Патент USA US2409818код для вставки
Oct.- 22, 1.946. <;. D. WEBBER 2,469,81 7 GAUGE ‘ Filed‘ Jan. 10, 1,945 2 Shgets-Shee’c 2 Patented Oct. 22, 1946 2,409,817 UN 1 TED ; s-TATE-s. PATEN T . or Flee . 2,409,817 I ’ GAUGE. George DrWebljer, Lakewood, Ohio rgApplicationjJanuary 10, 1945, Serial'No. 572,109 (01.. 331-168) This invention relatesltor an instrument‘ for > measuring and /orindicatin'g~i dimensions and more speci?cally to a igaugingriinstrument including a plurality-10f accurately» formed ‘gauge blocks ‘and one or“ more cooperating'videvices adapted ‘ v“2 pose coupling means ‘which mighthavebeen used in place “of?the central coupling screwsarenot satisfactory for- usev in rigid composite measuring instruments of the ‘types showni hereby,;either because =of undue complexity ‘ or because‘ they to be combined in various- arrangements for very ‘ " would; tend to'tilt. contiguousublocks out: of align accurately measuring-inside or outside dimensions ‘ ment instead ofiurging them together with forces -~or» indicating, asby scribing a1 line, ‘ preselected entirely normal ‘toil-the- mutually: contacting faces. ‘ heights abovelorl‘otherwise spacedlfrom a-refer ‘Anobjectfof?this invention iswto' provide a ence surface. ‘Highpreoision gauge blocks in sets-varein gen -eralluse.'"’ The‘ blocks of faiset have opposing paral ‘ 'lel substantiallyf. flat-measuring faces; ‘herein ‘ after-‘referred to-ior“ convenience as-endl faces 10 gauge instrument‘ of the above indicated charac ter which has none of the foregoing disadvan tages. In accordance‘ withxthis invention, at composite ' gauge structure; is :provided in which;the:;indi spacedapart veryaocurately at predetermined 15 vidual gauge'blocks are securely held together‘by progressively varying distances. 1 The ‘transverse improved coupling means; :One type of improved dimensions ofialleiofi the vbl‘ocksiare usually the same. The sets includeeblock's-having ‘lengths which are usually-decimal‘fractions of I an ac cepted‘unit of length such asth'eh-inch or centi ‘ meter and mayvr-incl‘udei‘blocksi having lengths which are integral-multiples ‘of ‘such -unit.-T “The different‘ classes 7 of- blocks‘ may thus I. beidentL ?ed; for discussiom as .fi‘integralwland 1 ‘fnon-in coupling meansincludes a‘rotatable. eccentric pin receivedcin al-oooperating transverse. opening in a gauge block,» mounting .base or work- contact 20 ing memberr‘of'the set,» and‘ permits axpairof gauge i-blocks to ibessecured together: and/or ‘to such mounting basewon-memberby a. :wedging action resulting from the mere;turnin'g:iof a. knob out‘ of a normalpositionuinnwhich1the .knob is ' tegral’i’ or fractional‘blocks;F By stacking selected 25 held ‘by a, spring, landewithoutut'he usel‘of ,tools. blocks of the set in end-to-end"relationship; corn positevg-auging structures :having- lengths variable “in-steps ofthe order-of thousandths'or ten-thou sandthsof anvinchwmay be sccuredotheksize ‘of the‘ steps and-"the possible maximum and mini .mum‘ overall lengths being dependent‘ upon‘ the number and size‘oiithevblocks in the-set. . The coupling means having the eccentricilpin is particularly suitable i .f or .‘ securing together; gauge - blocks, of =-re'lative1y 2. large: lengths, e; g.. "lengths » which areintegral multiplesi‘of ‘an ‘inchji although 30 'useable for‘ shorter: lengths; ‘and, one onmore couplings may be used to build up a rigidcom posite gaugerstructurel to. a’ height ormlength ‘somewhat-less than that desired.“ Suchzintegral blocks, except for a base block,"-*di?'eri=rfrom \"For most purposes’ the individual blocks of a gauge structure such as‘ ‘described above are merely wrungtogether, but for meas 35 ' standard 1 blocks ‘of integral. length only ,in'. that composite uring or indicating distances between relatively remote points,‘ as above a surface lplate or for leach‘of-the integraliblocks'of the ‘improved gauge structure: is-ivprovided. with a rverticallywspaced measuring ‘between, e. g., horizontally spaced pair of transverse openings. ‘ points, as for checking internalvdiameters-dur Another type of coupling means in ‘accordance ing formation on a grinder, the instability of this 40 with this invention is arranged.‘ to ‘cooperatelwith method of assembly renders it desirable that“ the a transverse» opening in an end integraltblock of blocks be more‘ securely but detachably fastened ' the composite structure; just: described to-secure together." Prior fastening or coup-ling means" of thereto one or more relativelyshortgaugei blocks, the type "which required screws to ‘be "passed e. g. having lengths which are-fractional parts through or into each‘ block used in-the instru ment have many 1 disadvantages. I ‘For example, interruption of the measuring or end‘surface‘sby holes ‘obviously is objectionable; excessive? time of an inch, ‘and to secure a‘work contacting or ' distance indicating member in ‘place; o'n'r'the com— posite structure. “The shorter or‘ non-integral blocks are preferably" of conventional design with is required‘ to assemble and‘disassemble"‘the in out-openings and are used to build‘ upthe com strument; a tool such as ascrew-‘driver and ‘which 50 posite structure to the desired length or- height is apt to damage the finish of the blocks must when such distance is not an integralldimen be used with the blocks, and all‘ of the blocks of the set, including‘ the fractional or 'non-in tegral blocks-must be specially formed to cooper ate with the fastening means.‘ Prior general pur ‘ 'sion.‘r ‘Said other‘type' of coupling- means hereof ' may take‘ the ‘form of a‘screvv clamp; and in » addition‘ to its function "of holding the integral 55 and non-integral blocks together in end-to-end 2,409,817 3 marked Illa, Illb, and Me. relationship, it is used as one manner of fasten ing a scriber, feeler, center point or other work tionship and are supported on a top surface I‘! contacting or distance indicating instrument to ‘ of the uppermost integral gauge block (I2d Fig. 1, I20 Fig. 2). The opposing horizontal surfaces of each of the gauge blocks are ?nished as by lapping to extreme ?atness, are accurately spaced apart within limits of a few millionths of an inch, and are in true parallelism as .known in the art the gauging structure. A further object of this invention includes pro vision of a measuring instrument comprising a plurality of gauge blocks, bars or other precisely formed distance pieces detachably held together in an improved manner. " The non-integral blocks are mutually stacked in end-to-end rela . > Another object is to provide a distance meas 10 of making'high precision gauge‘blocks. It is to be understood that any suitable number of in uring instrument comprising a selectable number tegral and non-integral gauge blocks may be used, of integral and non-integral gauge block elements and, as will become apparent hereinafter, one and a work contacting element or indicator held together by simple readily releasable coupling means. or more of the relatively long blocks may be sub 15 Another object is to provide a gauging instru ment comprising a pair of gauge blocks or dis tance pieces held together by a readily releas able coupling means operable by a wedging stituted for some of the relatively short blocks. The block I2a is detachably secured to the ' ' base block Ill and the blocks I2b, I20, etc., are detachably secured together by coupling devices I5 which are applicable selectively at opposite and/or clamping action which tends to maintain 20 faces and ends of the blocks I2. The blocks I4, which may be unaltered gauge blocks of a stand the blocks in true alignment and at uniform ard set of appropriate horizontal size, are de pressure throughout this area of mutual contact. tachably secured together in stacked relation and A further object is to provide a gauging instru to the top integra1 block I2 by a coupling device ment comprising a plurality of stacked gauge: blocks or distance pieces with provision to re 25 or unit I6 which also detachably holds an indi cating, measuring or other. work-contacting leasably hold laterally projecting members of var block, shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as a scriber I8, in ious types applicable to reference surfaces, work operating position on the top surface 23 of the surfaces and the like for gauging operations of uppermost block I4. the various kinds required in machine shop prac-. In Figs. 1 and 2, the base block I0 comprises 30 tice. an upright gauge portion l9, an integral but Still another object is to provide a height gauge comprising a plurality of gauge blocks, some of tress portion 29 of lesser height and of greater transverse dimensions than the portion. I9, and a which blocks are held together by a coupling pair of opposed connecting and stiffening webs means operable by a wedging action and some of which blocks are held together by a coupling 35 2|. ‘Opposite side faces 22 of the portion 20 may be somewhat concave as shown to provide thumb means operable by a clamping action. and finger holds arranged to facilitate handling Other objects and advantages of the invention of the base and the gauge assembly. The bottom will become apparent from the following descrip face 24 of the base is generally ?at, but may be tion of the preferred forms shown in the accom panying drawings. The essential