0mÑ 22, 1946. 2,409,896 J. F. PLUMMER, JR COOLING APPARATUS Filed July 8,~l944 ‘ 2 Sheets-Sheet l . 42 a5 ¿a ` 41 E1 42 55 47 , 49 69 Là. E INVENTOR tibia/12.27.7173ummet'rïv. 68 BY ` , HIS ATTORNEY. ‘ Oct. 22, 1946. .1. F. PLUMMER, ,JR 2,409,896 COOLING APPARATUS Filed July 8, 1944 2 Sheets-Shee‘.. 2 M F. 4 . L\ll É d», „fd „w Nw, i..0 .I m _ x „3v,\.6 .eW \4 . / 72W , »ï .. i QUI 11H/IWÑ \ / HlS ATTORNEY 2,409,896 Patented Oct. 22, 1946 UNITED( STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,409,896 ' oooLING APPARATUS John F. Plummer, Jr., Phìllipsburg, N. J., assigner" ` to Ingersoll-Rand Company, New York, N. Y., a Y corporation of New Jersey ‘ l ‘ Application July s, 1944, seri-a1 No. 543,983 7 Claims. (c1. cs2-+152) 2 This invention relates to cooling devices, and more particularly to apparatus for the evapora tive cooling of liquids, such as distillers’ mash ‘ and the like, which have a marked tendency to foam during the cooling process. One object of the invention is to effect the rapid cooling of the liquid. Another object is to utilize the liquid being conduit 2l having a pump 28 arranged therein for pumping the liquid from the cooling unit. . In the form of the invention shown, the in terlor of the casing 23 is arranged for three stages ofv cooling.` It accordingly has a primary cooling chamber 29 at its upper end, a secondary cooling chamber 30 below the primary chamber, and at the lower end a iinal stage cooling chamber 3| which communicates `with the discharge conduit stages of cooling. 10 21 through the outlet ‘26. A further object is to entirely dissipate any The partitions 32 and 33 separating the cool foam which forms during the cooling process and ing chambers are of funnel shape. Their mar avoid collecting it in the liquid during its passage ginal portions 34 engage the inner surface of the cooled as a sealing medium between successive through the cooling apparatus. A casing 23 and may be connected thereto in seal Other objects will be in part obvious and in 15 ing relationship in any suitable manner. `The ,part pointed out hereinafter. In the drawings accompanying this speciiica each partition has la restricted portion 36 at its tion and in which similar reference numerals re fer to similar parts, outlet end to at all times assure a suliicient depth of liquid in the nozzles for sealing one chamber nozzle 35 depending ‘from the axial portion of Figure 1 is an elevation, partly broken away, 20 from the other.` The outlet end portion 31 of the of a cooling apparatus and its controlling devices nozzle‘25 is likewise restricted to reduce the flow constructed and arranged in accordance with the yarea of that portion of the nozzle 25 below that of the conduit 24> and‘thus create the velocity practice of thel invention, required to distribute the liquid in the desired Figure 2 is a transverse view taken through Figure l on the line 2_2, 25 fform. Means are provided to deflect the liquid issu Figure 3 is an elevation,` partly broken away, of a detail illustrating the manner in which the ing from the nozzles 25 and 3'5 and to directit liquid is projected throughthe cooling chambers whenever the cooling apparatus is operating at or laterally through the cooling chambers inthe form of thin sheets presenting large surface areas 30 for the liberation of vapor. To this end deñec near full capacity, Figure Il` is a transverse view taken through tors 38 in the form of disks are disposed in front Figure Bion the line 4_4, of the outlet ends of the nozzles in suitably spaced Figure 5 is` a view similar to Figure 3 illustrat relation `therewith so that the liquid entering , the chambers will impinge against the deflectors ing the course and the stream pattern of the fluid within the cooling chambers whenever the cool 35 38 and flow smoothly across them with a mini mum loss of velocityin order to form thin sheets ing apparatus is operating at reduced capacity, and , or curtains of liquid having a high ratio of sur Figure 6 is a transverse view taken through face area to film thickness. The deilectors 38 are supported by the noz Figure 5 on the line 6_6. Referring more particularly to the drawings, 40 zles. They'are secured to these parts by a group `the cooling apparatus, designated in its entirety of baiiles 39, preferably three in number, that may be fastened to the deflectors and to the nozzles by 2li, comprises a main cooling unit 2| and evac in any well known manner, as for example by uating means, designated broadly 22, for creat welding. The baffles 39 extend from the nozzles ing the required