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Patented Oct. 22, 1946
Wallace Broadbent and Francis Leslie Rose,
Blackley, Manchester, England, assignors to
Imperial, Chemical Industries Limited, a cor
poration of Great Britain
No Drawing. Application May 25, 1945, Serial N0.
595,891. In Great Britain May 10, 1944
6 Claims. (01. 260—-551)
This invention relates to an improved process
for the manufacture of aryl-dicyandiamides,
otherwise known as aryl-cyanoguanidines.
Aryl-dicyandiamides are known, having been
may itself be an acid. For example, very good
yields are obtained using ,c-ethoxyethanol, dioxan,
methanol, ethanol, acetone or acetic acid. High
yields are obtained when the total amounts of
solvent and water present at the end of the re
action are such that the reaction product remains
made by interaction of dry aryl-azo-dicyandi
amides with hydrogen chloride in ether and sub
sequent decomposition by hot water of the addi
in solution. The reaction product is then con
tion compounds ?rst formed—see Walther and
veniently precipitated by adding more water.
Grieshammer, Journal fiir praktische Chemie (2)
As the strong acid we prefer to use :a strong
92, pp. 209-255, particularly pp. 250-251. This 10 mineral acid such as hydrochloric acid, sulphuric
process is, however, unsuitable for use on the
acid or nitric acid. Preferably the acid is added
to the organic solvent in admixture with water,
for example, hydrochloric acid is used in the
manufacturing scale because of its employment
of large proportions of a highly in?ammable or—
ganic solvent and because dry aryl-azo dicyandi
amides are explosive.
Walther and Grieshammer also showed (see
‘particularly p. 214) that aryl-azo-dicyandiamides
when heated with water or dilute acids decom
posed to give the corresponding phenol, dicyandi
form of a 36 per cent solution in water.
The reaction is best carried out at temperatures
of about 20°-40° C. Lower temperatures reduce
the speed of the reaction and higher tempera
tures tend to produce unwanted by-products.
The optimum temperature is the lowest at which
amide and nitrogen but that by working in con
a brisk evolution of nitrogen occurs.
centrated acid or by suspending the compound in .
action in most cases is feebly exothermic so that
alcohol and passing in hydrogen chloride, the
product is the phenyl guanylurea. Thus hydro
the arylazodicyandiamide is preferably added in
The re
portions over a period of time such as 1/,_>—1 hour.
gen chloride is ether (i. e. working in the absence
The aryl-azo-dicyan‘diamides used as starting
of water) followed by decomposition of the addi (3 (A materials may be made by alkaline coupling of.
tion product with water gave the aryl-dicyandi
an appropirate aryldiazonium compound with di
amide; hydrogen chloride in alcohol gave the
cyandiamide-seé Walther and Grieshammer p,
aryl-guanylurea; hydrogen chloride (concen
trated) in water likewise gave the aryl-guanyl
The following examples illustrate, but do not
urea; while dilute acid led to a more extensive 30 limit, the invention. The parts are by weight.
hydrolysis, yielding the phenol and dicyandiam
Example 1
ide. We have now found, surprisingly, that the
aryl-dicyandiamide can be obtained, in a single
64 parts of p-chloroaniline are dissolved by
operation, by working in the presence of water
heating in a mixture of 100 parts of water and 130
provided that a water-soluble organic liquid such 35 parts of 36% hydrochloric acid. The solution is
as acetic acid, ethanol, acetone, dioxan or )8
cooled to 15° C. and the resultant suspension is
ethoxyethanol is used as the reaction medium.
diazotized by adding 35 parts of sodium nitrite
Thus according to the present invention we
dissolved in 100 parts of water. This diazo solu
make aryl-dicyandiamides, wherein the aryl
tion is then gradually added toa solution of 46
group may bear substituents, by a process com 40 parts of dicyandiamide in 1400 parts of water,
prising bringing the corresponding aryl-azo-di
stirred at 20° C. Throughout the addition sodium
cyandiamide into reaction with a strong acid in
carbonate is added in portions so as to maintain
the presence of a water-soluble organic solvent
a strongly alkaline reaction. When the coupling
and a substantial proportion of water.
is ?nished the resultant suspension is ?ltered and
We thus secure severa1 important advantages, 45 the solid is washed with water and sucked as dry
notably, we obtain the aryl-dicyandiamide in one
as possible on a vacuum ?lter.
The wet ?lter paste of p-chlorophenylazodi
simple operation instead of two, we work at lower
temperatures, we avoid the use of highly in?am
cyandiamide obtained as described above is added
mable reaction media and, ?nally, we are en
during 30 minutes to a stirred mixture of 420
abled to use the starting material, the aryl-azo 50 parts of p-ethoxyethanol and 67 parts of 36%
hydrochloric acid kept at 20°—30° C. When no
dicyandiamide, in the form of a wet aqueous
?lter-paste, thus avoiding the hazards involved
more nitrogen is evolved there are added 3'75
in drying it and handling the explosive dry ma
parts of water and then su?icient sodium acetate
to remove the acid reaction to Congo Red. A
The water-soluble solvent may be neutral or 55 further 800 parts of water are then added and the
crude p-chlorophenyldicyandiamide is thus pre
cipitated in an easily ?lterable form. It is ?l
tered off and puri?ed by dissolving it in 450 parts
of a hot 5 % solution of caustic soda, ?ltering from
insoluble impurity and acidifying the clear ?l
trate with acetic acid. Pure p-chlorophenyldi
cyandiamide is precipated. It is ?ltered off and
We claim:
1. A process for producing an aryl-dicyandi
dried and then melts at 202.5°-203° C. uncorr.
By working in a similar manner but using other
amide, which comprises reacting the correspond
ing aryl-azo-dicyandiamide with a strong mineral
acid in a liquid medium consisting of water and
a water-soluble organic liquid. '
2. A process for producing an aryldicyandi
amide, which comprises reacting the correspond- 7
ing aryl-azo-dicyandiamide with aqueous hydro
amines instead of p-chloroaniline as theprimary 10 chloric acid in a solvent medium comprising a
water-soluble organic liquid.
starting material, there are obtained the corre
sponding phenyldicyandiamides, the melting
3. A process ‘for producing an aryl-dicyandi
‘ amide, which comprises reacting the correspond
points of which are given in the following table.
ing aryl-azo-dicyandiamide with aqueous hydro
No. of
Aniline ______________________ __
N 0‘
M ' P. of - the
° 0'.
196 -—197.
p-Nitroaniline _______________ __
227 -229
p-Acetylaminoaniline _______ __
3:4-dimethylanilino __________ - i
60. 5
234: —235
- 189
15 chloric acid in a solvent medium comprising a,
water-soluble organic liquid selected from the
group consisting of ?-ethoxyethanol, dioxane,
methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid.
4. Process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the‘
20 reaction is carried out at a temperature in the
range 20°-40° C‘.
5. Process which comprises the interaction of
p-chlorophenyl-azo-dicyandiamide with a strong
mineral acid in aqueous acetic acid at a tempera
As many widely ‘different embodiments of this 25 ture in the range 20"»40o C.
6. Process which comprises the interaction of
invention may be devised without departing from
p-chlorophenyl-azo-dicyandiamide with a strong
the spirit and scope thereof it is to be understood
mineral acid in aqueous p-ethoxyethanol at a
that the invention is not in any way limited to
temperature in the range 20°-40° C.
the speci?c embodiments illustrated, but only as
de?ned in the following claims.
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