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Och 22’, 1946.
_D_ c_ MQILLENHQ‘UR .
2,409,884
ARTIFICIAL ARM AND ‘HAND
Filed April ‘4,1945
5.Sheets-Sheet 1
0d‘ 22, 194.6-
I ‘
D. c. MOLLENHOUR
I
2,409,884
ARTIFICIAL ARM ‘ AND HAND
Filed April 4, 1945 I
5 $hee1zs-Sheet 2
33"? ,
W
Oct. 22, 1946.
D, c. MOLLENHOUR
2,409,834
ARTIFICIAL ARM AND HAND
Filed April 4, ‘1945
2
-
3
,
I
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
‘
Ocf- 22, 1946.
-
D. c. MOLLENHOUR
-
2,409,884
'ARTIFICIAL ARM AND HAND
Filed Apfil 4, 1945
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
2,409,884
UNITED STATES PATENT ODFFI‘CEI
ARTIFICIAL ARM AND HAND
Delbert Clark Mollenhour, Mentone, Ind., as
signor to Franklin I. Saemann, New York,
NY
Application April 4, 1945, Serial No. 586,505 .
8 Claims.
(Cl. 3-42)
2
_This invention relates to arti?cial arms and
hands.
.
The invention relates particularly to an im
provement on the original hands as illustrated in
hereinafter fully described, illustrated in the ac
companying drawings and particularly claimed.
In the accompanying drawings, like characters
of reference indicate like parts in the several views
the patents to Henning, No, 1,981,698, of Novem 6 andi
lber 20, 1934, and No. 1,366,453, of January 25,
Fig. 1 is a face View of a person wearing one
1921.
type of this arti?cial arm.
The invention furthermore relates to that type
Fig. 2 is a View of the anterior surface of the
of arti?cial arm which may be correlated with a
hand used herewith, the view showing the thumb
natural arm stump resulting from the amputation 10 and ?ngers in separated position.
_
of the arm either above or below the elbow joint.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the lower part of
Finally the invention relates to the operation
the device showing the relation of the lower arm
and mechanical means for such operation en
means and the hand.
abling the hand of such an-arm to be actuated
Fig. 4 is a section substantially through the line
by muscular movements of'the wearer to open and 15 4-4 of Fig.1, the View being arrangedto show
close the thumb and ?ngers of such an arti?cial
the novel mechanism within the body of the hand.
hand.
_
Fig. 5 is a plan View, part in section, disclosing
One important object of the invention is to
the back of the‘ hand and the ?ngers connected
provide means constituting an improvement over
thereto together with the mechanism for operat
the Henning patent above mentioned. In this 20 ing the several parts.
Henning patent it is to be observed that the clos
' Fig. 6 is an enlarged view on the line 6—-6 of
ing of the space between the thumb and ?ngers of
Fig. 5.
the arti?cial hand is regulated by a step-by-step
movement so that only certain de?nite positions
Fig. '7 is an enlarged detail showing the manner
of connection of a certain clock-work spring used
.
of the thumb and ?nger portions of such a hand 25 herein, the view vbeing somewhat diagrammatic,
will be able to grasp ?rmly an object to be held
this View being a partial section on the line .'l—'!
by the hand. The present improvement relates to
of Fig. 5.
a mechanism whereby an in?nite number of
' Fig. 8 is a detail section on the line 8—8 of Fig.
grasping positions may be obtained.
5 .
A second important object of the invention re-‘ .30 Fig. 9 is an enlarged detail section on the line
lates to the mechanism whereby the thumb and
9--9 of Fig. 5, with the pull cord omitted.
the ?ngers may be biased toward each other so
Fig. 10 is an elevational view showing in detail
that an in?nite number of grasping positions may
the arrangement at the right side of Fig. 9. ‘,
be obtained.
‘
Fig. .11 is a detail‘view partly in elevation and
A third important object of the invention is to -35 partly in section on the line I I—| I of Fig. 9,da cer-.
provide, in the hand-closing mechanism, a novel
‘tain cover plate shown in Fig. 10 being omitted
form of friction clutch adapted to enable the grip
and the view disclosing the ratchet parts in posi-.
of the hand-closing mechanism to be adjusted to
tion to stop rotation, in one direction, of a certain
an in?nite number of gripping positions.
disc used herewith.