absolute pressures in certain zones of the main cooling unit for reducing the 45 radially to the marginal portions of the deflectors and they are of substantially V-shape to cause temperature of liquid by evaporization. the formation of similarly .shaped gaps in the The cooling unit 2| comprises an elongated curtain of liquid flowing from the deflector to casing 23> that is arranged in a vertical position ward the wall of the casing. In this way are so that the liquid will iiow therethrough by grav ity. Liquid intended to be cooled is conveyed 59 provided openings in the liquid through which from a source of supply (not shown) by a supply vapor released from the underside of the several conduit 24 extending into the upper portion of sheets may pass into the upper Zones of the‘ the casing and having a nozzle 25that depends chambers for removal by the evacuating means. Normally,` when operating at full capacity the axially into the casing. At the lower end of the casing is an outlet 26 that opens into a discharge velocity of the liquid flowing across the dellectors 2,409,896 4 3 Y In addition to such means as may be provided for manually controlling the iiow of cooling water Y and radially through the chambers is sufficiently high to carry it to the wall of the casing whereby to the condenser 44 through the supply conduit 51 , it will be deflected in a downwardly direction, in said conduit ,is provided with a valve 58 of the poppet type having a stem 59v extending-exteriorly a manner'indicated at tß- in Figure 3 of the draw ings, with-.a minimum .degree of turbulenceand C11 of the conduit for connection toa temperature 'splashing and, therefore, with a minimum tend actuated controller 5t, of a well known type. The ency to create bubbles and foam in the streams. The liquid will then flow downwardly along the> ' ` -controller 6D has the usual tube 6I terminating wall of the casing onto and across the adjacent ` at its lower end in a bulb 52 containing an eX partition and then pass through. the associated l0 pansible medium, as for example' mercury. The nozzle into the next chamber.v , ' ' tube 6l 4_extendsl intof the chamber 29 across the " upper’suriacë ofthe partition 32 and its bulb 62 At part load operation, on ’the other hand, the ' ‘ velocity of the liquid across the deflectors and through the chambers will, of course, be less and the sheets would then tend to drop directly upon low portions of the partitions and create bubbles lieswithin the nozzle 35 of said partition so that it will bein" position for intimate contact with the liquid passing through the nozzle. In this way the pressure of the mercury for actuating the controiler t@ may vary in quick response to varia ' that mightbe carriedintothe evacuating means. tionsjin the temperature of >the liquid passing This; would be highly objectionable, and in order to avoid fitsvoccurrence each chamber is provided with; an additionalfdeflector >lll located between the de?lectors k3 8' and the partitions separating the chambers.A` y » y ' ,_ „ from the'chaniberìä to the chamber 30;» l , By reasonoffthis arrangement the valve 58 will be actuated for increasing ’the 'flow of water 20 through the Yconduit` 51 into theïc'ondenser-M if the temperature of the-liquid `passingfromjthe ' The deiiectors .4l Vare-ofï'frusto-.conical shape. Their »gbasesare of smaller> diameter than the ñrst stage of ,cooling exceeds that Awhichv itis Vin casingito permitthe free iiow of liquid between 25 tended to .maintain and whenever the tempera the two and seat upon racks 424constructed of a ture of the liquid flowing over the bulb 62 falls plurality of radiallyïextending arms, the outer ends ofgwhich¿»may be fastened to the casing in will shift the Valve 58 to decrease the flow of water below the kpredetermined valuet the actuator 60 any; suitablev_manner..Y In the upper ends of the .deflectors 4i§arej>openings43 through which vapor into the condenser. 