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0mÑ 22, 1946.
2,409,896
J. F. PLUMMER, JR
COOLING APPARATUS
Filed July 8,~l944 ‘
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BY
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HIS ATTORNEY.
‘
Oct. 22, 1946.
.1. F. PLUMMER, ,JR
2,409,896
COOLING APPARATUS
Filed July 8, 1944
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HlS ATTORNEY
2,409,896
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
UNITED( STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,896
' oooLING APPARATUS
John F. Plummer, Jr., Phìllipsburg, N. J., assigner"
`
to Ingersoll-Rand Company, New York, N. Y., a
Y corporation of New Jersey
‘
l
‘ Application July s, 1944, seri-a1 No. 543,983
7 Claims.
(c1. cs2-+152)
2
This invention relates to cooling devices, and
more particularly to apparatus for the evapora
tive cooling of liquids, such as distillers’ mash ‘
and the like, which have a marked tendency to
foam during the cooling process.
One object of the invention is to effect the rapid
cooling of the liquid.
Another object is to utilize the liquid being
conduit 2l having a pump 28 arranged therein
for pumping the liquid from the cooling unit. . In the form of the invention shown, the in
terlor of the casing 23 is arranged for three stages
ofv cooling.` It accordingly has a primary cooling
chamber 29 at its upper end, a secondary cooling
chamber 30 below the primary chamber, and at
the lower end a iinal stage cooling chamber 3|
which communicates `with the discharge conduit
stages of cooling.
10 21 through the outlet ‘26.
A further object is to entirely dissipate any
The partitions 32 and 33 separating the cool
foam which forms during the cooling process and
ing chambers are of funnel shape. Their mar
avoid collecting it in the liquid during its passage
ginal portions 34 engage the inner surface of the
cooled as a sealing medium between successive
through the cooling apparatus.
A
casing 23 and may be connected thereto in seal
Other objects will be in part obvious and in 15 ing relationship in any suitable manner. `The
,part pointed out hereinafter.
In the drawings accompanying this speciiica
each partition has la restricted portion 36 at its
tion and in which similar reference numerals re
fer to similar parts,
outlet end to at all times assure a suliicient depth
of liquid in the nozzles for sealing one chamber
nozzle 35 depending ‘from the axial portion of
Figure 1 is an elevation, partly broken away, 20 from the other.` The outlet end portion 31 of the
of a cooling apparatus and its controlling devices
nozzle‘25 is likewise restricted to reduce the flow
constructed and arranged in accordance with the
yarea of that portion of the nozzle 25 below that
of the conduit 24> and‘thus create the velocity
practice of thel invention,
required to distribute the liquid in the desired
Figure 2 is a transverse view taken through
Figure l on the line 2_2,
25 fform.
Means are provided to deflect the liquid issu
Figure 3 is an elevation,` partly broken away,
of a detail illustrating the manner in which the
ing from the nozzles 25 and 3'5 and to directit
liquid is projected throughthe cooling chambers
whenever the cooling apparatus is operating at or
laterally through the cooling chambers inthe
form of thin sheets presenting large surface areas
30 for the liberation of vapor. To this end deñec
near full capacity,
Figure Il` is a transverse view taken through
tors 38 in the form of disks are disposed in front
Figure Bion the line 4_4,
of the outlet ends of the nozzles in suitably spaced
Figure 5 is` a view similar to Figure 3 illustrat
relation `therewith so that the liquid entering
, the chambers will impinge against the deflectors
ing the course and the stream pattern of the fluid
within the cooling chambers whenever the cool 35 38 and flow smoothly across them with a mini
mum loss of velocityin order to form thin sheets
ing apparatus is operating at reduced capacity,
and
,
or curtains of liquid having a high ratio of sur
Figure 6 is a transverse view taken through
face area to film thickness.
