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Патент USA US2409910

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Oct- 22, 1946.
F. J. SMITH ET Al.
2,409,909
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE
Filed May 29, 1945
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2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Oct. 2z, 1946.
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F.. J. SMITH ET AL
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2,409,909
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION TURBINE
Filed May 29, 1945
2 sheets-sheet 2
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
2,409,909
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,909
INTERNAL-COlVIBUSTION TURBINE
Fred J. Smith and Joseph Isaac,
Sault Sainte Marie, Mich..
Application May 29, 194.5, Serial No. 596,454
4 Claims.
(Cl. 60-41)
1
2
This invention relates to turbines, and more
particularly, to internal combustion gasoline tur
bines.
A main object of the invention is to provide a
novel and improved gasoline turbine wherein the
fuel mixture is compressed prior to admission
into the ñring `chamber and fed under pressure
into the firing chamber where it strikes the ro
tary blades causing steady rotation and nre over
setting of a distributor point 23 of a distributor
22 driven from shaft 6, distributor point 23 being
connected to spark plug 25 by a cable 24.
The cooling system comprises a fan I0 mounted
on the shaft of a generator I I, fan I0 being con
nected by an air duct 9 to a peripheral air cham
ber 8 provided in the turbine housing 4. Gener
ator II carries on its shaft a gear I2 which
meshes with an oil pump gear I3 which in turn
meshes with a gear I4 carried on shaft 6. The
lap.
A further object of the invention is to provide
an improved gasoline turbine utilizing pre~compression of the fuel mixture, and wherein im
proved regulating means for controlling the pres
sure of the compressed fuel mixture is employed.
Other objects and advantages of the invention
will appear from the following description and
claims, and from the accompanying drawings,
wherein:
p
Figure l is a longitudinal cross-sectional view
taken on line I-I of Figure 2 of an embodiment
of a gasoline turbine in accordance with this in
vention.
`
Figure 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken
on line 2_2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a detail cross-sectional view of an
exhaust pipe fitting taken on line 3_3 of Fig
gear train thus drives generator I I and fan I0.
Provided adjacent housing 4 is a housing 50
through which shaft 6 passes. Journaled in
housing 50 is a crankshaft I1 carrying a gear VI5
adapted to be connected thereto for rotation of
`the crankshaft by a clutch I6. Gear I5 meshes
with gear I4. Crankshaft I1 is provided with a
crank provided with a connecting rod I8 which
is pivotally connected to a piston rod 5I passing
20 through a packing nut 20 into a cylinder 52, said
piston rod being provided with la piston I9. A
plate 53 is provided, forming the lower wall of
cylinderl 52. An air intake valve 42 is provided
in said plate 53, said intake valve being- con-`
25 nected to the atmosphere by a conduit 54.A An
air outlet valve 4I is provided in plate 53, said
outlet valve being connected by a conduit 3| to
ure 2.
Figure 4 is a detail view of the valve structure
employed in the air compression cylinder of the
gasoline turbine of Figure 1.
Referring to the drawings, 6 designates a m0
ltor shaft which is adapted to be driven by a
turbine wheel 2 contained within a housing 4, said
shaft '6 being rotatively supported with respect i
to housing 4 by a pair of bearings 3, 3, the out
side bearing being provided with a protecting
cover plate 5.
Formed in housing 4 are a plurality of ñring
chambers I, each chamber being provided with
an intake slide valve 1 and a spark plug 25 for
exploding the fuel mixture furnished to cham
ber i. Appropriately peripherally spaced with
respect to each firing chamber is an exhaust port
48 and an exhaust pipe for exhausting the ex
ploded mixture after delivery of its power stroke
to the blades of the turbine wheel 2, the exhaust
pipes being connected to a conventional exhaust
manifold.
The timing of valve 1 is controlled by an 4ap- ‘
propriate cam 49 which is mounted on shaft 6,
said cam 49 actuating slide valve 1 by contact
with a follower member carried by said slide valve.
'I‘he timing of the spark at each spark plug
25 is controlled in a conventional manner bythe `_
an intake valve 55 provided in a compression Y
tank 31. The reciprocation of piston I9 in Vcyl
inder 52 will thus be effective to pump air into
i tank 31.
Crankshaft I1 is provided with a first cam 38
which reciprocates a slide valve 49, and a second
cam 39 which reciprocates a poppet valve 21. A
fuel tank 4-5 furnishes fuel through a conduit 46
to a carburetor 30 from which the fuel `is deliv
ered through slide valve 49 to a chamber 56 above
piston I9. The fuel is pumped by piston I9 into
a compression head 28 from which it is delivered
The cams 38 and 39 are arranged
with respect to the crank or crankshaft I'I so
that valve 21 opens and valve 40 closes While
` to tank 31.
piston I9 is delivering its power stroke, while said
valve 40 is opened and valve 21 is closed during
the return stroke of piston I9. Sufficient suc
tion is developed on the return stroke of piston
I9 to draw a substantial charge of fuel into cham
ber 56.
