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Патент USA US2409818

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Oct.- 22, 1.946.
2,469,81 7
‘ Filed‘ Jan. 10, 1,945
2 Shgets-Shee’c 2
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
UN 1 TED ; s-TATE-s. PATEN T . or Flee
George DrWebljer, Lakewood, Ohio
rgApplicationjJanuary 10, 1945, Serial'No. 572,109
(01.. 331-168)
This invention relatesltor an instrument‘ for >
measuring and /orindicatin'g~i dimensions and more
speci?cally to a igaugingriinstrument including
a plurality-10f accurately» formed ‘gauge blocks
‘and one or“ more cooperating'videvices adapted
pose coupling means ‘which mighthavebeen used
in place “of?the central coupling screwsarenot
satisfactory for- usev in rigid composite measuring
instruments of the ‘types showni hereby,;either
because =of undue complexity ‘ or because‘ they
to be combined in various- arrangements for very ‘ " would; tend to'tilt. contiguousublocks out: of align
accurately measuring-inside or outside dimensions ‘ ment instead ofiurging them together with forces
-~or» indicating, asby scribing a1 line, ‘ preselected
entirely normal ‘toil-the- mutually: contacting faces.
‘ heights abovelorl‘otherwise spacedlfrom a-refer
‘Anobjectfof?this invention iswto' provide a
ence surface.
‘Highpreoision gauge blocks in sets-varein gen
-eralluse.'"’ The‘ blocks of faiset have opposing paral
‘ 'lel substantiallyf. flat-measuring faces; ‘herein
‘ after-‘referred to-ior“ convenience as-endl faces
10 gauge instrument‘ of the above indicated charac
ter which has none of the foregoing disadvan
In accordance‘ withxthis invention, at composite
' gauge structure; is :provided in which;the:;indi
spacedapart veryaocurately at predetermined 15 vidual gauge'blocks are securely held together‘by
progressively varying distances. 1 The ‘transverse
improved coupling means; :One type of improved
dimensions ofialleiofi the vbl‘ocksiare usually the
same. The sets includeeblock's-having ‘lengths
which are usually-decimal‘fractions of I an ac
cepted‘unit of length such asth'eh-inch or centi
‘ meter and mayvr-incl‘udei‘blocksi having lengths
which are integral-multiples ‘of ‘such -unit.-T “The
different‘ classes 7 of- blocks‘ may thus I. beidentL
?ed; for discussiom as .fi‘integralwland 1 ‘fnon-in
coupling meansincludes a‘rotatable. eccentric pin
receivedcin al-oooperating transverse. opening in
a gauge block,» mounting .base or work- contact
20 ing memberr‘of'the set,» and‘ permits axpairof
gauge i-blocks to ibessecured together: and/or ‘to
such mounting basewon-memberby a. :wedging
action resulting from the mere;turnin'g:iof a. knob
out‘ of a normalpositionuinnwhich1the .knob is
' tegral’i’ or fractional‘blocks;F By stacking selected 25 held ‘by a, spring, landewithoutut'he usel‘of ,tools.
blocks of the set in end-to-end"relationship; corn
positevg-auging structures :having- lengths variable
“in-steps ofthe order-of thousandths'or ten-thou
sandthsof anvinchwmay be sccuredotheksize ‘of
the‘ steps and-"the possible maximum and mini
.mum‘ overall lengths being dependent‘ upon‘ the
number and size‘oiithevblocks in the-set.
The coupling means having the eccentricilpin is
particularly suitable i .f or .‘ securing together; gauge
- blocks, of =-re'lative1y 2. large: lengths, e; g.. "lengths
» which areintegral multiplesi‘of ‘an ‘inchji although
30 'useable for‘ shorter: lengths; ‘and, one onmore
couplings may be used to build up a rigidcom
posite gaugerstructurel to. a’ height ormlength
‘somewhat-less than that desired.“ Suchzintegral
blocks, except for a base block,"-*di?'eri=rfrom
\"For most purposes’ the individual blocks of a
gauge structure such as‘ ‘described
above are merely wrungtogether, but for meas 35 ' standard 1 blocks ‘of integral. length only ,in'. that
uring or indicating distances between relatively
remote points,‘ as above a surface lplate or for
leach‘of-the integraliblocks'of the ‘improved gauge
structure: is-ivprovided. with a rverticallywspaced
measuring ‘between, e. g., horizontally spaced
pair of transverse openings.