The deilectors 38 are supported by the noz
Figure 5 on the line 6_6.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, 40 zles. They'are secured to these parts by a group
`the cooling apparatus, designated in its entirety
of baiiles 39, preferably three in number, that may
be fastened to the deflectors and to the nozzles
by 2li, comprises a main cooling unit 2| and evac
in any well known manner, as for example by
uating means, designated broadly 22, for creat
welding. The baffles 39 extend from the nozzles
ing the required absolute pressures in certain
zones of the main cooling unit for reducing the 45 radially to the marginal portions of the deflectors
and they are of substantially V-shape to cause
temperature of liquid by evaporization.
the formation of similarly .shaped gaps in the
The cooling unit 2| comprises an elongated
curtain of liquid flowing from the deflector to
casing 23> that is arranged in a vertical position
ward the wall of the casing. In this way are
so that the liquid will iiow therethrough by grav
ity. Liquid intended to be cooled is conveyed 59 provided openings in the liquid through which
from a source of supply (not shown) by a supply
vapor released from the underside of the several
conduit 24 extending into the upper portion of
sheets may pass into the upper Zones of the‘
the casing and having a nozzle 25that depends
chambers for removal by the evacuating means.
Normally,` when operating at full capacity the
axially into the casing. At the lower end of the
casing is an outlet 26 that opens into a discharge
velocity of the liquid flowing across the dellectors
2,409,896
4
3
Y
In addition to such means as may be provided
for manually controlling the iiow of cooling water Y
and radially through the chambers is sufficiently
high to carry it to the wall of the casing whereby
to the condenser 44 through the supply conduit 51 ,
it will be deflected in a downwardly direction, in
said conduit ,is provided with a valve 58 of the
poppet type having a stem 59v extending-exteriorly
a manner'indicated at tß- in Figure 3 of the draw
ings, with-.a minimum .degree of turbulenceand
C11
of the conduit for connection toa temperature
'splashing and, therefore, with a minimum tend
actuated controller 5t, of a well known type. The
ency to create bubbles and foam in the streams. The liquid will then flow downwardly along the> ' ` -controller 6D has the usual tube 6I terminating
wall of the casing onto and across the adjacent ` at its lower end in a bulb 52 containing an eX
partition and then pass through. the associated l0 pansible medium, as for example' mercury. The
nozzle into the next chamber.v
,
'
'
tube 6l 4_extendsl intof the chamber 29 across the
"
upper’suriacë ofthe partition 32 and its bulb 62
At part load operation, on ’the other hand, the ' ‘
velocity of the liquid across the deflectors and
through the chambers will, of course, be less and
the sheets would then tend to drop directly upon
low portions of the partitions and create bubbles
lieswithin the nozzle 35 of said partition so that
it will bein" position for intimate contact with
the liquid passing through the nozzle. In this
way the pressure of the mercury for actuating the
controiler t@ may vary in quick response to varia
' that mightbe carriedintothe evacuating means.
tionsjin the temperature of >the liquid passing
This; would be highly objectionable, and in order
to avoid fitsvoccurrence each chamber is provided
with; an additionalfdeflector >lll located between
the de?lectors k3 8' and the partitions separating the
chambers.A`
y
»
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'
,_
„
from the'chaniberìä to the chamber 30;» l
, By reasonoffthis arrangement the valve 58 will
be actuated for increasing ’the 'flow of water
20
through the Yconduit` 51 into theïc'ondenser-M if
the temperature of the-liquid `passingfromjthe
'
The deiiectors .4l Vare-ofï'frusto-.conical shape.
Their »gbasesare of smaller> diameter than the
ñrst stage of ,cooling exceeds that Awhichv itis Vin
casingito permitthe free iiow of liquid between 25 tended to .maintain and whenever the tempera
the two and seat upon racks 424constructed of a
ture of the liquid flowing over the bulb 62 falls
plurality of radiallyïextending arms, the outer
ends ofgwhich¿»may be fastened to the casing in
will shift the Valve 58 to decrease the flow of water
below the kpredetermined valuet the actuator 60
any; suitablev_manner..Y In the upper ends of the
.deflectors 4i§arej>openings43 through which vapor
into the condenser.
30
that might be Vv_released from the liquid iicwing `
Vacross the¿partitionslmay ypass into the upper `
portions >oi` >the cooling chambers.
’
'
’~
> »
i
The steam supply conduit 5I is also provided
with a poppet valve 63 and a temperatureactu
ated controller @Il for actuating it to shut-oiT--the
steam- supply to the boosterswhenever the tem'
.