A fourth important object of the invention is to 140 Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. 11 with the
provide a novel clutch arrangement for a rotary
above-mentioned ratchet parts in position to al
disc such as is used in connection with the move
low free rotation of said. disc.
ments of arti?cial hand members.
‘
‘Fig. 13 is a view similar to Fig. 10 but show
A ?fth important object of the invention is to
ing a modi?ed form of the clutch.
.
provide means whereby, without the‘ use‘ of a 45 Fig. 14 is a side view of the construction shown
natural hand, the hand-gripping mechanism may
be controlled.
With the above and other objects in View the
invention consists in general of certain novel de
in Fig. 13.
-
Fig. 15 is a view similar to Fig. 11 but with the
clutch modi?cation of Fig. 13.
»
Fig. 1c is a modi?cation of the ‘locking bolt
tails of construction and combinations of parts 50 shown‘in Figure 8.
2,409,884
4
3
In the embodiment of the invention here shown
an original arm has beenlillustrated capable of
use whether the entire arm has been amputated
above or below the elbow joint.
4. Obviously the more the shaft 3| is rotated in
the direction of the arrow the greater will be
the tendency of the spring to rotate the disc in
the same direction. Now the shaft 3| has one
Obviously the particular construction by means
or more transverse openings 4| there-thru and
the bearing 33 has an opening extending from
of which this arti?cial arm is ?tted on what re
mains of the wearer’s arti?cial arm after ampu
tation is variable to a wide degree. Consequently,
its top down to the shaft 3| in alinement with
the location of the openings 4|, these openings
extending entirely through the shaft. A pin 42
so far as the application of the arti?cial arm to
the remnant of the natural arm is concerned a 10 may be inserted thru the opening in the bear
ing 33 and down thru one of the openings 4| of
wide variety of details in proportion may exist.
the shaft 3! so that after adjustment of the
The invention as herein described is therefore to
spring "the. shaft‘ may be held‘ in‘v position and
be considered \ asrbroa‘d. enough" to'linclude‘ its ape
thus cause,‘ toa greater or less degree-,rotation
plication to an‘; arm amputated in=any location
15 of the disc 3'! in the direction of said arrow.
from the wrist to the shoulder joint.
.One of the skeletal supports 29, preferably
As shown in Fig. 1 the novel features of the:
that relating to the second ?nger, is extended
invention are comprised between an upper arm
rearwardly-toward the disc 32’ as at 43 and is
section A, a lower arm section B, anda‘hand ‘sec
tion C.
‘
Since the hand section is common to both an
upper and a lower arm amputation it is deemed
advisable ?rst of all to describein particular this
lower arm section. Now referring ?rst of all to‘
Fig. 5 it will be seen that there is indicated'in
this ?gure what may be termed a cu? member 20
wherein is centrally-located. a screw 2| by means
providedin" its rearwardly extending end with
a slot 44' wherein is engaged a pin 45 projecting
laterally from thedisc or wheel 31. Under these
circumstancesrotation of the disc 37 in one di
rection will‘rock' the ?ngers of the device up
of which thiscu? member maybesorew-attached
wardly; of the hand and, in another direction, will
rock such ?ngers downwardly.
The forward part of the body is provided with
an opening 46'and thru the body sides at- this
to a ring 22 on the lower endlof the lower arm
opening extends a pivot screw 41 similar tothe
arrangement of the screw'25. On this screw/41
low hand body 23 shaped to conform to the body 30 is. rotatably mounted al-sleeve 48 having a for
wardly projecting- arm 49 representing the skele
of a human hand. This hollow member 23 ex
tends‘ forwardly to a location corresponding to
ton of the thumb of the device and coveredby
portion B. This cuff member 2?'supports a-hol
the ?rst joints of the ?ngers of ' such‘ a hand asv in
dicated at 24. Thru the forward extremities of ‘the
rubber or other elastic material 5!] representing
the contour of that thumb. Extending rear
sides of the'member 23' passes a bolt 25 which is 35 wardly from the sleeve~48-isanarm5| having
provided at one end'with a kerfed head 26 forac
a pivot 52 atits upper end andto this pivot
tuation by a screw driver and. at its further end is
is connected’ one end of a link 53 extending to
provided with a threaded extremity. 21. The side
a- pin- 54 ?xed in the disc 3'! adjacent its pe
walls of the member 23 are respectively arranged
riphery. The rotation of the disc 31, Withthis
to receive the head 2'! and threaded to receive 4 0 arrangement, in the direction of the arrows biases
the head 26‘ and the. threaded endlz‘l. This bolt
the free end of the thumb downwardly and at
forms a-rocker pin onwhich-thefour ?ngers of
the same time biases the free ends of the ?ngers
a hand. may rock. Mountedo'n this bolt is a
upwardly. The disc 3'! is grooved'as at'55-and
tubular sleeve28, having bushings 2811' at itsends
is provided adjacent its periphery with an open
engaging on the bolt. Fixediionthesleeve 28 is a 45 ing 56‘ communicating with the groove by an
series of arms’ 29 constituting. the skeletalsu-p
opening 51. A pull cord 58 extends over the
ports of the ?nger portion of the hand.v These
anterior or back portion of the groove .55; down
skeletalsupports and thesleeve 28 are surround
through the opening "5‘! and is provided with-a
ed and embedded in a rubber or plastic involve
knot 59 in the opening '55. The pull to beex
ment 30’ shapedand formed; as shown partic 60 erted' on this cord or wire 58 is in the direction
ularly in Figs. 2, 3' and.4 to represent the ?ngers
of the arrow Y of Fig. llv and isthus against the
of a human hand and ‘the base'of these ?ngers at
action of the clock-spring 35.
,
'
the ?rst joint. Arrangement is such that this
Mounted on the shaft 3| ‘is a yoke 59.’ which
sleeve and ‘the ?nger involvement covered‘by' the
is so positioned that it has a surfaceii? closer
levers 29 may rock on the pivot screw orpin 25.
55 to the periphery of the disc 3?‘ at its *upper end
Extending laterally throughthe handbody 23 ‘
than at its lower end.- Between this yoke and
is a shaft 3| which is supported at one end in a
the disc 31 is located a ball 6| which, in its
bearing lug 32' at thumb side, preferably, of the
upper position jams between the‘ surface 60 and
body 23. This shaft‘ 3| does not extend‘ entirely
the groove 55 as shown clearly in Fig. 9. In its
through the body 23’ but is supported at the end 60 lower position this ball‘is loose between thesur
interior of said body by a bearing 33 secured to
face 60 and the bottom- of the groove 55$. .In
the interior face of the body 23- by screws 34;
order. to control the position of this-ballthere
In alinement'with the shaft 3|, on the side oppo
is mounted on the yoke‘ a lever 62' of. generally
site the b'eari'ng 32, is an opening 35" where
U-shape having a ?nger 63 projecting‘ down‘
th-ru a-commonclock key maybe inserted‘to en 65 wardly between the walls of the yoke and’ en
gagev the angular head‘ 35 on the shaft 3|. By
gaging on the top of the ball 6|. Referring‘now
this means the shaft ‘3| may be rotated. Mount
to'Figs. 11 and 12 it will be s'eenitliat' this‘ lever
ed on they shaft3| is‘ a disc‘or‘wheel‘ 31 where'
‘62 in one position pushes the ball downwardly
from projects a pin38; this'pin' being near'the
periphery of said wheel 31. Connected't‘o the pin _ (Fig. 11) while in another. position allows the
38 is'one endlof a clock- spring 39‘which'ha's' its 70 ball. to rise upwardly. A coiled compression
spring 64 is held‘in the rear. end... of: the: yoke
remaining end wound around the shaft 3| arid
beneath the ball and has its terminalxendi 65
operatively connected‘ thereto by the usual-pin
hooked? over‘ the top of the yoke; Thissprihg
4a. This clock-spring, as: shown
Fig. 7 is so
constantly- urges the ball. upwardly.. The lever
wound that it tends torotate-the disc or wheel
31 in the direction of the arrowIXsliown?hi-Ei'gil "75 521st mountedon a. plate. 66v extending: laterally
5
2,409,884
from the yoke and pivoted to the lower portion
of this plate is a control arm 61 arranged, when
in the position shown in Fig. 11 to push the‘ ball
downwardly but when arranged, as in Fig. 12
to permit the ball ‘to rise upwardly. The levers
6
ball will be held depressed to free the disc 31 and
the ball will remain in this position until the
lever 94 is disengaged from the lipwhereupon
the ball will again act as a pawl for checking
movement.