points, as for checking internalvdiameters-dur
Another type of coupling means in ‘accordance
ing formation on a grinder, the instability of this 40 with this invention is arranged.‘ to ‘cooperatelwith
method of assembly renders it desirable that“ the
a transverse» opening in an end integraltblock of
blocks be more‘ securely but detachably fastened
' the composite structure; just: described to-secure
together." Prior fastening or coup-ling means" of
thereto one or more relativelyshortgaugei blocks,
the type "which required screws to ‘be "passed
e. g. having lengths which are-fractional parts
through or into each‘ block used in-the instru
ment have many 1 disadvantages. I ‘For example,
interruption of the measuring or end‘surface‘sby
holes ‘obviously is objectionable; excessive? time
of an inch, ‘and to secure a‘work contacting or
' distance indicating member in ‘place; o'n'r'the com—
posite structure. “The shorter or‘ non-integral
blocks are preferably" of conventional design with
is required‘ to assemble and‘disassemble"‘the in
out-openings and are used to build‘ upthe com
strument; a tool such as ascrew-‘driver and ‘which 50 posite structure to the desired length or- height
is apt to damage the finish of the blocks must
when such distance is not an integralldimen
be used with the blocks, and all‘ of the blocks
of the set, including‘ the fractional or 'non-in
tegral blocks-must be specially formed to cooper
ate with the fastening means.‘ Prior general pur
‘ 'sion.‘r ‘Said other‘type' of coupling- means hereof
' may take‘ the ‘form of a‘screvv clamp; and in
» addition‘ to its function "of holding the integral
55 and non-integral blocks together in end-to-end
marked Illa, Illb, and Me.
relationship, it is used as one manner of fasten
ing a scriber, feeler, center point or other work
tionship and are supported on a top surface I‘!
contacting or distance indicating instrument to ‘
of the uppermost integral gauge block (I2d Fig.
1, I20 Fig. 2). The opposing horizontal surfaces
of each of the gauge blocks are ?nished as by
lapping to extreme ?atness, are accurately spaced
apart within limits of a few millionths of an inch,
and are in true parallelism as .known in the art
the gauging structure.
A further object of this invention includes pro
vision of a measuring instrument comprising a
plurality of gauge blocks, bars or other precisely
formed distance pieces detachably held together
in an improved manner.
The non-integral
blocks are mutually stacked in end-to-end rela
. >
Another object is to provide a distance meas 10 of making'high precision gauge‘blocks. It is to
be understood that any suitable number of in
uring instrument comprising a selectable number
tegral and non-integral gauge blocks may be used,
of integral and non-integral gauge block elements
and, as will become apparent hereinafter, one
and a work contacting element or indicator held
together by simple readily releasable coupling
or more of the relatively long blocks may be sub
Another object is to provide a gauging instru
ment comprising a pair of gauge blocks or dis
tance pieces held together by a readily releas
able coupling means operable by a wedging
stituted for some of the relatively short blocks.
The block I2a is detachably secured to the '
' base block Ill and the blocks I2b, I20, etc., are
detachably secured together by coupling devices
I5 which are applicable selectively at opposite
and/or clamping action which tends to maintain 20 faces and ends of the blocks I2. The blocks I4,
which may be unaltered gauge blocks of a stand
the blocks in true alignment and at uniform
ard set of appropriate horizontal size, are de
pressure throughout this area of mutual contact.
tachably secured together in stacked relation and
A further object is to provide a gauging instru
to the top integra1 block I2 by a coupling device
ment comprising a plurality of stacked gauge:
blocks or distance pieces with provision to re 25 or unit I6 which also detachably holds an indi
cating, measuring or other. work-contacting
leasably hold laterally projecting members of var
block, shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as a scriber I8, in
ious types applicable to reference surfaces, work
operating position on the top surface 23 of the
surfaces and the like for gauging operations of
uppermost block I4.
the various kinds required in machine shop prac-.
