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Patented Oct. 22, 1946
2,409,873
UNITED STATES PATENT` ori-'ICE
2,409,873
HEAT EXCHANGE
Howard Y. Lankford, Gary, Ind., assignor to Car
negie-Illinois Steel Corporation, a corporation
of New J ersey‘
l
Application June 6, 1945, Serial No. 597,922
8 Claims. (Cl. 263-51)
2
This invention relates generally to heat ex
changers, and more particularly to an improved '
construction and arrangement of the bricks form
ing the checkerwork thereof.
.
While not limited thereto, the'herein claimed
invention has its greatest utility in the checker
to force the hot gases or air into all corners’ and
crevices of the flues to thus improve utilization of
all available heating surfaces and brick. Volume,
thus making for an increased rate of heat ex
change.
Another object is to provide an improved check
work used in hot blast stoves of the type used to
erbrick so constructed and arranged that an in
preheat air supplied to support combustion and
terlocking effect is obtained between adjacent
bring about reducing reactions in a blast furnace.
bricks to thus prevent relative movement or creep
As is known to those skilled in the art, such hot 10 ing of the bricks under the influence of expansion
blast stoves are in the nature of huge brick-lined
and contraction due to alternate heating and
steel sheels approximately 20 feet in diameter
cooling.
`
and 80 feet or more in height. Within the lining
As will be more fully apparent hereinafter, the
it is customary to provide a division wall defining
above and related objects are made available by
a combustion chamber, and the balance of the
the use of a novel form of Checkerbrick of gen
space is substantially filled with refractory brick
erally rectangular prismatic form whose horizon
checkerwork forming a system of flues. In normal
tal top and bottom faces are flat, whose vertical
operation blast yfurnace gas is burned in the com
end faces are also flat, and whose upright side
bustion chamber of the stove and the stack draft
faces have one or more shallow pyramidal later
draws the hot burned gases through the multiplic 20 ally projecting portions which project into the
ity of flues‘formed by the checkerwork. As the
flues formed by the juxtaposed brick. The pyram
gas is passed through the checkerwork, each brick
idal projections serve to provide more heating
absorbs and stores part of the heat. Periodically
surface than that of a standard brick, and they
the supply of combustion gas is cut 01T and the
also function to create a turbulence of the air'or
blast main is opened, thereby admitting cold air 25 gas flowing through the checkerwork. This tur
under pressure to the stove. The cold air passing
bulence is advantageous as it dislodges precipi
through the >many flues of the checkerwork ab
tated dust and thus more of the hot gas or air is
sorbs heat therefrom, thence flows to the hot blast
brought into intimate contact with the surfaces of
main leading to the bustle pipe of the blast fur
the Checkerbrick, thus increasing the efficiency
nace in a manner well known to those skilled in 30 of the heat transfer.
For a more complete understanding of the in
Practice has demonstrated that although blast
vention, reference should be made to the accom
furnace gas passes through primary washers be
panying drawing, the following detailed disclos
fore being introduced into the hot blast stove,
ure, and the appended claims.
there is still considerable dust entrained in the 35 In the drawing:
\
gas which has a tendency to precipitate on various
Figure 1 is a horizontal section on a small scale
ledges formed by conventional forms of checker
through a hot blast stove to illustrate the applica
brick. Checkerbrick heretofore used are open to
tion of the invention.
‘
various objections, the chief of which is that they
Figure 2 is an enlarged fragmentary top plan of
are of such form that they promote the accumula 40 a portion of the checkerwork of a hot blast stove
tion of objectionable dust deposits.
embodying the present invention.
An object of the present invention is.to provide
Figure -3 is a vertical section on line III-III
an improved checkerwork structure for hot blast
of Figure 2.
`
stoves, overcoming inherent shortcomings in the
Figure 4 is an enlarged plan view of my im
prior art.
45 proved Checkerbrick.
A further object is to provide an improved brick ‘ '
Figure 5 is a front elevation of the brick of Fig
theart.
'
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n
‘
so constructed and arranged that it furnishes an
ure 4.
Y
increased heating surface for the checker chain
ber.
Another object is to provide checkerwork form
Figure 6 is a vertical end View of Figure 5.