characteristics 40 recessed, inwardly from the margins, as suggested are summarized in the claims. In the drawings: Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the instrument arranged to serve as a height gauge and line scriber; Fig. 2 is a fragmentary side elevation of ap proximately the arrangement according to Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view taken substantially along the line 3-3 of by a dotted line at 2411 in Fig. 2. r The top surface I3 of the gauge portion I9 is a gauging surface and is ?nished with extreme accuracy so as to be parallel with and a prede termined distance from the ?nished portion of the bottom surface 24. An accurately positioned and formed transverse cylindrical opening 26in ‘ the gauge portion I9 is provided for cooperation with one of the coupling devices I5 or directly 50 with the‘coupling device IS in case a compara tively low-height gauge is desired. ' Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional detail of one Fig. 2; end portion of a block coupling device shown by Figs. 1, 2 and 3; Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view on the order of Fig. 3, showing a ‘screw operated coupling device in the process of being disconnected from an as sociated block element; Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the screw oper ated coupling device; Although the gauge blocks I2 and I4 may be and usually are each of a different height, said blocks have transverse dimensions which are sub stantially equal to the corresponding transverse dimensions of the gauge portion I9 of the base block I0. Although the gauge portion I9 and the blocks I2 may have any suitable vertical lengths,’ - it is preferred, if the inch or centimeter is used Figs. 7 and 8 are perspective views showing the 60 as the measuring unit, that the height of the blocks l2 and of the portion I9 be integral mul gauge instrumentalities hereof arranged to serve tiples of the unit. Thus the base block II] and as a precision divider and general purpose gauge, a minimum number of gauge blocks I2 may ‘be respectively; and used to form a composite structure having a Figs. 9 and 10 are diagrammatic views showing the operation of an eccentric locking and clamp 65 height somewhat less than a non-integral height ing mechanism according to Figs. 2, 3 and 4. An illustrative height gaugein accordance with this invention, and as shown by Figs. 1 and 2, comprises a base block In adapted to rest on a or distance to be measured, or exactly equal to an integral height or distance to be measured. The gauge blocks I2 are each provided with a pair of Vertically spaced, cylindrical openings 26, surface plate II (Fig. 2), a plurality of relative 70 preferably through openings as shown, which are very accurately formed and which have their re ly long (integral) gauge blocks I2, marked I2a, spective axes parallel to and spaced equidistantly I21), I20, etc., mutually stacked in end-to-end from their respective nearest adjacent gauging relationship and supported on a flat top surface I3 of the base block I0, and a plurality of rela tively short (non-integral) gauge blocks I4, - surfaces. The opening 26 in the baseblock» I I] (see Fig. 2) is similarly disposed with respect to ‘ 2.409517 or yoke member 46 into which a clamping screw 48 is threaded, and a clamping jaw 49 connect .ed with the screw and slidable along the side members. The screw has a knurled head por tion 48a above the yoke. The side members 45 have pairs of spaced leg portions 56 secured to body 66 has a transverse hole 26 accurately lo cated a distance above the face 63 corresponding to the distance of the other holes 26 from ad jacent end faces of the blocks I2 in which they are formed so that the scriber can be mounted at either end of the instrument (of. Fig. 7). The edge 6| may be used to scribe a line on an‘arti cle being gauged or set up for marking on the the block 46 at suitable corner notches of the block as by screws 54. The clamping ja'w'49 is surface plate II in a well known manner.’ The rotatably secured for swivelling relative move ment to a reduced lower end portion of the screw 10 lower edge of such scribed line is exactly the same height above the surface plate I I as‘ is the surface 48 as by parallel cross pins 56 on the jaw lying 23 of the top non-integral gauge block I4. 