In Figs. 1 and 2, the base block I0 comprises
an upright gauge portion l9, an integral but
Still another object is to provide a height gauge
comprising a plurality of gauge blocks, some of
tress portion 29 of lesser height and of greater
transverse dimensions than the portion. I9, and a
which blocks are held together by a coupling
pair of opposed connecting and stiffening webs
means operable by a wedging action and some
of which blocks are held together by a coupling 35 2|. ‘Opposite side faces 22 of the portion 20 may
be somewhat concave as shown to provide thumb
means operable by a clamping action.
and finger holds arranged to facilitate handling
Other objects and advantages of the invention
of the base and the gauge assembly. The bottom
will become apparent from the following descrip
face 24 of the base is generally ?at, but may be
tion of the preferred forms shown in the accom
panying drawings. The essential characteristics 40 recessed, inwardly from the margins, as suggested
are summarized in the claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the instrument
arranged to serve as a height gauge and line
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary side elevation of ap
proximately the arrangement according to Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional
view taken substantially along the line 3-3 of
by a dotted line at 2411 in Fig. 2.
The top surface I3 of the gauge portion I9 is
a gauging surface and is ?nished with extreme
accuracy so as to be parallel with and a prede
termined distance from the ?nished portion of
the bottom surface 24. An accurately positioned
and formed transverse cylindrical opening 26in
‘ the gauge portion I9 is provided for cooperation
with one of the coupling devices I5 or directly
50 with the‘coupling device IS in case a compara
tively low-height gauge is desired.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional detail of one
Fig. 2;
end portion of a block coupling device shown by
Figs. 1, 2 and 3;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view on the order of
Fig. 3, showing a ‘screw operated coupling device
in the process of being disconnected from an as
sociated block element;
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the screw oper
ated coupling device;
Although the gauge blocks I2 and I4 may be
and usually are each of a different height, said
blocks have transverse dimensions which are sub
stantially equal to the corresponding transverse
dimensions of the gauge portion I9 of the base
block I0. Although the gauge portion I9 and the
blocks I2 may have any suitable vertical lengths,’
- it is preferred, if the inch or centimeter is used
Figs. 7 and 8 are perspective views showing the 60 as the measuring unit, that the height of the
blocks l2 and of the portion I9 be integral mul
gauge instrumentalities hereof arranged to serve
tiples of the unit. Thus the base block II] and
as a precision divider and general purpose gauge,
a minimum number of gauge blocks I2 may ‘be
respectively; and
used to form a composite structure having a
Figs. 9 and 10 are diagrammatic views showing
the operation of an eccentric locking and clamp 65 height somewhat less than a non-integral height
ing mechanism according to Figs. 2, 3 and 4.
An illustrative height gaugein accordance with
this invention, and as shown by Figs. 1 and 2,
comprises a base block In adapted to rest on a
or distance to be measured, or exactly equal to an
integral height or distance to be measured.
The gauge blocks I2 are each provided with a
pair of Vertically spaced, cylindrical openings 26,
surface plate II (Fig. 2), a plurality of relative 70 preferably through openings as shown, which are
very accurately formed and which have their re
ly long (integral) gauge blocks I2, marked I2a,
spective axes parallel to and spaced equidistantly
I21), I20, etc., mutually stacked in end-to-end
from their respective nearest adjacent gauging
relationship and supported on a flat top surface
I3 of the base block I0, and a plurality of rela
tively short (non-integral) gauge blocks I4,
- surfaces.
The opening 26 in the baseblock» I I]
(see Fig. 2) is similarly disposed with respect to
‘ 2.409517
or yoke member 46 into which a clamping screw
48 is threaded, and a clamping jaw 49 connect
.ed with the screw and slidable along the side
The screw has a knurled head por
tion 48a above the yoke.