Figure 'I is a perspective view of my improved
50 Checkerbrick.
ed of bricks having portions constructed and ar
Figure 8 is a perspective view illustrating the
ranged to create a turbulence in the hot gases or
relationship of a plurality of bricks constituting
air passing through the iiues.
the improved checkerwork.
A further object is to provide means to create a
turbulence of hot gases or air in the flues in order
Referring in detail to the drawing, reference
numeral l0 represents the conventional `outer
5.5
»
2,409,873
4
3
exposed faces of the checkerbrick are forcibly
impinged by the air or gas, thus effectively pro
steel shell of a hot blast stove; I2 represents the
usual brick lining; and Ilä represents the wall
moting and increasing the heat transfer. The
which with a portion of the lining I2 defines a
turbulence caused by the pyramidal projections
combustion chamber I6. The balance of the
stove is substantially filled with checkerwork such 5 also creates a “core busting” effect on the gas
stream; that is to say, the turbulence tends to
as indicated at I8, this checkerwork being formed
«break up any vortex or core-.like denseaccumula~
of a novel type of checkerbrick best shown in Fig
tion of dust particles inthe gaseous stream.
ures 2 to 6 inclusivev andto be presently described
Comparing a standard checkerbrick with that
in detail. The bricks are formed of refractory
10 v„of my invention as herein described, it is found
material commonly used in the art.
that a standard 8% inch by 6 inch by 21/2 inch
As will be apparent from Figures 4 to ‘7 inclu
brick such as commonly used has a heating area
sive, my improved checkerbrick is of generallyv
of 70.5 square inches. The total volume of all
checkerbricks that can now be installed with a
top and bottom faces 20 and ‘22 and nat upright
substantially vertical end faces 24 and 26. The 15 basket-weave. pattern in a typical furnace in a
typical hot blast stove is 13,900 cubic feet, with a
upright side faces 2B and 30, instead of being flat
total heating surface o-f 93,606 square feet. In
_ like all the other faces described, are equipped
comparison, a brick of my invention measuring
with a plurality of shallow pyramidal projections.
rectangular prismatic form having parallel flat
approximately 83/8 inches by 6 inches by 21/4
For the purpose of identification the pyramidal
projections of the face 28 are indicated at 2128a 20 inches has a heating area of 76.06 square inches.
By using my improved brick in a comparable
and 28h. Likewise the pyramidal projections on
stoveinstead of the standard brick using the same
basket-weave pattern, the total volume of check
erbrick would be 15,056 cubic feet, having a com
Between the pyramidal projections 20a and 2W’
the side face 28 includes a flat portion 26C. Like 25 bined heating surface of 109,855 square feet.
Thus an important advantage of my invention is
wise, between the pyramidal projections 30a and
an increase of approximately 8 per cent (7.9)
3!)b there is a flat portion 30C. The distance,
the opposite side face areindicated at 30a and
30h.
’
'
»
.
in the effective heating area of a stove of 'com
marked d, between the bases of these projections,
is at least equal to the dimension c, so as to pro
parable size.
The flue openings with the‘stand
vide a seating area substantially equal to the 30 ard bricks are 3 inches by 3 inches, or 9 square
inches. My improved brick will have the same
area‘of the end faces 2-1Y or 26 of a similarV brick »
iiue area at the top and bottom edges of vthe
arranged »perpendicular thereto. This relation
brick, but at the intermediate portions in the
ship, as clearly illustrated in Figures 2 and S,
region of the apexes of thepyramids the flue area
provides an assemblage in which the bricks ex
tending lengthwise in one direction are interlocked 35 will be 7.1 square inches. Thus the air or gas
flowing through the ñues formed by my brick
by the pyramidal projections with tho-se bricks
will
exert somewhat of a venturiv effect, which
extending perpendicular thereto.
will set up the turbulent action above mentioned,
The apexes a and b ofthe pyramidal projec
effective to dislodge accumulated dust and thus
tions-28a and 28?D are inline, as shown by line .A-A
40 increase the over-all efliciency of the hot blast
in _Figure 5, this line A-A being offset a distance
O from a center line B-B located midway be
Having thus described my invention,V Vwhat I
tween the top face 20 and the bottom face 22 of
desire to secure by Letters Patent is‘outline'd' in
the brick. By thus offsetting the apexes I-am en
the appended claims.