7 Alter partly in a peripheral groove 4% of the screw. natively, the lower side 60‘ of the scriber may be The jaw 49 has opposed pairs of spaced slots 58 used as a measuring‘ face to make contactwith a (Fig. 6) which slidably receive the legs 56, re spectively, of the side members 45. Upon turn-7 15 piece to be checked for height thereof above the - ing of'the screw 46 it is apparent that the jaw surface plate. ' ' ' ‘ Because the lower portions of the bevel faces of the pins 54 do not enter the upper opening 26 The lower or bight portions of the side mem of the top block I2, the coupling device I6 may be bers 45 are spaced apart substantially the width of the gauge blocks I2 and I4 and the block por 20 detached from said top block, or any other block L2 to which connected, by inward movement of tion of the scriber I8 and are provided with the coupling device I6 endwise along such block, spring biased movable latch pins 54 extending as brought out by Fig. 5. The detaching opera toward each other for detachable engagement 49 moves longitudinally as guided by the legs 50. 5 with the transverse openings 26 of the larger blocks I2 when one of the latter is positioned be 25 tween the side members 45. As shown, the pins 54 are carried on T-shaped leaf spring members 52 secured to respective side members 45 as by screws 53. The pins 54 may be riveted to the re tion is acomplished aftervthe non-integral blocks I4 and (e. g.) the scriber I8 have been removed from beneath the clamping jaw and (with the particular arrangement shown by Figs. 2 and 3) after the blocks I22) and I20 have been discon nected from each other. The pins are‘ cammed spective springs as at 54a (see Fig. 3), and the 30 outwardly by the lower edge wall surfaces of the engaged opening 26, thereby enabling the top inner ends or head portions of the pins slidably block I2 to be slid out from between the side extend through openings 55 in the side members members 45 in a direction parallel to the princi for engagement and disengagement with the pal planes thereof for complete disconnection holes 26. The supporting springs limit the move ment of the pins toward each other as will be 35 without having to manipulate the pins 54 'or their clear from inspection of Fig. 3. The head por supporting tions of the pins as shown in Figs. 3 and 5 com prise acutely truncated cylinders, the longer up per sides of which normally extend inwardly con siderably beyond the inner faces of respective side members 45, and the shorter lower sides of springs. ‘ _ , ‘ _ The scriber I8 is one of a set, of special blocks including block 65, ‘I5 and others if desired (see Figs. '7 and 8), each of which has a measuring'or indicating point or face corresponding generally to the face 63 and point 6| of the scriber and which do not extend inwardly through or at least each of which preferably has an opening 26 to beyond the openings 55. cooperate with the connectors I5. Thus each special block may be used at either end of the ' It will be apparent from the above that when instrument constituted by the rigid assemblage the side members 45 are slid endwise over the of blocks I2 (or I2 and I4) and their connectors. uppermost block I2 (I20 in Figs, 2 and 3) the in The member 65 of Fig. '7 is a center point indi ner beveled faces of the latch pins 54 are cammed cator or marker having a body portion 66 of the outwardly by the upper corners of said top block same transverse dimensions as the gauge blocks adjacent respective main side faces of the block, and that when the pins register with the open 50 and provided with a flat face 68 for engagement with the jaw 49 and an opposite accurately ?n ing 26 of said top block, the pins snap into place. ished face 69 for engagement with a gauging sur The pins when in seated position may substan face such as the end face of any of the blocks l2 tially ?t the openings 26 so that the lower end or the exposed end face of a block I4. The body of the device I6 is centered relative to the top 55 portion 66 has a hole 26. A neck portion 10 of block I2. the center point indicator or marker 65 termi-. After the proper number and size gauge blocks nates in a cylindrical head portion ‘II which has I4 are stacked in end-to-end relationship on the a conical face ‘I2 de?ning a hard .and wear re surface I‘I (Figs. 2 and 3) and between the mem sisting point ‘I4. The point ‘I4 is usable for mark bers 45 to reach a desired height above the sur face I‘i, the scriber I8, for example, is placed on 60 ing a center or engaging a prick punch socket for example and lies in the same plane as the face the top surface 23 of the uppermost short block 69 so that a mark made or center socket engaged I40 and the screw 48 turned so as to force the by the point ‘I4 is exactly the desired distance jaw 49 against the top of the scriber thereby to from a reference position such as established by clamp the blocks I4 as well as the scriber securely the surface plate II when the center point block 65 to the block I20. 