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Патент USA US2409895

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Patented Oct. 22, 1946
2,409,894
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,894
STABILIZED FABRIC AND METHOD OF
MAKIN G THE SAME
Edward C. Pfeifer, Jr., and John A. Tweed, Troy,
and Jack .l'armak, White Plains, N. Y., assign
.ors to Cluett, Peabody & 00., 1110., Troy, N. Y.,
a corporation of New York
N 0 Drawing. Application August 25, 1944,
Serial No. 551,250
3 Claims. ‘ (01. 28-72)
1
2
This invention pertains to textiles, and more
particularly to a method of preparing a textile
fabric having in respect to appearance, softness,
draping qualities and feel the general charac
teristics of usual all spun rayon materials, for
instance spun rayon broadcloth, but which is
of cotton and spun rayon twisted together, the
resultant fabrics, though showing some less pro~
gressive shrinkage than pure spun rayon fabrics,
are not by any means fully stabilized. More im
portant is the fact that such fabrics can not be
made to have the visual appearance and other
distinguishing characteristics of pure spun ray
ons, particularly when dyed, since the cotton
stable with respect to laundry shrinkage.
Whereas
cotton
fabrics
are
satisfactorily
shrink-proofed by compressive treatment, for in
stance as more fully disclosed in the patent ‘to 10
Cluett, No. 1,861,424, dated May 31, 1832, this
treatment is not always satisfactorily effective
when applied to usual spun rayon fabrics. Spun
rayon fabrics have the property of progressively
shrinking when washed. On the other hand, 15
cotton fabrics are substantially stable as respects
progressive shrinkage (shrinkage usually being
strands persistently retain their identity.
A further object of the invention is to provide
a fabric having the appearance of spunrayon
as above described, but which may be made stable
in respect to laundry shrinkage by subjecting it
to. customary mechanical stabilizing processes
such, for example, as that disclosed in the-afore
mentioned patent to Cluett.
In attaining these desirable objects, the pres~
ent invention contemplates the preparation of
negligible after the ?rst wash), whereas spun
rayon fabrics continue progressively to decrease
warp yarns designed for use in making a woven
in length each time they are washed, thus ef 20 fabric comprising ?lling yarns of pure spun
fectively neutralizing any effect on structural
rayon, each warp yarn as spun, consisting of a
shrinkage imparted by mechanical stabilizing
blend of cotton and rayon staple ?bers. When
methods. Spun rayon fabrics have been sta
such blended yarns are employed in the warp in
bilized in respect to wash shrinkage by chemical . ‘ the construction of the fabric (Within the range
or similar treatments,‘ usually involving the de 25 of percentages hereinafter suggested), the com—
posit in or on the yarn or its constituent ?bers
of some substance, for instance one of the syn
thetic resins, which reduces or prevents water
absorption and the subsequent dilation and lon
gitudinal shrinkage of the fiber. However, the
chemical stabilization of spun rayon fabric is
expensive and attended with many dif?culties,
among them its tendency to stiffen and harshen
pleted fabric, after weaving, and ?nishing, is
found to show a substantial warp shrinkage
when washed, although such shrinkage is not
so
nearly as great as that of a rayon fabric consist
ing of pure spun rayon warps and wefts. How
ever, if this new fabric, after- weaving and ?nish
ing be subjected to mechanical stabilization, for
example in accordance with the disclosure of the
the fabric; to discolor it and to impart a per
aforesaid Cluett patent, the fabric is rendered
sistent disagreeable odor; and to cause chlorine 35 very stable as respects shrinkage, in fact sub
retention when the fabric is bleached with con
stantially as stable as a pure cotton fabric. More
sequent tendering when ironed.
over, fabrics falling within the range of the per
The principal object of the present invention
missible percentages of cotton and rayon staple,
is to provide a procedure whereby fabric, having
as hereinafter described, are substantially indis
the usual distinguishing characteristics of pure 40 tinguishable from pure spun rayons in respect to
spun rayon fabrics, with respect at least to ap
appearance, draping qualities, feel and uniform
pearance, draping qualities, feel, etc., may be
ity of coloration in dyeing, so that they may be
made substantially stable with respect to laun
used in substitution for pure spun rayons but
dry shrinkage
ment. While
that results of
by weaving a
without resort to chemical treat~
with the great advantage that they do not shrink
it has heretofore been suggested 45 when laundered,
this general type may be obtained
Careful experimental tests appear to show that
fabric in which cotton and spun
to secure this novel and useful result the warp
rayon yarns are alternated in the warp or in
yarns of the fabric should. contain at least. 40%
both warp and ?lling, or by using for warp or
of cotton, since it is- in the warp-wise direction
?lling or both, ply yarns each comprising strands 50 that Wash shrinkage makes itself most manifest.
aeoasec
3
4
It has also been found as the result of such tests
staple viscose rayon. Suitable direction of twist
and turns ‘per inch may be used to produce the
that the percentage of cotton should not exceed
60% in the warp yarns in order to retain the de
desired yarn sizes. This fabric may be woven
with any of the usual Oxford weaves. Finishing
procedure is the same as that used for Ex
sired spun rayon appearance and feel.