, In the form shown,y the evacuating means 22
perature of the liquidin‘the cooling chamber-.3l
comprises a condenserllä ofthe .barometric type
that communicates withthe chamber 29 through
a conduit v45 attached toa connection 45 at the
upper end of Vthecharnber '29 so that the vapor
released _from the liquid in. said chamber may pass
might take place. The tube 650i the controller Sfl
extends into the lowermost portion ofthe cham
ber 3l so that its bulbVSß will be immersedin- the
directly through ‘the conduit 45 into .the condenser
lill. The chambers 35 and 3l are evacuated, re
specti-vely, by steam jet boosters 41 and 43 that
'discharge- ‘through the conduit 45 to the con
denser;l
v.
~
y
,
~
Y
.
»
vThe' booster `'l1 communicates with the chamber
reaches a value at which thecreation of foam
liquid therein.
`
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'
f
The liquid in the chamber 3| is maintained at
` a suitable level to assure immersion of the bulb
66 and also to maintain ‘aî'suitabl'e >suction head
fory the pump 28, in order to avoid cavitation
therein, by a poppet valve’51 arranged in the dis
‘7 chargeìconduitßß ofthe pump; The stem 690i
l 3B§through5~agconduit 49 connected to the uppers ç;
the’ valve 51 projectingffroin the discharge con
V:end of such chamber., In likemanner, the booster
‘ £58" commuiflicat'esv with the »uppen end of the
“chamber 3l throughia conduit 5U, and the steam
Vforoperating the boosters is conveyed thereto by f'
-aand*
Ysupply
having
conduit
arbranch
5l Yconnected
line 52 .extending
to the booster
to the
48
lying the discharge conduit E8 between the valve
booster 41.~
To the end thatthe desired -vapor pressures
-fmay b'e maintained inthe chambers r3l!! and 3l
.the vapor outlet conduits lig and 5l) are eachvpro-,H4
vided with Vadamper 53, ofl the oscillatory plate
type,. connected by appropriate linkage 54 to a
duit has its free end pivotally connected toA an
end of a' rocker‘lû'that is piVotally/connected, in
termediate its ends, to'v a casing 'il shown over
51 and the pump 28. The interior of the casing 1 l
constitutes `a float chamber 12 and is in com
' munication with the lower end of the Ycooling
chamber 3| >through a conduit 13 to permit the
free passage of liquid from the chamber 3l into e
*y he float >chamber 12 inorder‘to maintain Ythe
same levelof liquid in the float chamber that
exists in the chamber 3l.
`
`
'
'
‘ , pressure responsive actuator 55 whereby the
One arm »of the rocker 10 lies' within the íioat
«îtuator 55¢andfat its other end to the casing 23
for» communication vwith the associated cooling
i' `tionvbetween the upper portion of Áthe chamber
`I damper> is shifted to its controlling positions. The (if) chamber 12 and carries a bulb'14 :that rises and
falls with the liquid in the float chamber> and
' actuator: 55 may be of a well known type and the¿¿
thereby imparts movement to the valve 61 >for
pressure serving to operate it is conveyed thereto
controlling the__ilow of liquid through the dis
bya conduit 56 connected at vone end `to the ac
charge ‘pipe |58,` A conduit 15 aiîordsV communica
*.chamber, .'Thegdampers and their actuating de-„f` >12 and .the chamber 3 lV-to assure'the same pres
' vices aresoarranged-and operate in such manner `
' :that upon an increase of pressure in the cooling
»'chambers‘the dampers will be shifted to positions
‘ v«to-¿increase .the ilowfarea around them and, con- ”
' versely, when the pressurein the chambers falls¿ 2
the actuator 55 acting in response thereto will `
shift the damper to decrease the area of com
munication between the cooling chambers and the
boosters.
sureY upon the liquid in the ñoat chamber 12 as
thatin the chamber 3 i.
In cooling certain hot liquids by `evaporation in
a high vacuum, it is of extreme importance ito
jguardagainst the accumulation _of ‘a considerable
body `of liquid at any point lin the cooling "appa
ratus. This is particularly true to distillers’ mash
which foams profusely when exposed to a sudden
rise in temperature lor an abrupt drop in pres
5
2,499,896
sure and it is, therefore, desirable that Whenever
these unfavorable conditions occur the admission
G
of the chamber 88 and carries a bulb or float ||l|
a short distance above the liquid and against
of liquid -into the cooling apparatus to be prompt
ly cut-01T, otherwise foam may be carried into the
evacuating devices and to the liquid removal
the rocker bar 85 to unseat .the valve 94. '
pump and cause the latter to become vapor
eral chambers 29, 38 and 3| for the purpose of
bound. In furtherance of this end the liquid
supply conduit 24 is provided with a control valve
which rising liquid, or foam, may act for tilting
In order Ito admit of ready access to the sev
making inspections, repairs, etc., each cooling`
chamber is provided with a manhole |82 that is
mechanism comprising a 4casing 7S that is inter
sealed by a cover |83.