65 is used for example in place of the scriber I8 The body 66 of the scriber I8 preferably has in the assembly according to Figs. 1 and 2. In the same transverse dimensions as the gauge Fig; '7 the scriber point GI and center point ‘I4 blocks I2 and I4 and a height somewhat greater cooperate to provide a high. precision divider. than the distance from the holes 26 of the blocks I2 to the nearest end faces of respective blocks. 70 The manner of mounting the members I8 and 65 interchangeably at opposite ends‘ of the as The wear resisting sharp point 6I of the scriber sembled blocks I2 and I4 will be clear from the is formed on a right triangular projection 62 of showing and foregoing description. the scriber body. The bottom face 63 of the body Each of the caliper jaw blocks‘ ‘I5 shown in Fig. and projection 62 is an accurately ?nished flat surface in the plane of the scriber point. The 75 8 comprises a body portion 'IS'similar to the body 2146931"? 11 . ings,. and a supporting frame for receiving‘ad ditional gauge‘ blocks in stacked relationship, said frame having means to enter an opening of one of the ?rst mentioned blocks, and clamp ing means spaced therefrom lengthwise of the assembled blocks, said two means of the frame cooperating .to force the blocks which are in stacked relationship toward each other and to 12 its-free end portion, said pins being generally , complementary to said aperture and receivable in opposite ends thereof, respectively, by effecting a . retraction of said pins and then permitting said pins to return ‘to their normal position, an‘ abut-1 ment portion ,adjustably mounted by said clamp member for movement longitudinally of said arms, andone or more supplemental gauge blocks each provided with opposing parallel flat gauging‘ ward the ?rst mentioned blocks. 11. A' height gauge comprising apair of gauge 10 faces at a predetermined precise distance apart , and disposed in stackedrelation between the gauge blocks having gauging face surfaces in engage ing face of saidmain gauge block and ‘said ‘abut ment, a tension member secured to one of said ment portion. ‘ > ' blocks against movement toward the other of said _ 16-. A coupling device for use in“ holding a>plu-\ blocks, a cylindrical socket in said other of said rality of gauge blocks in assembled relation‘, com blocks having an axis substantially parallel to prising a frame having a ‘pair of spaced leg'por said‘ engaging faces and intersecting opposite side tions adapted to slidably receive said gauge blocks faces, a generally cylindrical pin received in said therebetween, a pair of opposing pins mounted by‘ socket and mounted for rotation by said tension said frame at the, free'end' portion of said legs member, a head portion of said pin within said socket being eccentric with respect to the axis of 20 and normally extending inwardly of said legs toward each other and movable transversely of rotation of said pin and normally making contact said legs, means biasing said pins to said normal with the socket only approximately midway be position, whereby said pins may enter comple tween the ‘opposite side faces of the associated mentary openings in a gauge block received be block intersected by the axis of the socket. 12. A gauge comprising in combination a pair 25 tween said legs, and a jaw member mounted by said frame between said leg portions and movable of gauge blocks each provided With opposing longitudinally of said leg portions for engaging parallel ?at gauging faces at a predetermined the‘ nearest surface of the gauge blocks which, precise distance apart and each having a pair of are received between said legs. through holes having axes parallel to said gaug ing faces, each of the holes in each block being 30 ' 17. A coupling device in accordance with claim 16 characterized in that the inner end faces of spaced equidistantly from the gauging face closest said pins are acutely truncated cylinders to de thereto regardless of the distance between the ?ne opposing end faces which diverge longitudi gauging faces, coupling means mounting a pair nally of said legs toward the free ends of said of spaced pins normally freely receivable in said holes of each block, respectively, when gauging 35 legs, the marginal areas of said end faces nearest the free end of said legs being normally spaced faces of said blocks are in contact, one of said 'apart a distance greater than the distance be pins being eccentric with respect to its associated tween said legs. 7 hole and mounted for rotation, and said eccen 18. A coupling device for securing a pair of tricity causing said rotatable pin upon rotation to wedge against a side wall of