Within this permissive range, and after com
pressive shrinking, such a mixed fabric has been
‘ ample 1.
An additional permissive step is that of dyeing,
found to be substantially stable as respects laun
which may be done in any acceptable conven
tional manner, either in the yarn or after weav
dry shrinkage after one wash, whereas a sim
ilar fabric, but of pure rayon, although likewise
subjected to compressive shrinking, continues to 10 ing, the mixed fabric showing a uniform color,
and in this respect being substantially indistin
shrink in laundering even after twenty wash
ings.
guishable from a pure spun rayonifabric.
.
Without any limiting intent, but merely as
The
novel material thus differs substantially from
fabrics heretofore proposed in which yarns of
practical examples of fabrics produced in ac- ‘
cordance with the present process, and as ex 15 pure spun rayon are interwoven with yarns of
I amples of appropriate procedures in producing
pure cotton or plied with cotton yarns, since in
these fabrics, the following speci?c instances are
cited:
these latter types of fabric the cotton retains
its identity, and is quite apparent to visual ob
.
EXAMPLE'I
servation, especially after dyeing.
_. "
In the above speci?c examples the ?lling yarns
A broadcloth fabric is made with a warp count 20
‘are all of pure spun rayon, and the yarns of
of 96 threads per ‘inch and a ?lling count of
mixed cotton and rayon staple ?bers are warp
60 threads per inch woven 39" wide, yielding
3.70 yards per pound. The warp consists of 30/1 ' fyarns. The percentage of cotton in the fabric
as a whole is thus very appreciably lower than
blended yarns each composed of 50% viscose
staple rayon, 1.5 denierphaving a staple length 25 the percentage of cotton in the warp yarns. Ac
cordingly, the characteristics of the rayon staple
of 19/16” and 50% American cotton having a
staple length of 15/32”. This blend may be 'ob
tained by recognized mill practice, and the re
?bers predominate in the fabric, insuring the
desirable spun-rayon hand, drape and feel. The
rayon, 19/16" staple length and 40% of American
shrinkage.
cotton, and a ?lling count of 60 threads per inch
of a 40/1 yarn composed of 1.5 denier Viscose
ent
incorporation of the entire amount of cotton
sulting blend is processed on usual cotton textile
mill machinery. The yarn is given 19.2 turns 30 employed in the warps is very satisfactory from
the standpoint of shrinkage, since'the warp yarns
per inch of Z twist. The ?lling consists of a
of a fabric are subjected to the tensions of warp
30/1 yarns of 1.5 denier, viscose rayon staple
ing, slashing, weaving and ?nishing, whereas the
having a staple length of 19/16", with 16.4 turns
?lling yarns are subjected to very little tension
per inch of Z twist. This fabric is woven with
35 throughout processing, so that the warp of a
a plain weave.
fabric has excessive potential shrinkage while
The above fabric is ?nished according to usual
the ?lling has little potential shrinkage or none
cotton ?nishing practices and it is then mechan
at all. Therefore the warp is the primary prob
ically stabilized to remove all appreciable shrink
lem in stabilizing fabrics, whereas the ?lling poses
age. These ?nishing steps are: Desizing, kier
boiling, souring, peroxide bleaching, and, as the 40 no particular problem. In this connection, it is
also of interest to point out that in most gar
?nal step, mechanical stabilization. ’
ments, for example, men's shirts, the sleeve and
EXAMPLE 2
body lengths are cut warpwise and the collar
length (which extends around the neck)’ is cut
A broadcloth fabric is made having a warp
count of 136 threads per inch of a 40/1 blended 45 warpwise, so that in the garment the warp
shrinkage is more important than the ?lling
yarn composed of 60% of 1.5 denier viscose
As evidenced by the above examples, the pres
invention
reduces the
important
warp
rayon, 19/16" staple length. Suitable direction 50 shrinkage by the inclusion of the cotton blended
in the warp yarns and the progressive shrinkage
of twist and turns per inch may be used to pro
duce the desired yarn size and the fabric is
woven with a plain weave. Finishing procedure
is the same as that used for Example 1.
EXAMPLE 3
A two up and two‘down right-hand twill fabric
is made with 136 warp threads per inch and
60 ?lling threads per inch. The warp is a 40/1
blended yarn composed of 40% of 1.5 denier
viscose rayon having a 19/16” staple length and
60% American cotton of average length. The
?lling is a 40/1 yarn composed of 1.5 denier vis
cose rayon having a staple length of 19/16”.
Suitable direction of twist and turns per inch
may be used to produce the desired yarn size.
Finishing procedure is the same as that used
for Example 1.
EXAMPLE 4
An Oxford fabric having a warp count of 90
is essentially eliminated, while the pure spun
rayon ?lling yarns impart to the fabric the hand,
feel and drape of pure spun yarn fabrics.