30 that might be Vv_released from the liquid iicwing ` Vacross the¿partitionslmay ypass into the upper ` portions >oi` >the cooling chambers. ’ ' ’~ > » i The steam supply conduit 5I is also provided with a poppet valve 63 and a temperatureactu ated controller @Il for actuating it to shut-oiT--the steam- supply to the boosterswhenever the tem' . , In the form shown,y the evacuating means 22 perature of the liquidin‘the cooling chamber-.3l comprises a condenserllä ofthe .barometric type that communicates withthe chamber 29 through a conduit v45 attached toa connection 45 at the upper end of Vthecharnber '29 so that the vapor released _from the liquid in. said chamber may pass might take place. The tube 650i the controller Sfl extends into the lowermost portion ofthe cham ber 3l so that its bulbVSß will be immersedin- the directly through ‘the conduit 45 into .the condenser lill. The chambers 35 and 3l are evacuated, re specti-vely, by steam jet boosters 41 and 43 that 'discharge- ‘through the conduit 45 to the con denser;l v. ~ y , ~ Y . » vThe' booster `'l1 communicates with the chamber reaches a value at which thecreation of foam liquid therein. ` v »ï ‘ ' f The liquid in the chamber 3| is maintained at ` a suitable level to assure immersion of the bulb 66 and also to maintain ‘aî'suitabl'e >suction head fory the pump 28, in order to avoid cavitation therein, by a poppet valve’51 arranged in the dis ‘7 chargeìconduitßß ofthe pump; The stem 690i l 3B§through5~agconduit 49 connected to the uppers ç; the’ valve 51 projectingffroin the discharge con V:end of such chamber., In likemanner, the booster ‘ £58" commuiflicat'esv with the »uppen end of the “chamber 3l throughia conduit 5U, and the steam Vforoperating the boosters is conveyed thereto by f' -aand* Ysupply having conduit arbranch 5l Yconnected line 52 .extending to the booster to the 48 lying the discharge conduit E8 between the valve booster 41.~ To the end thatthe desired -vapor pressures -fmay b'e maintained inthe chambers r3l!! and 3l .the vapor outlet conduits lig and 5l) are eachvpro-,H4 vided with Vadamper 53, ofl the oscillatory plate type,. connected by appropriate linkage 54 to a duit has its free end pivotally connected toA an end of a' rocker‘lû'that is piVotally/connected, in termediate its ends, to'v a casing 'il shown over 51 and the pump 28. The interior of the casing 1 l constitutes `a float chamber 12 and is in com ' munication with the lower end of the Ycooling chamber 3| >through a conduit 13 to permit the free passage of liquid from the chamber 3l into e *y he float >chamber 12 inorder‘to maintain Ythe same levelof liquid in the float chamber that exists in the chamber 3l. ` ` ' ' ‘ , pressure responsive actuator 55 whereby the One arm »of the rocker 10 lies' within the íioat «îtuator 55¢andfat its other end to the casing 23 for» communication vwith the associated cooling i' `tionvbetween the upper portion of Áthe chamber `I damper> is shifted to its controlling positions. The (if) chamber 12 and carries a bulb'14 :that rises and falls with the liquid in the float chamber> and ' actuator: 55 may be of a well known type and the¿¿ thereby imparts movement to the valve 61 >for pressure serving to operate it is conveyed thereto controlling the__ilow of liquid through the dis bya conduit 56 connected at vone end `to the ac charge ‘pipe |58,` A conduit 15 aiîordsV communica *.chamber, .'Thegdampers and their actuating de-„f` >12 and .the chamber 3 lV-to assure'the same pres ' vices aresoarranged-and operate in such manner ` ' :that upon an increase of pressure in the cooling »'chambers‘the dampers will be shifted to positions ‘ v«to-¿increase .the ilowfarea around them and, con- ” ' versely, when the pressurein the chambers falls¿ 2 the actuator 55 acting in response thereto will ` shift the damper to decrease the area of com munication between the cooling chambers and the boosters. sureY upon the liquid in the ñoat chamber 12 as thatin the chamber 3 i. In cooling certain hot liquids by `evaporation in a high vacuum, it is of extreme importance ito jguardagainst the accumulation _of ‘a considerable body `of liquid at any point lin the cooling "appa ratus. This is particularly true to distillers’ mash which foams profusely when exposed to a sudden rise in temperature lor an abrupt drop in pres 5 2,499,896 sure and it is, therefore, desirable that Whenever these unfavorable conditions occur the admission G of the chamber 88 and carries a bulb or float ||l| a short distance above the liquid and against of liquid -into the cooling apparatus to be prompt ly cut-01T, otherwise foam may be carried into the evacuating devices and to the liquid removal the rocker bar 85 to unseat .the valve 94. ' pump and cause the latter to become vapor eral chambers 29, 38 and 3| for the purpose of bound. In furtherance of this end the liquid supply conduit 24 is provided with a control valve which rising liquid, or foam, may act for tilting In order Ito admit of ready access to the sev making inspections, repairs, etc., each cooling` chamber is provided with a manhole |82 that is mechanism comprising a 4casing 7S that is inter sealed by a cover |83. posed in said -conduit and houses a valve 'H of 4the