The fuel is pumped from compression head 28
to compression tank 31 either through a prim
ing conduit 51 and a first spring-biased priming
valve 35, or through a main fuel conduit 29 and
a second spring-biased main valve 5B to an in
take valve 59. Valve 35 is arranged to admit fuel
1111.50 tank 31 until a normal working pressure is
2,409,909
3
4
v developed therein, for example, 35 pounds per
square inch, whereupon valve 35 is closed.
tation of the turbine wheel may be varied over
Valve
a substantial range.
l58 comprises a cylinder containing a sleeve 33
slida-bly positioned in an outlet port tt, the upper
end of sleeve 33 being normally in abutment with
a seat provided at the top of said cylinder to
close off said sleeve. A biasing spring 32, posi
tioned between a piston element 6l rigidly se
`
While a speciñc embodiment of an internal
combustion turbine structure has been disclosed
in the foregoing description, it will be understood
that numerous modifications within the spirit of
the invention may occur to those skilled in the
art. Therefore, it is intended that no limita
tions be placed on the invention other than as
defined by the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A turbine comprising a housing, a turbine
wheel rotatably mounted within said housing, a
' cured to sleeve 33 and a washer element 62 sup
ported in the lower portion of said cylinder pro
vides the normal biasing thrust which closes on"
the top end of sleeve 33 until a substantial pres
sure is developed in conduit 29. Valve 58, thus
acts as a relief valve to close off the main fuel
fluid nozzle positioned adjacent the periphery of
said wheel, a firing chamber in said housing
communicating with said nozzle, a compressionY
conduit 23 until adequate fuel compression is
obtained in compression head 28.
An outlet port 63 is provided in tank 31, pro
tank, means actuated by said wheel for forcing '
vided with a throttle 64 through which the fuel
air and combustible liquid fuel into said compres
mixture passes into a conduit 26 and from
sion tank, and conduit means for admitting the
thence through valve 1 into ñring chamber | 20 mixture of air and fuel into said firing chamber,
Throttle 6G is normally controlled by a lever @il
said means for forcing air and fuel into said com
provided with a locking dog 41 cooperating with
pression tank having a clutch means in associ
a conventional rack segment tc hold the throttle
ation therewith adapted to disengage said wheel
in a desired position of adjustment.
from said forcing means responsive to anrin
Y A spring-biased piston member 36 is provided 25 crease in pressure in said compression tank above
a predetermined value.
in a cylindrical recess formed in tank 31, said pis
ton being connected to a lever Bâ which in turn
2. A turbine comprising a housing, a turbine
is connected to a control linkage for clutch IB.
wheel rotatively mounted within said housing, a
When the pressure in tank 31 rises above a de
iluid nozzle positioned adjacent the periphery of
sired limiting value, piston-36 is urged rearward 30 said wheel, a firing chamber in said housing
ly against its spring, causing lever 34 to rotate
communicating with said nozzle, a compression
and to disengage clutch I6 until the pressure in
tank, means actuated by said wheel for forcing
tank 31 has decreased to a safe value.
air and combustible liquid fuel into said com
When the turbine is started, it is rotated by
an appropriate starting motor and fuel is pumped
pression tank, conduit means for admitting the
mixture of airand fuel into said firing chamber,
the forcing means comprising a pump geared to
said Wheel having an air pumping section adapt
under low pressure from carburator 30 into com
pression chamber 28 and thence through prim
ing conduit 51 and past priming valve 35 into
tank 31. Since the amount of Vair pumped into
compression chamber 31 by piston I9 at this time
ed to force atmospheric air into said compression
tank and a fuel pumping section, said fuel pump
40
ing section communicating with said compres
is small, a `relatively rich mixture is fed past
throttle E4 into the firing chamber. This con
dition continuesuntil the turbine cornes up to
sion tank by a first fuel feed conduit havingwpo
sitioned therein a valve adapted to open only
against low pressure iny said compressioirtank
normal operation and a substantial pressure is
and by a second fuel feed conduit having posi
developed in compression tank 31. Valve 58 45 tioned therein a valve adapted to open only byY
then opens and valve 35 is closed, the turbine
a normal difference in pressure between the pres
then being Yoperated at vthe _optimum mixture
sure of the fuel pumping section and the-pres
ratio of air and fuel, the operating. pressure of
sure in the compression tank.
tank 31 being held to a safe value by the pres
3. The structure of claim 2, and wherein pres
sure-responsive clutch-disengaging piston mem
50 sure-responsive means is provided in said com
ber 36.
The moving parts within housing 5D are lubri
cated by an oil pump ßß'actuated by gear I3, an
appropriate oil reservoir 2| being provided in the
lower portion of housing 5!) and a force feed oil
duct S5 being provided for said oil pump.
An appropriate base 43 for the turbine hous
ing is provided, said base being adapted to be se
cured to conventional supporting means,
By adjustment of throttle 64 the speed of ro 60
pression tank adaptedV to disengage said pump
'from said wheel responsive to an increase in
pressure in said compression tank above a pre
determined value.
4. The structure of claim 2, and wherein a man
ually adjustable throttle is provided in said con
duit means.
FRED J. SMITH.
JOSEPH ISAAC.
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