1
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62 and 61 are covered by a cover plate 68 secured
to the extension 66 by screw 69 and this cover
plate has a lip 10 turned inwardly so‘ as to rest
As shown in the present instance the device has
been illustrated as arranged, in Fig. 1, to ?t an
arm amputated below the elbow. In this case the
against the plate 66 and, when the lever 61 is
cuff or ring has extending upwardly a pair of,
in the position of Fig. 12, to constitute a stop 10 straps ‘l2 enclosing a leather or other suitable
therefor. This lever 61 projects thru a slot 1!
socket member 13 to receive the stump of the arm.
in the wrist portion of the member 23 so that
The straps are continued upwardly and at their
it may be contacted with a disc or other sur
upper ends ‘are pivotally connected as at 14 to
face by movement of the operator’s arm and
a similar pair of straps 15 carrying a cuff 16
then may be shifted between the positions of 15 which ?ts around the upper arm and the sides,
Figs. 11 and 12. Obviously, when in the posi
of which may be adjusted by means of a buckle
tion shown in Fig. 11 the ball will not act as
and strap arrangement 11. This upper cuff care
a pawl to stop movement of the disc 31 in the
ries the supporting harness 18, only a part of
direction of the arrow but, when in the position
which is here shown as the style of the harness
of Fig. 12, the ball‘will jam between the disc 20 and the arrangement of the straps thereof may
31 and surface 69 and thus prevent rotation in
be varied without departing from this invention.
the direction of the arrow X.
The cord or wire 58 is connected by a coupling
Under these circumstances it is obvious that
19 to a pull cord 89 which extends around the
this ball arrangement is such that it may look
back of the wearer, one or more guide loopsBl
the disc 31 against rotation in a direction to 25 being provided on the arm engaging part of the
open the space between the ?ngers and thumb
apparatus. This extension cord 89 is connected
at any one of an in?nite number of points be
as at 82 to the harness in such way that muscular
tween the fully open position of such ?ngers and
movements of the wearer will serve to pull on the
thumb and the fully closed position thereof. The
cord 89 and thus actuate the disc 31 in a direc
arrangement thus forms an in?nitely adjustable 30 tion counter to that shown by the arrow X. The
ratchet device for all positions within limits of
result of this will be that the thumb and ?nger
the gripping operation of the hand.
portions of the device will close toward each other
In the form of the invention shown in Figs.
and, depending on the extent of muscular move
13, 14 and 15 a shaft 3| has mounted thereon
ment this closure may be varied at will.
a yoke 83 quite similar to the yoke 59’. Extend
In Figure 16 the bolt 25 is shown drilled on the
ing laterally from this yoke is a plate 84 and
threaded end after insertion into the aluminum
at the rear end of the yoke is a ball guide 95
casting 23 and 24. A taper shaped. punch (not
wherein rests a ball 86 urged upwardly by spring
shown) is driven into the drilled hole thus forcing
81, the action of these parts being like those
the outer threads‘ 2'! into the threads of the alu
of the analogous parts in the ?rst form of clutch
minum casting, giving it a friction squeeze.
‘
above described. The plate 84 carries a pivot
This step is taken to prevent ‘the threaded
88 whereon is mounted the rear end of a ‘lever
hinge pin from wearing into the aluminum and
89 having a ?nger 99 for engagement with the
thereby becoming loose and possibly causing the
ball 85. This lever 89 has a depending arm 9|
?ngers to fall out from the palm casting. With
provided with a notch 92. The plate 84 carries 45 this construction the hinge pin can be retained
a second pivot 93 whereon is mounted a lever
satisfactorily in the casting and still be removed
94 having an operating end 95 for engagement
for’ replacement.