The operation of the device is as follows: LetV poppet type. The valve l1 is urged towards its it be assumed that the condenser fili >and the closed position by a spring T8, and on its s-tem 'I9 boosters 41 and 138 are in operation to evacuate is a piston 88 having an actuating surface 8| at the chambers 2S, 3U and 3|, respectively, for its juncture with the stem subjected to pressure maintaining progressively lower vabsolute pres fluid for opening the valve '|‘| to maintain a suit sures in said chambers in the order named, and able now area through the casing i6. that the valve ll is held in the open position by The pressure iluid serving to actuate the valve pressure fluid -acting against the actuating sur 11 is conveyed to the casing ‘i6 by -a pipe 82 con face 8|. Liquid will then liow through the con nected to lthe casing l'6 at »a point between the duit 24 against the deflector 38 in the chamber 29 valve '|'| and the piston 88, and the now of pres 20 and will be diverted thereby against the Wall of sure iiuid through the pipe 82 is metered by an the casing 23 when operating at full capacity or oriñce plate 83 in said pipe. ' will be deflected to fall upon .the deilectors 4| In order to effect the quick release of pressure when operating at reduced capacity. In either iluid acting against the surface 8| in the event case the liquid ñows across and from the de that the temperature of the liquid in the lower 25 ilectors 38 to the next deiiecting surface in the most cooling chamber 3| rises to a dangerous de form of .three thin sheets, as shown more par gree, the pipe 82 is pr-ovided with means that acts ticularly in Figures 3 to 6 inclusive of the draw in response to a rising temperature in the cham ings. ber 3| for venting the portion of the pipe between During its passage through the chamber 2Q the oriñce plate 83 and the actuating surface 8| 30 vapor is liberated from both the upper and the to the atmosphere. This pressure releasing lower surfaces of the sheets and the Vapor re means, designated in general by Bil, comprises a leased from the undersides of the sheets passes valve casing 85 the interior 85 of which com through the gaps between the sheets of liquid municates the pipe 82, through a connection 8l, to pass, along with that released on the upper with the atmosphere and is controlled by a pop sides ,through the conduit |35 into the condenser pet valve 88. The valve 88 is actuated by a tem lill. Upon reaching the wall of the casing 23 the perature actuated controller 89 which is similar sheets of liquid are deileoted thereby and will in all essential respects -to those designated 68 then flow over the partition 32 and through its and 64 `and has a cond-uit 88 that opens into the nozzle S5 into the chamber 38. I tube 65 of the controller 64. This sequence of events is repeated in the cham Thus, by the arrangement described, When ber Sil and again in the chamber 3| with the ever the temperature within the chamber 3| rises exceptions that in the latter chamber the cooled the expansible medium within the bulb 6 6 will, in liquid is added to the body awaiting removal by addition to its function previously described, open the pump 2S, and the vapors are removed from the poppet valve 88 and provide an escape for ’l the chambers 3i! and 3| by the boosters. the pressure fluid between the oriñce plate 83 and In vpassing from one cooling chamber to an the actuating surface 8|. In this connection7 it other, the liquid will effect a seal in each .nozzle should be understood that the flow area through 35 and thus make it possible to maintain the the valve casing 85 is at least equal to that of desired pressure differentials in the cooling cham the orifice in the plate 83 so that the pressure bers. surface 8l Will be fully vented to the atmosphere The actuators 55 will, as has been previously and the spring 'I8 may then return the valve 'il explained, act in response to the fluctuations in to its closed position and cut-off the admission of the cooling chambers wherewith they are asso fluid into the casing 23. ciated to shift the dempers for increasing or de Preferably, means are also provided to vent the creasing the flow area through the conduits d5 same portion of the pipe 82 to the atmosphere and âlì to assure the desired vapor pressures in in response to a rising level of liquid, or foam, the cooling chambers 38 and 3 |. in the chamber 3|. To this end a second pres If, for any reason, the temperature or" the liquid sure releasing means 8|, similar to that desig in the casing 23 is caused to rise, as when the