55
_
As showing speci?cally the results as respects
stabilization by the above method, in particular
the method pointed out in Example 1, the results
of certain tests to determine shrinkage are given
as follows, the results having been obtained by
60 wash tests on a fabric woven as described. in
Example 1,
'
.
This fabric had been given the usua1 ?nishing
processes except the mechanical stabilization
process:
65
Percent shrinkage (before mechanical stabiliza
tion) , modi?ed wash test
Length
Width
threads per inch of 50/1 blended yarn composed
Percent
.61
Percent
8. 33+
of 50% of 1.5 denier viscose rayon having a staple
9.58
,
length of 19/16” and 50% of American cotton
Q. 44.
1 8. 33+
is woven with a ?lling count of 50 threads per
9. 51
_ 8.5147
inch of 13/1 yarn composed of 1.5 denier, l9/1e'_’
Washes
70
9. 03
8. 33+
8. 39+ .
2,409,894
.
6
5
As indicated above, this fabric has considerable
shrinkage in the length and elongation in the
width, but only .9% progressive shrinkage in the
It may be noted that the fabrics prepared in ac
cordance with the speci?c examples above de
scribed all have the appearance and advantage
warp. (+ denotes a gain.)
of pure, spun rayon fabrics without the usual dis
advantage of shrinkage instability.
Percent shrinkage (after mechanical stabiliza
We claim:
_
tion)
1. Method of preparing a stabilized fabric suit
able for shirting and launderable dress goods and
Washes
Length Width
having substantially the appearance, feel and
10 draping qualities of shirting and the like fabrics
Percent
CCG—T—l9la wash test ______________________ _.
After 10 commercial launderings ____________ __
After 15 commercial launderings ____________ _.
After 20 commercial launderings ____________ __
.0
.0
. 28
.0
Percent
composed of pure spun rayon, which comprises
.0 +
1.11-1
1. 67+
. 83+
interweaving ?lling yarns consisting of pure spun
rayon with warp yarns consisting of a blend of
from 40% to 60% rayon staple and from 60%
As indicated above, this fabric is extremely stable 15 to 40% cotton staple, thereafter subjecting the
woven fabric to an aqueous ?nishing treatment,
through one test wash and 20 additional commer
and subsequently subjecting the treated fabric to
cial launderings. (+ denotes a gain.)
warp-wise compressive shrinkage, thereby sta
As a further illustrative example of the advan_
bilizing it in respect to progressive laundry
tages of the present invention, two fabrics X and
shrinkage. 20
Y (X being a mixed fabric substantially identical
2. Method of preparing a stabilized fabric suit
with that of Example 1 above, and Y being iden
able for shirting and launderable dress goods and
tical in structure but of pure rayon) were com
having substantially the appearance, fee1 and
pared for laundry shrinkage by test with the fol~
draping qualities of shirting and the like fabrics
lowing results (+ indicates gain) :
composed of pure spun rayon, which comprises
The warp shrinkage with these two fabrics be
interweaving ?lling yarns consisting of pure spun
fore they were mechanically stabilized was as fol
rayon with warp yarns consisting of a blend of
lows:
from 40% to 60% rayon staple and from 60% to
40% cotton staple, the thread count of the warp
Wash shrinkage (in. per yd.)
30 yarns being from 90 to 136 per inch and that of
No. of
Warp shrink
washes
age
the ?lling yarns being from 50 to 60 per inch,
thereafter subjecting the woven fabric to an
aqueous ?nishing treatment, and subsequently
1
2
X ______________________________________ ._
Y ______________________________________ __
3. l3
3. 28
3
3. 45
4
5
l
2
3. 40
3. 43
3. 63
3. 75
3
3. 98
4
5
4. 03
4. 10
subjecting the treated fabric to warp-wise com
35 pressive shrinkage, thereby stabilizing it in re
spect to progressive laundry shrinkage.
3. A stabilized fabric suitable for shirting and
launderable dress goods and having substantial
ly the appearance, feel and draping qualities of
40 shirting and the like fabrics composed of pure
Wash test results on the mechanically stabilized
spun rayon, but which is substantially stable at
least warp-wise as respects progressive laundry
fabrics in this test were as follows:
shrinkage, said fabric comprising interwoven
1
2
X ________________________________ __
3
.3
4
.3
5
15
25
1
2
3
Y _______________________________ __
warp and ?lling yarns, each ?lling yarn consist
0
.1 45 ing of pure spun rayon and each warp yarn con
sisting of a blend of from 40% to 60% rayon
staple and from 60% to 40% of cotton staple, said
fabric having been processed in accordance with
.3
the method of claim 1.
.3
.6 50
EDWARD C. PFEFFER, JR.
.7
JOHN A. TWEED.
.6
JACK JARMAK.
.3
4
1.0
5
15
25
1.5
1.5
1.8
55
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