1
'
by ones ?ngers or against some ?xed object for
What is claimed is:
the shifting of this lever. The lever 94 carries
1. In an arti?cial limb, a hand member having
a lug 96 which ?ts in the notch 92 so that move 50 a hollow body, a ?nger portion and a thrumb por~
ment of the lever anticlockwise on the pivot
tion, at least one of said portions being pivoted
93 pushes the lever 89 downwardly. Securedto
to the body to bias toward and from the other,
spring actuated means in the body urging said
having an inturned lip 99. The lever 94 is free
pivotal portion to bias away from the other, said
to oscillate slightly on the pin 89 and may move 55 spring actuated means including a rotatable disc
from the position shown in Fig. 14 laterally to
having a peripheral groove, a ball engageable in
engage, in a certain position such as shown in
said groove, and a ball guide holding said ball and
Fig. 15, behind the lip 99 so that the end of this
inclined to lie closer to the disc periphery at one
lip forms a stop.
end than at the other, the closer end of the guide
Under normal clutching position as shown in 60 being spaced from the disc a distance less than
Fig. 13 the disc or wheel v3'! is free to turn in
the diameter of the ball.
, ‘
clockwise direction of Fig. 14 but is locked by
2. In an arti?cial limb, a hand member having
the ball against turning in anticlockwise direc
a hollow body, a ?nger portion and a thumb por
tion. If it be now desired to release the disc
tion, at least one of said portions being pivoted
to permit its turning to some extent in anti 65 to the body to bias toward and from the other,
clockwise direction the lever 94 is moved to force
spring actuated means in the body urging said
the ball downwardly, thus releasing the disc 9‘!
pivotal portion to bias away from the other, said
which is allowed to open as much as may be
spring actuated means including a rotatable disc
desired and is again caught upon release of the
having a peripheral groove, a ball engageable in
lever ‘94 from movement ‘by the ball 85. At times 70 said groove, a ball guide holding said ball and
it is desirable to have entire control of the thumb
inclined to lie closer to the disc periphery at one
by the pull-cord 58 and in this case the lever 94
end than the other, the closer end of the guide
is moved in anticlockwise direction until it
being spaced from the disc a distance less than
reaches the position shown in Fig. 15 for en
the diameter of the ball, and a spring in said guide
gagement behind the lip 99. By this means the 75 urging said ball toward the end closer to the disc.
the plate 84 by a screw 91 is a cover plate 98
2,409,884,
7
3; In an arti?cial‘. limb, a hand member having
a hollow body, a ?nger portion and a thumb por-‘
having a peripheral groove, a ball engageable in
said groove, a ball guide holding said ball and in-l
clined to liecloser to the, disc periphery atone end
tion, at least oneof said portionsbeing pivoted to
the body to bias toward‘ andfrom the other,_
spring actuated means in the body urging said
pivotal portion to bias away from the other, said
than the other, the closer end of the guide being
spaced from the disc a distance less than the di
ameter of the ball, a spring in said guide urging,
spring actuated means including a rotatable disc
having a peripheral groove, a ball engageable in
said‘ groove, a ball- guide holding said ball and
inclined to lie closer to the, disc periphery at one 10
lever pivoted adjacent said ball guide and having
one end bearing against said ballioppos-ite the ball
end than the other,‘ the closer end of the guide
said ball toward the end closer to the disc, a rock
actuating spring, and means to rock- said lever'on
its pivot, said last‘ means comprising a latch lever
pivoted parallel to said rock lever and having one
being spaced from the disc a distance less than
arm engaging the rock lever to move the same
the diameter of the ball, a spring in said guide
between position to force the ball against said
urging said'ball toward the end closer to the disc,
a rock lever pivoted adjacentsaid ball guide and 15 spring’ and position‘, to permit the ball to move
having one end bearing against said-‘ball opposite
the ball actuating spring, and means to rock said
under action by said spring, said latch lever be-,
ing further arrangedto latch the rock leverin the
?rst named position when moved in one direction.
