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Патент USA US2409915

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01?
294099914
Oct. 22, 1946.
H8077?
SR
F. E. VALENTINE ETAL.
2,409,914
SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
Filed March 20, 1935,
6 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Oct- 22, ