vessel. . 3. A reactior vessel comprising an outer shell having fiat top and bottom heads, perforated tube sheets extending horizontally across the shell, said tube sheets being spaced from each other and from said top and bottom heads, spaced open between and being secured to said heads and other ended vertical tubes extending between said tube of said tubular members terminating short of said sheets and terminating short of said heads, ad heads, the shorter tubes being open at their op 10 ditional spaced tubes extending between and serv posite ends, to spaces provided between the shorter ing as stays for the top and bottom heads of the tubes and top and bottom heads, whereby to es shell, the last-named tubes having open ends tablish communication through the shorter tubes projecting through the bottom head of the shell between said spaces, and said tube sheets being and being provided with openings in communica provided with openings therethrough between the 15 tion with the space between the top head of the tubes. shell and the uppermost of said tube sheets, means 2. A reaction vessel of the class described com for directing fluid and ñnely divided solids up prising, in combination, a vertically disposed outer wardly into the first-mentioned tubes, and means shellof tubular form provided with’relatively flat for removing fluid from the upper portion of the top and bottom heads, relatively flat tube sheets 20 shell. transversely disposed in spaced apart relation 4. A reaction vessel comprising an outer shell within said shell and secured thereto, a plurality having flat top and bottom heads, spaced open of vertically disposed tubular members extend ended tubes disposed vertically within said shell ing between and secured to said tube sheets, some and terminating short of said heads, additional of said tubular members extending between and spaced tubes extending between and serving as being secured to said heads and other of said stays for the top and bottom heads of the shell, tubular memers terminating short of said heads, the last-named tubes having open ends project the shorter tubes being open at their opposite ing through the bottom head of the shell and ends, to spaces provided between the shorter tubes being provided with openings in communication and top and bottom heads, whereby to establish 30 with the space between the top head of the shell communication through the shorter tubes be and the upper ends of the ñrst-mentioned tubes, tween said spaces, and said tube sheets being pro means for directing iiuid and ñnely divided solids vided with openings therethrough between the tubes, means for admitting fluid reactants and ñnely divided solids into the lower portion of said vessel a perforated plate between the last-named means and the lower ends of the shorter tubes upwardly into the first-mentioned tubes, and means for removing ñuid from the upper portion of the shell. LEV A. MEKLER.