‘
'7. In an arti?cial limb, a hand member having
4. In an arti?cial limb, a hand member having
a hollow body,- a ?nger portion and a thumb por 20 a hollow body, a ?nger portion and a thumbspore
lever on its pivot.
tion, at least one ofv said portions being pivoted to
the body. to 'bias toward and from the other, spring
actuated means in the body urging said pivotal
tion, at least one of said portions being pivoted to'
the body to bias toward and from the other, spring
actuated means in the body urging said. pivotal
portion to bias away from the other, said' spring
portion to bias away from the, other, said’ spring
the other, the closer end-of-the guide being spaced
end than the other, the closer end of the guide
oted adjacent saidballguide and having one end
bearing against said ball opposite the ballac'tuat
lever pivoted adjacent said ball guide and having
one end bearing against said ball oppositethe
actuated, means including a rotatable disc having 25 actuated means including a rotatable disc having,
a peripheral groove, a ball engageable in said
a. peripheral groove, a ball engageable in said
groove, a ball guide holding said ball and in
groove, a ball guide holding said ball and inclined
clined, to lie closer to the disc periphery at one’
to .lie closer to thedisc periphery at one end than
from the disc a distance less than‘the diameter of 30 being spaced from the disc a distance less than the‘
diameter of thevball, a spring in. said guide urging
the ball, a spring in said guide urging said ball
said ball towardthe end closer to-the disc, a rock
toward the end closer to the disc, a rock lever piv
ing spring, and‘ means to rock said lever on its 35 ball actuating spring, and means to rock said
lever on its pivot, said last means being arranged
pivot‘, said last meansbeing arranged to force
to force said, lever- to 'free the ball from contact
said lever to free the balljfrom contact with said
with said disc in one position and to hold said
disc in one position and to hold said ball out of
ball out of contact with the disc in‘a second posi
contact with'the disc in a second-position.
5. In- an arti?cial limb, a hand member having 4.0 tion, said last means projecting through said hand
body and operable from the exterior thereof.
a hollow body, a. ?nger portion and a thumb por—
8. In, an arti?cial limb, a hand member having
tion, at least one of said portions being pivoted to
a
hollow
body, a ?nger portion and a thumb, por
the body to biastoward and from’ the other, spring
tion, at least one of said portions being pivoted
actuated means in the body urging said pivotal
portion to bias away from the‘other‘, said spring ~ '
actuated means including a rotatable disc having
a peripheral groove, a ball engageable insaid
groove, a ball guide holding said ball and in
clined to lie closer to the disc periphery at one
end than‘theother, the closer endof the guide
being spaced from the disc a distance less than
the diameter of the ball, a springin said guide
urgingsaidball-toward the end.closer to‘the disc,
a rock lever pivoted adjacent.v said ball guide and
having one endbearingagainst said ball opposite
to the body to bias toward and from the other,
spring actuated means in the body urging said
pivotal portion to bias away from the, othensaid
spring actuated means including a rotatable disc
having a peripheral groove, a ball, engageable in
said groove, a ball guide holding said ball and in
clined to lie closer to the discperiphery, at one end
than the other, the closer end of the guide being
spaced from the, disc a distance less than the di
ameter of the ball, a springin said guide urging
said ball toward the end closer to the disc, arock
theballactuati-ng ‘spring, and means to rock said
lever, on itspivot, said lastv means comprising a
latch lever pivoted parallel to saidrock lever and
lever pivoted adjacent said ball guide andhaving
tion, at, leastv one of said portions being pivoted
tothe body to bias toward and from the other,
arranged to latch the rock lever in the ?rst named
position when moved in one direction, said latch
lever projecting thru the wall, of the hand bod
one end bearingagainst said ball opposite the ball
actuating spring, and means to rock said lever on
its pivot, said last means comprising a latch lever
having onearm engaging the rock lever to move
the samebetween position to force .the ball against 60 pivoted parallel to said rock lever and having one arm engaging the rock lever to movethe same be
said spring and position to permitthe ball to move
tween position to force the ball against said spring
under action by said spring.
_
and positionto permit the ball to move under ac
6. In an- arti?cial limb, a hand member having
tion by said spring, said latch lever being further
a hollow body, a ?nger portion and a thumb por
spring actuated means in the body urging said
pivotal portion to bias away from the other, said
spring actuated, means including a rotatable disc
and operable from the exterior thereof.
‘
DELBERT CLARK MOLLENHOUR.
‘
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