posed in said -conduit and houses a valve 'H of 4the
The operation of the device is as follows: LetV
poppet type. The valve l1 is urged towards its
it be assumed that the condenser fili >and the
closed position by a spring T8, and on its s-tem 'I9
boosters 41 and 138 are in operation to evacuate
is a piston 88 having an actuating surface 8| at
the chambers 2S, 3U and 3|, respectively, for
its juncture with the stem subjected to pressure
maintaining progressively lower vabsolute pres
fluid for opening the valve '|‘| to maintain a suit
sures in said chambers in the order named, and
able now area through the casing i6.
that the valve ll is held in the open position by
The pressure iluid serving to actuate the valve
pressure fluid -acting against the actuating sur
11 is conveyed to the casing ‘i6 by -a pipe 82 con
face 8|. Liquid will then liow through the con
nected to lthe casing l'6 at »a point between the
duit 24 against the deflector 38 in the chamber 29
valve '|'| and the piston 88, and the now of pres 20 and will be diverted thereby against the Wall of
sure iiuid through the pipe 82 is metered by an
the casing 23 when operating at full capacity or
oriñce plate 83 in said pipe.
'
will be deflected to fall upon .the deilectors 4|
In order to effect the quick release of pressure
when operating at reduced capacity. In either
iluid acting against the surface 8| in the event
case the liquid ñows across and from the de
that the temperature of the liquid in the lower 25 ilectors 38 to the next deiiecting surface in the
most cooling chamber 3| rises to a dangerous de
form of .three thin sheets, as shown more par
gree, the pipe 82 is pr-ovided with means that acts
ticularly in Figures 3 to 6 inclusive of the draw
in response to a rising temperature in the cham
ings.
ber 3| for venting the portion of the pipe between
During its passage through the chamber 2Q
the oriñce plate 83 and the actuating surface 8| 30 vapor is liberated from both the upper and the
to the atmosphere. This pressure releasing
lower surfaces of the sheets and the Vapor re
means, designated in general by Bil, comprises a
leased from the undersides of the sheets passes
valve casing 85 the interior 85 of which com
through the gaps between the sheets of liquid
municates the pipe 82, through a connection 8l,
to pass, along with that released on the upper
with the atmosphere and is controlled by a pop
sides ,through the conduit |35 into the condenser
pet valve 88. The valve 88 is actuated by a tem
lill. Upon reaching the wall of the casing 23 the
perature actuated controller 89 which is similar
sheets of liquid are deileoted thereby and will
in all essential respects -to those designated 68
then flow over the partition 32 and through its
and 64 `and has a cond-uit 88 that opens into the
nozzle S5 into the chamber 38.
I
tube 65 of the controller 64.
This sequence of events is repeated in the cham
Thus, by the arrangement described, When
ber Sil and again in the chamber 3| with the
ever the temperature within the chamber 3| rises
exceptions that in the latter chamber the cooled
the expansible medium within the bulb 6 6 will, in
liquid is added to the body awaiting removal by
addition to its function previously described, open
the pump 2S, and the vapors are removed from
the poppet valve 88 and provide an escape for ’l the chambers 3i! and 3| by the boosters.
the pressure fluid between the oriñce plate 83 and
In vpassing from one cooling chamber to an
the actuating surface 8|. In this connection7 it
other, the liquid will effect a seal in each .nozzle
should be understood that the flow area through
35 and thus make it possible to maintain the
the valve casing 85 is at least equal to that of
desired pressure differentials in the cooling cham
the orifice in the plate 83 so that the pressure
bers.
surface 8l Will be fully vented to the atmosphere
The actuators 55 will, as has been previously
and the spring 'I8 may then return the valve 'il
explained, act in response to the fluctuations in
to its closed position and cut-off the admission of
the cooling chambers wherewith they are asso
fluid into the casing 23.