`
abled to lay up `the bricks in such a relationship
'
as tovobtain an increased turbulence. The stag
gered relationship of the inclined faces v4of the
pyramids will be apparent from the enlarged ver
tical section of Figure 3., The apexes a and b on
opposite sides of the brick are in line> with -one
another, as is apparent from Figuresß to 6. The
locations of said apexes of each brick may be said
to be in line with one another and offsetfrom `the
center plane B-B paralleling the top _andbottom
45
stove.
'
'
I claim:
.1. A heat exchanger including checkerwork
comprising a- plurality of bricks of generally rec-`
tangular prismatic form whose horizontal top and
v I bottom faces are flat, whose vertical ehd faces
50 are also fiat, and certain of Whose upright. side
faces each have at leastone shallow pyrainidal
laterally projecting portion.
'
‘
l
ì
'_ v2. The heat exchanger as defined in claim l,
v further characterized in that theV apex o-f said
faces of the brick.
-In Figure 3 the apexes a Aof the lbricks-shown 55 pyramidal projection is offsetrfrom a cente?plan'e
paralleling the .top andvbottorn faces `of the brick.
in 4end elevation correspond in location;_ to `the
`3. A heat exchanger including checkerwork
comprising a plurality of substantially identical
bricks of generally rectangular prismatic form
that is, their apexes are >oifsetdownwardly from 60 whose horizontal top and bottom faces’aiï‘e 'flat,.
whose vertical end'faces arealso flat, andwhose
the center line of the brick. As thus arranged, the
showings of said apexes in the detail Views» of
Figures 4, through 7, while the bricks shown` cut
by the plane of section in Figure 3 are inverted;
be staggered vertically with relation yto thefapexes
vvertical side faces each have -a plurality of
spaced-,apart pyramidal projections.
.,
set vertically equal distances corresponding to the
4dimension o on opposite sidesl of a horizontal .plane
projections on opposite sides of the brick are in
line with one another and are offset fromacenter
apexes a’ of the sectioned bricks may be said to
a'of the bricks disposed perpendicular thereto. ‘ Y ’ 4. ‘The heat exchanger of claim 3, further` char
Otherwise expressed, the apexes a and a’ .arejoff 65 acterized in that the .apexes of the >pfyramidal
B-B passed through the bricksmidway ,between
' the top and bottom faces thereof.
The presence
plane paralleling they top Vand bottom faces .of
the brick.
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of the multiplicity 0f vpyramidal projections ex 70 5. A heat exchangerY including checker-work
comprising a multiplicity -of substantially iden
tending into the flues formed by the assemblage'of
tical bricks of generally rectangular prismatic
bricks creates a turbulence ,of the :air and gas
form laid up b-asket'weav'e fashion, With end-'faces
passed through the checkerwork which is effec- .
óf certain of the bricks abutting side facesof
tive to dislodgev dust which may tend'to precipitate
on the checkerbrick, and the net result is that all 75 other bricks disposed perpendicular thereto, all
,
5
of said bricks having fiat top, bottom, and end
faces, the top and bottom faces being horizontal
and the end faces being vertical, the side faces
of all said bricks having shallow pyramidal pro.
jections which thus extend into the flues defined
6
'7. A checkerbrick for use in a heat exchanger,
comprising a substantially rectangular prismatic
refractory body having substantially parallel fiat
top and bottom faces, iiat end faces substantially
perpendicular thereto, and side faces each having
a pair of pyramidal projections with a flat area
between them of substantially the same size and
tions being eifective to create a turbulence of air
shape as the end faces of the brick.
or gas passed through said ñues.
8. The brick as defined in claim 7, further
6. The heat exchanger as defined in claim 5,
further characterized in that the side faces of 10 characterized in that the apexes of said pyramidal
projections lie in a common plane offset from a
said brick between the pyramidal projections
plane midway between the top and bottom face
include a flat portion whose extent is at least
of the brick.
equal to the distance between the side faces of
collectively by the bricks, said pyramidal projec
the brick as measured horizontally, so as to form
a seating surface for the upright end face of an 15
identical brick.
HOWARD Y. LANKFORD.
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