The side members 45
have pairs of spaced leg portions 56 secured to
body 66 has a transverse hole 26 accurately lo
cated a distance above the face 63 corresponding
to the distance of the other holes 26 from ad
jacent end faces of the blocks I2 in which they
are formed so that the scriber can be mounted
at either end of the instrument (of. Fig. 7). The
edge 6| may be used to scribe a line on an‘arti
cle being gauged or set up for marking on the
the block 46 at suitable corner notches of the
block as by screws 54. The clamping ja'w'49 is
surface plate II in a well known manner.’ The
rotatably secured for swivelling relative move
ment to a reduced lower end portion of the screw 10 lower edge of such scribed line is exactly the same
height above the surface plate I I as‘ is the surface
48 as by parallel cross pins 56 on the jaw lying
23 of the top non-integral gauge block I4. 7 Alter
partly in a peripheral groove 4% of the screw.
natively, the lower side 60‘ of the scriber may be
The jaw 49 has opposed pairs of spaced slots 58
used as a measuring‘ face to make contactwith a
(Fig. 6) which slidably receive the legs 56, re
spectively, of the side members 45. Upon turn-7 15 piece to be checked for height thereof above the
- ing of'the screw 46 it is apparent that the jaw
Because the lower portions of the bevel faces
of the pins 54 do not enter the upper opening 26
The lower or bight portions of the side mem
of the top block I2, the coupling device I6 may be
bers 45 are spaced apart substantially the width
of the gauge blocks I2 and I4 and the block por 20 detached from said top block, or any other block
L2 to which connected, by inward movement of
tion of the scriber I8 and are provided with
the coupling device I6 endwise along such block,
spring biased movable latch pins 54 extending
as brought out by Fig. 5. The detaching opera
toward each other for detachable engagement
49 moves longitudinally as guided by the legs 50.
5 with the transverse openings 26 of the larger
blocks I2 when one of the latter is positioned be 25
tween the side members 45. As shown, the pins
54 are carried on T-shaped leaf spring members
52 secured to respective side members 45 as by
screws 53. The pins 54 may be riveted to the re
tion is acomplished aftervthe non-integral blocks
I4 and (e. g.) the scriber I8 have been removed
from beneath the clamping jaw and (with the
particular arrangement shown by Figs. 2 and 3)
after the blocks I22) and I20 have been discon
nected from each other. The pins are‘ cammed
spective springs as at 54a (see Fig. 3), and the 30 outwardly by the lower edge wall surfaces of the
engaged opening 26, thereby enabling the top
inner ends or head portions of the pins slidably
block I2 to be slid out from between the side
extend through openings 55 in the side members
members 45 in a direction parallel to the princi
for engagement and disengagement with the
pal planes thereof for complete disconnection
holes 26. The supporting springs limit the move
ment of the pins toward each other as will be 35 without having to manipulate the pins 54 'or their
clear from inspection of Fig. 3. The head por
tions of the pins as shown in Figs. 3 and 5 com
prise acutely truncated cylinders, the longer up
per sides of which normally extend inwardly con
siderably beyond the inner faces of respective
side members 45, and the shorter lower sides of
The scriber I8 is one of a set, of special blocks
including block 65, ‘I5 and others if desired (see
Figs. '7 and 8), each of which has a measuring'or
indicating point or face corresponding generally
to the face 63 and point 6| of the scriber and
which do not extend inwardly through or at least
each of which preferably has an opening 26 to
beyond the openings 55.
cooperate with the connectors I5. Thus each
special block may be used at either end of the '
It will be apparent from the above that when
instrument constituted by the rigid assemblage
the side members 45 are slid endwise over the
of blocks I2 (or I2 and I4) and their connectors.
uppermost block I2 (I20 in Figs, 2 and 3) the in
The member 65 of Fig. '7 is a center point indi
ner beveled faces of the latch pins 54 are cammed
cator or marker having a body portion 66 of the
outwardly by the upper corners of said top block
same transverse dimensions as the gauge blocks
adjacent respective main side faces of the block,
and that when the pins register with the open 50 and provided with a flat face 68 for engagement
with the jaw 49 and an opposite accurately ?n
ing 26 of said top block, the pins snap into place.
ished face 69 for engagement with a gauging sur
The pins when in seated position may substan
face such as the end face of any of the blocks l2
tially ?t the openings 26 so that the lower end
or the exposed end face of a block I4. The body
of the device I6 is centered relative to the top
55 portion 66 has a hole 26. A neck portion 10 of
block I2.
the center point indicator or marker 65 termi-.