nated 84, is connected to the pipe above the ori pressure of the steam operating the boosters is fice plate 83 by a connection 92, and .the free end of an insufhcient value to maintain the required of the stem 93 of the poppet valve 94 control vacuum in the casing, the mercury in the bulb ling communication between the pipe 82 Vand the 5i; will expand and actuate the valves t3 and 88. atmosphere is pivotally connected to an end of a The valve E53 will be moved thereby to its closed rocker bar 85. position to ` cut-off the ilow of steam `to the The rocker bar 95 :is connected, as by means of a pivot pin 96, intermediate its ends to the wall boosters, so that if foam is created in the bottom 91 of a float chamber 98 on the side of the lower .portion oi' the cooling apparatus the boosters will most portion of the casing 23. The float chamber be put out ofV operation before foam may be drawn 98 communicates with the chamber 3| through into the evacuating means. The valve will an opening 98 and is so positioned with respect remain in the closed position as long as the tein thereto that its bottom surface lies approximately perature of the `liquid in the chamber 3i remains in the same plane as the normal liquid level in high, and in this Way the boosters will be pre the chamber 3|. The innermost arm portion |00 vented Írorn acting to suddenly lower the pres of the bar 95 lies in the intermediate portion 75 sure on the ‘hot liquid in the said chamber and '2,409,896 8 7 thereby cause the creation of a large volume of foam. ' Simultaneously with the closing of the valve 53 the valve 88 will be unseated to communicate the pipe 82 with the atmosphere. In this way the pressure acting against the surface 8| of the .piston 8S will be released and the spring 'E8 will then act to move the Valve 'H to its closed posi Y tion and cut-off the further flow of hot liquid into the cooling apparatus. y ration, comprising a Acasing having a cooling chamber and a discharge opening therefor, means for creating a sufficiently low pressure in the chamber to cause the liberation of vapor from .the liquid, a conduit for introducing liquid into the chamber, and a disk having Va ñat surface lying in front of the outlet opening of the con~ duit to direct the liquid radially through the chamber, a divider on the disk to separate the 10 liquid into a plurality of relatively spaced, thin In the event that the liquid level in the chamber 4. In apparatus for cooling a liquid, compris 3l rises unduly or that foam is created and rises ing a vertical casing having a plurality of cham in said chamber before the temperature actuated bers to receive the liquid successively for cooling controller 8S may act, such liquid or foam acting against the iioat Iül will raise it and cause the 15 it by evaporation, a conduit for transferring the liquid by gravity from one chamber to another, valve iii to be unseated for communicating the and means in front of the outlet opening of the pipe t2 with the atmosphere. The pressure nor conduit in spaced relation therewith to deflect mally holding the valve 'il open will then be re» the liquid radially from the conduit in the form. leased so that the spring 18 may act to move the 20 of a sheet, a, divider for causing the formation valve 'Vl to its closed position. of a radially extending gap in such sheet to pro As will be readily understood from the fore ‘ vide a vapor path through the liquid, and a re going description, the liquid is delivered to the stricted portion in the conduit to restrict the cooling chambers only in the form of thin sheets iiow of liquid therethrough for maintaining Va that are suitably spaced with respect to each other sheets. Y » ‘ , so that vapor may be withdrawn from the entire 25 liquid seal between the chambers. 5. Apparatus for cooling liquid, comprising a surface area of each sheet, and the vapor released vertical casing having a plurality of chambers from the undersides of the sheets of liquid may to receive the liquid successively for cooling it by readily pass upwardly between the sheets for evaporation, conduit means for( conveying liquid removal to the condensing apparatus. Moreover, the liquid enters each chamber with 30 `from a source of supply to the uppermost oi the chambers, conduit means for transferring the such a large ratio of evaporation surface com~ pared to the thickness of the sheet that virtually all cooling takes place and all foam created by liquid from one chamber to another and each conduit means having a portion of reduced flow area to restrict the flow of liquid therethrough