its associated hole, 40 gauge‘ blocks in face to face contact and compris ing a supporting member having a face surface whereby said blocks are held in face to face con adapted to engage aligned side faces of said tact. blocks, a pair ‘of pins mounted by said member 13. A gauge comprising a main gauge block ‘ and extending outwardly from said surface, one having an end face and a pair of opposing side faces, recesses in said side faces, respectively, 45 of said pins being mounted for rotation about an axis which is eccentric with respect to the axis a coupling device having a pair of opposing spaced of a circular portion of said pin which projects leg portions depending from a yoke portion and beyond said face surface, and means operatively adapted to engage the side faces of said main interconnecting said rotatable pin and said sup gauge block, respectively, retractable pins mounted at the free end portion of said leg por 60 porting member for normally biasing said rotat able pin to a predetermined relative turned posi tions, respectively, and disposed inwardly of said tion with respect to said supporting member such leg portions toward each other, said pins being that rotation of said rotatable pin causes the axes complementary to said recesses, respectively, and of the projecting portions of said pins to move receivable therein after retraction to permit said , " ' main gauge block to be slidably received between 65 relatively toward each other. 19. A coupling device for securing a pair of said leg portions, a jaw member adjustably gauge blocks together in contiguous relationship mounted by said yoke and movable longitudinally to each other, which gauge blocks are each pro-' of said leg portions, and one or more supplemental vided with a recess having a curved wall area, gauge blocks slidably received between said leg portions and between the end face of said main 60 said coupling device comprising a pair of spaced pins each having a head portion of substantially gauge block and said jaw member. circular form defining a curved surface area 14. A gauge in accordance with claim 13 char operatively complementary to ‘said curved wall acterized in that said pins are provided with cam area, means including spring biasing means nor surfaces, respectively, positioned for engage ment with corners of one of said gauge blocks to 65 mally supporting said pins in spaced relation for free insertion into said recesses, respectively, effect said retraction of said pins. when said blocks are contiguous to each other, 15. A gauge comprising in combination a main the head ‘portion of one of said pins being ‘rotat gauge block provided with a ?at gauging face, a able against the spring biasing force about an pair of substantially parallel side faces per pendicular to said gauging face, an aperture in 70 axis which is eccentric with respect to the axis of the associated head portion. said block opening, into said side faces'and having ' 20. A coupling device for securing a pair of gauge blocks in face to face contact and com prising a supporting member having a face sur an axis parallel to saidgauging face, a clamp member having a pair of opposed parallel arms depending from a yoke portion, each of said arms retractably mounting an inwardly disposed pin at 75 face adapted to engage aligned side faces of said 2,409,817 13 blocks, a pair of pins mounted by said member and extending outwardly from said surface, each 14 22. A set of gauge blocks comprising a plu rality of gauge blocks each having opposing of said pins having a frusto-conical head portion parallel ?at end faces disposed a precise distance tapering inwardly toward said surface, and one apart, said distance being different for some of of said pins being mounted for rotation about 61 the different blocks of the set, some of the blocks an axis which is eccentric with respect to the axis of unequal length having a pair of spaced open of its associated head portion. ings, the axes of which are parallel to each other 21. A coupling device in accordance with claim and to the end face of the respective block, each ' 20 characterized in that means are provided for of said ‘axes being spaced an equal distance from biasing said rotatably mounted pin to a prede 10 its nearest adjacent end face regardless of the termined relative turned position with respect to distance between the end faces of the blocks, and said supporting member such that rotation of means for engaging said openings of adjacent said rotatably mounted pin against said bias blocks to hold the blocks together. causes said frusto-conical surfaces to move rela tively toward each other. 15 GEORGE‘ D. WEBBER.