After the proper number and size gauge blocks
nates in a cylindrical head portion ‘II which has
I4 are stacked in end-to-end relationship on the
a conical face ‘I2 de?ning a hard .and wear re
surface I‘I (Figs. 2 and 3) and between the mem
sisting point ‘I4. The point ‘I4 is usable for mark
bers 45 to reach a desired height above the sur
face I‘i, the scriber I8, for example, is placed on 60 ing a center or engaging a prick punch socket for
example and lies in the same plane as the face
the top surface 23 of the uppermost short block
69 so that a mark made or center socket engaged
I40 and the screw 48 turned so as to force the
by the point ‘I4 is exactly the desired distance
jaw 49 against the top of the scriber thereby to
from a reference position such as established by
clamp the blocks I4 as well as the scriber securely
the surface plate II when the center point block
to the block I20.
65 is used for example in place of the scriber I8
The body 66 of the scriber I8 preferably has
in the assembly according to Figs. 1 and 2. In
the same transverse dimensions as the gauge
Fig; '7 the scriber point GI and center point ‘I4
blocks I2 and I4 and a height somewhat greater
cooperate to provide a high. precision divider.
than the distance from the holes 26 of the blocks
I2 to the nearest end faces of respective blocks. 70 The manner of mounting the members I8 and
65 interchangeably at opposite ends‘ of the as
The wear resisting sharp point 6I of the scriber
sembled blocks I2 and I4 will be clear from the
is formed on a right triangular projection 62 of
showing and foregoing description.
the scriber body. The bottom face 63 of the body
Each of the caliper jaw blocks‘ ‘I5 shown in Fig.
and projection 62 is an accurately ?nished flat
surface in the plane of the scriber point. The 75 8 comprises a body portion 'IS'similar to the body
ings,. and a supporting frame for receiving‘ad
ditional gauge‘ blocks in stacked relationship,
said frame having means to enter an opening of
one of the ?rst mentioned blocks, and clamp
ing means spaced therefrom lengthwise of the
assembled blocks, said two means of the frame
cooperating .to force the blocks which are in
stacked relationship toward each other and to
its-free end portion, said pins being generally ,
complementary to said aperture and receivable in
opposite ends thereof, respectively, by effecting a .
retraction of said pins and then permitting said
pins to return ‘to their normal position, an‘ abut-1
ment portion ,adjustably mounted by said clamp
member for movement longitudinally of said
arms, andone or more supplemental gauge blocks
each provided with opposing parallel flat gauging‘
ward the ?rst mentioned blocks.
11. A' height gauge comprising apair of gauge 10 faces at a predetermined precise distance apart ,
and disposed in stackedrelation between the gauge
blocks having gauging face surfaces in engage
ing face of saidmain gauge block and ‘said ‘abut
ment, a tension member secured to one of said
ment portion.
> '
blocks against movement toward the other of said
_ 16-. A coupling device for use in“ holding a>plu-\
blocks, a cylindrical socket in said other of said
rality of gauge blocks in assembled relation‘, com
blocks having an axis substantially parallel to
prising a frame having a ‘pair of spaced leg'por
said‘ engaging faces and intersecting opposite side
tions adapted to slidably receive said gauge blocks
faces, a generally cylindrical pin received in said
therebetween, a pair of opposing pins mounted by‘
socket and mounted for rotation by said tension
said frame at the, free'end' portion of said legs
member, a head portion of said pin within said
socket being eccentric with respect to the axis of 20 and normally extending inwardly of said legs
toward each other and movable transversely of
rotation of said pin and normally making contact
said legs, means biasing said pins to said normal
with the socket only approximately midway be
position, whereby said pins may enter comple
tween the ‘opposite side faces of the associated
mentary openings in a gauge block received be
block intersected by the axis of the socket.
12. A gauge comprising in combination a pair 25 tween said legs, and a jaw member mounted by
said frame between said leg portions and movable
of gauge blocks each provided With opposing
longitudinally of said leg portions for engaging
parallel ?at gauging faces at a predetermined
the‘ nearest surface of the gauge blocks which,
precise distance apart and each having a pair of
are received between said legs.
through holes having axes parallel to said gaug
ing faces, each of the holes in each block being 30 ' 17. A coupling device in accordance with claim
16 characterized in that the inner end faces of
spaced equidistantly from the gauging face closest
said pins are acutely truncated cylinders to de
thereto regardless of the distance between the
?ne opposing end faces which diverge longitudi
gauging faces, coupling means mounting a pair
nally of said legs toward the free ends of said
of spaced pins normally freely receivable in said
holes of each block, respectively, when gauging 35 legs, the marginal areas of said end faces nearest
the free end of said legs being normally spaced
faces of said blocks are in contact, one of said
'apart a distance greater than the distance be
pins being eccentric with respect to its associated
tween said legs.