the progressive reduction in pressure is imme diately dissipated before liquid reaches the walls 35 and thereby maintain a liquid seal in the conduit means, means in iront of the outlet openings of of the chamber or is allowed to collect in any the conduit means in spaced relation therewith part of the apparatus. The liquid,‘moreover, is to _deflect the liquid radially from the conduit gently deflected at each turning point, during its means in the form of a plurality of Yrelatively course through the cooling apparatus, in such a wayas to preclude the creation of foam or vapor 40 spaced sheets, a valve for controlling the iiow of liquid through the iirst mentioned conduit, bubbles in the liquid that would interfere with and a plurality of controlling means for -con the operation of the removal pump or the inter trolling the valve, one of said means acting in stage seals. Furthermore, the entire apparatus is so con-structed and its parts are so arranged that it is nonclogging and self draining throughout and thus is well adapted for cooling any liquids such as distillers mash which may contain suspended solids. I claim: 1. In apparatus for cooling a liquid by evapora tion, comprising a casing having a cooling cham ber and a discharge opening, means for creating a sufficiently low pressure in the vchamber to cause the liberation of vapor from the liquid7 conduit means for introducing liquid into the chamber, and deflector means lying across the outlet end of the conduit means in spaced relation there with to cause the liquid to flow through the cham . response to a predetermined level and another means acting in response to a predetermined temperature of the liquid in the lowermost vacu um chamber. y 6. Apparatus for cooling liquid, comprising a vertical casing having a plurality of chambers to receive liquid successively for cooling it by evaporation, partitions between the chambers, conduit means for conveying liquid from a source of supply to the uppermost of the chambers, ccn duit means depending from the partitions into the chambers for transferring the liquid from one chamber to another and each conduit means having’a portion of reduced ilow area to restrict the flow of liquid therethrough and thereby main tain a liquid seal in the conduit means, means ber in the form or" a sheet, a divider to cause the 60 in front of the outlet openings of the conduit means in spaced relation therewith to deñect formation of an opening in such sheet of liquid the liquid radially from the conduit means in the for the passage of vapor from one side to another , form of a plurality of relatively spaced sheets, a of the sheet. valve for` controlling the flow of liquid through 2. In- apparatus for cooling a liquid by evapo ration, comprising a casing having a cooling chamber and a discharge opening therefor, means for creating a sufficiently low pressure in the chamber to cause the liberation of vapor from ’ the first mentioned conduit, and means operat ing in response to the pressures in certain of the chambers for maintaining the desired cooling ranges therein. 7. Apparatus for cooling liquid, comprising a the liquid, and a conduit for introducing liquid into the axial zone of the chamber, a plurality 70 vertical casing having a plurality of chambers to receive the liquid successively for cooling it by of dividers in the chamber >adjacent the outlet evaporation, conduit means for conveying liquid end of the conduit to direct the liquid radially from a source of supply to the uppermost of the through the chamber in the form of a plurality chambers, conduit means for transferring the of relatively spaced sheets. 3. In apparatus for cooling a liquid by evapo 75 liquid from one chamber to another and each 2,409,896 9 10 conduit means having a portion of reduced iiow plurality of controlling means for controlling the area to restrict the flow of liquid therethrough Valve, one of said means acting in response to a and thereby maintain a liquid seal in the con predetermined level and another means acting in response to a predetermined temperature of duit means, means in front of the outlet openings or” the conduit means in spaced relation therewith 5 the liquid in the lowermost Vacuum chamber, and to deflect the liquid radially from the conduit means operating in response to the pressures in means in the form of a plurality of relatively certain of the chambers for maintaining the de spaced sheets, a Valve for controlling the ñow of sired cooling ranges therein. liquid through the first mentioned conduit, a JOHN F. PLUMMER., JR.