ciated to shift the dempers for increasing or de
Preferably, means are also provided to vent the
creasing the flow area through the conduits d5
same portion of the pipe 82 to the atmosphere
and âlì to assure the desired vapor pressures in
in response to a rising level of liquid, or foam,
the cooling chambers 38 and 3 |.
in the chamber 3|. To this end a second pres
If, for any reason, the temperature or" the liquid
sure releasing means 8|, similar to that desig
in the casing 23 is caused to rise, as when the
nated 84, is connected to the pipe above the ori
pressure of the steam operating the boosters is
fice plate 83 by a connection 92, and .the free end
of an insufhcient value to maintain the required
of the stem 93 of the poppet valve 94 control
vacuum in the casing, the mercury in the bulb
ling communication between the pipe 82 Vand the
5i; will expand and actuate the valves t3 and 88.
atmosphere is pivotally connected to an end of a
The valve E53 will be moved thereby to its closed
rocker bar 85.
position to ` cut-off the ilow of steam `to the
The rocker bar 95 :is connected, as by means
of a pivot pin 96, intermediate its ends to the wall
boosters, so that if foam is created in the bottom
91 of a float chamber 98 on the side of the lower
.portion oi' the cooling apparatus the boosters will
most portion of the casing 23. The float chamber
be put out ofV operation before foam may be drawn
98 communicates with the chamber 3| through
into the evacuating means. The valve
will
an opening 98 and is so positioned with respect
remain in the closed position as long as the tein
thereto that its bottom surface lies approximately
perature of the `liquid in the chamber 3i remains
in the same plane as the normal liquid level in
high, and in this Way the boosters will be pre
the chamber 3|. The innermost arm portion |00
vented Írorn acting to suddenly lower the pres
of the bar 95 lies in the intermediate portion 75 sure on the ‘hot liquid in the said chamber and
'2,409,896
8
7
thereby cause the creation of a large volume of
foam.
'
Simultaneously with the closing of the valve
53 the valve 88 will be unseated to communicate
the pipe 82 with the atmosphere. In this way the
pressure acting against the surface 8| of the
.piston 8S will be released and the spring 'E8 will
then act to move the Valve 'H to its closed posi
Y tion and cut-off the further flow of hot liquid into
the cooling apparatus.
y
ration, comprising a Acasing having a cooling
chamber and a discharge opening therefor,
means for creating a sufficiently low pressure in
the chamber to cause the liberation of vapor from
.the liquid, a conduit for introducing liquid into
the chamber, and a disk having Va ñat surface
lying in front of the outlet opening of the con~
duit to direct the liquid radially through the
chamber, a divider on the disk to separate the
10 liquid into a plurality of relatively spaced, thin
In the event that the liquid level in the chamber
4. In apparatus for cooling a liquid, compris
3l rises unduly or that foam is created and rises
ing a vertical casing having a plurality of cham
in said chamber before the temperature actuated
bers to receive the liquid successively for cooling
controller 8S may act, such liquid or foam acting
against the iioat Iül will raise it and cause the 15 it by evaporation, a conduit for transferring the
liquid by gravity from one chamber to another,
valve iii to be unseated for communicating the
and means in front of the outlet opening of the
pipe t2 with the atmosphere. The pressure nor
conduit in spaced relation therewith to deflect
mally holding the valve 'il open will then be re»
the liquid radially from the conduit in the form.
leased so that the spring 18 may act to move the
20 of a sheet, a, divider for causing the formation
valve 'Vl to its closed position.
of a radially extending gap in such sheet to pro
As will be readily understood from the fore
‘ vide a vapor path through the liquid, and a re
going description, the liquid is delivered to the
stricted portion in the conduit to restrict the
cooling chambers only in the form of thin sheets
iiow of liquid therethrough for maintaining Va
that are suitably spaced with respect to each other
sheets.
Y
»
‘
,
so that vapor may be withdrawn from the entire 25 liquid seal between the chambers.
5. Apparatus for cooling liquid, comprising a
surface area of each sheet, and the vapor released
vertical casing having a plurality of chambers
from the undersides of the sheets of liquid may
to receive the liquid successively for cooling it by
readily pass upwardly between the sheets for
evaporation, conduit means for( conveying liquid
removal to the condensing apparatus.