hole and mounted for rotation, and said eccen
18. A coupling device for securing a pair of
tricity causing said rotatable pin upon rotation to
wedge against a side wall of its associated hole, 40 gauge‘ blocks in face to face contact and compris
ing a supporting member having a face surface
whereby said blocks are held in face to face con
adapted to engage aligned side faces of said
blocks, a pair ‘of pins mounted by said member
13. A gauge comprising a main gauge block ‘
and extending outwardly from said surface, one
having an end face and a pair of opposing side
faces, recesses in said side faces, respectively, 45 of said pins being mounted for rotation about an
axis which is eccentric with respect to the axis
a coupling device having a pair of opposing spaced
of a circular portion of said pin which projects
leg portions depending from a yoke portion and
beyond said face surface, and means operatively
adapted to engage the side faces of said main
interconnecting said rotatable pin and said sup
gauge block, respectively, retractable pins
mounted at the free end portion of said leg por 60 porting member for normally biasing said rotat
able pin to a predetermined relative turned posi
tions, respectively, and disposed inwardly of said
tion with respect to said supporting member such
leg portions toward each other, said pins being
that rotation of said rotatable pin causes the axes
complementary to said recesses, respectively, and
of the projecting portions of said pins to move
receivable therein after retraction to permit said
, "
main gauge block to be slidably received between 65 relatively toward each other.
19. A coupling device for securing a pair of
said leg portions, a jaw member adjustably
gauge blocks together in contiguous relationship
mounted by said yoke and movable longitudinally
to each other, which gauge blocks are each pro-'
of said leg portions, and one or more supplemental
vided with a recess having a curved wall area,
gauge blocks slidably received between said leg
portions and between the end face of said main 60 said coupling device comprising a pair of spaced
pins each having a head portion of substantially
gauge block and said jaw member.
circular form defining a curved surface area
14. A gauge in accordance with claim 13 char
operatively complementary to ‘said curved wall
acterized in that said pins are provided with cam
area, means including spring biasing means nor
surfaces, respectively, positioned for engage
ment with corners of one of said gauge blocks to 65 mally supporting said pins in spaced relation for
free insertion into said recesses, respectively,
effect said retraction of said pins.
when said blocks are contiguous to each other,
15. A gauge comprising in combination a main
the head ‘portion of one of said pins being ‘rotat
gauge block provided with a ?at gauging face, a
able against the spring biasing force about an
pair of substantially parallel side faces per
pendicular to said gauging face, an aperture in 70 axis which is eccentric with respect to the axis
of the associated head portion.
said block opening, into said side faces'and having
' 20. A coupling device for securing a pair of
gauge blocks in face to face contact and com
prising a supporting member having a face sur
an axis parallel to saidgauging face, a clamp
member having a pair of opposed parallel arms
depending from a yoke portion, each of said arms
retractably mounting an inwardly disposed pin at
face adapted to engage aligned side faces of said
blocks, a pair of pins mounted by said member
and extending outwardly from said surface, each
22. A set of gauge blocks comprising a plu
rality of gauge blocks each having opposing
of said pins having a frusto-conical head portion
parallel ?at end faces disposed a precise distance
tapering inwardly toward said surface, and one
apart, said distance being different for some of
of said pins being mounted for rotation about 61 the different blocks of the set, some of the blocks
an axis which is eccentric with respect to the axis
of unequal length having a pair of spaced open
of its associated head portion.
ings, the axes of which are parallel to each other
21. A coupling device in accordance with claim
and to the end face of the respective block, each '
20 characterized in that means are provided for
of said ‘axes being spaced an equal distance from
biasing said rotatably mounted pin to a prede 10 its nearest adjacent end face regardless of the
termined relative turned position with respect to
distance between the end faces of the blocks, and
said supporting member such that rotation of
means for engaging said openings of adjacent
said rotatably mounted pin against said bias
blocks to hold the blocks together.
causes said frusto-conical surfaces to move rela
tively toward each other.
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