Moreover, the liquid enters each chamber with 30 `from a source of supply to the uppermost oi the
chambers, conduit means for transferring the
such a large ratio of evaporation surface com~
pared to the thickness of the sheet that virtually
all cooling takes place and all foam created by
liquid from one chamber to another and each
conduit means having a portion of reduced flow
area to restrict the flow of liquid therethrough
the progressive reduction in pressure is imme
diately dissipated before liquid reaches the walls 35 and thereby maintain a liquid seal in the conduit
means, means in iront of the outlet openings of
of the chamber or is allowed to collect in any
the conduit means in spaced relation therewith
part of the apparatus. The liquid,‘moreover, is
to _deflect the liquid radially from the conduit
gently deflected at each turning point, during its
means in the form of a plurality of Yrelatively
course through the cooling apparatus, in such a
wayas to preclude the creation of foam or vapor 40 spaced sheets, a valve for controlling the iiow
of liquid through the iirst mentioned conduit,
bubbles in the liquid that would interfere with
and a plurality of controlling means for -con
the operation of the removal pump or the inter
trolling the valve, one of said means acting in
stage seals.
Furthermore, the entire apparatus is so con-structed and its parts are so arranged that it is
nonclogging and self draining throughout and
thus is well adapted for cooling any liquids such as
distillers mash which may contain suspended
solids.
I claim:
1. In apparatus for cooling a liquid by evapora
tion, comprising a casing having a cooling cham
ber and a discharge opening, means for creating a
sufficiently low pressure in the vchamber to cause
the liberation of vapor from the liquid7 conduit
means for introducing liquid into the chamber,
and deflector means lying across the outlet end
of the conduit means in spaced relation there
with to cause the liquid to flow through the cham
.
response to a predetermined level and another
means acting in response to a predetermined
temperature of the liquid in the lowermost vacu
um chamber.
y
6. Apparatus for cooling liquid, comprising a
vertical casing having a plurality of chambers
to receive liquid successively for cooling it by
evaporation, partitions between the chambers,
conduit means for conveying liquid from a source
of supply to the uppermost of the chambers, ccn
duit means depending from the partitions into the
chambers for transferring the liquid from one
chamber to another and each conduit means
having’a portion of reduced ilow area to restrict
the flow of liquid therethrough and thereby main
tain a liquid seal in the conduit means, means
ber in the form or" a sheet, a divider to cause the 60 in front of the outlet openings of the conduit
means in spaced relation therewith to deñect
formation of an opening in such sheet of liquid
the liquid radially from the conduit means in the
for the passage of vapor from one side to another ,
form of a plurality of relatively spaced sheets, a
of the sheet.
valve for` controlling the flow of liquid through
2. In- apparatus for cooling a liquid by evapo
ration, comprising a casing having a cooling
chamber and a discharge opening therefor, means
for creating a sufficiently low pressure in the
chamber to cause the liberation of vapor from
’ the first mentioned conduit, and means operat
ing in response to the pressures in certain of the
chambers for maintaining the desired cooling
ranges therein.
7. Apparatus for cooling liquid, comprising a
the liquid, and a conduit for introducing liquid
into the axial zone of the chamber, a plurality 70 vertical casing having a plurality of chambers
to receive the liquid successively for cooling it by
of dividers in the chamber >adjacent the outlet
evaporation, conduit means for conveying liquid
end of the conduit to direct the liquid radially
from a source of supply to the uppermost of the
through the chamber in the form of a plurality
chambers, conduit means for transferring the
of relatively spaced sheets.
3. In apparatus for cooling a liquid by evapo 75 liquid from one chamber to another and each
2,409,896
9
10
conduit means having a portion of reduced iiow
plurality of controlling means for controlling the
area to restrict the flow of liquid therethrough
Valve, one of said means acting in response to a
and thereby maintain a liquid seal in the con
predetermined level and another means acting
in response to a predetermined temperature of
duit means, means in front of the outlet openings
or” the conduit means in spaced relation therewith 5 the liquid in the lowermost Vacuum chamber, and
to deflect the liquid radially from the conduit
means operating in response to the pressures in
means in the form of a plurality of relatively
certain of the chambers for maintaining the de
spaced sheets, a Valve for controlling the ñow of
sired cooling ranges therein.
liquid through the first mentioned conduit, a
JOHN F. PLUMMER., JR.
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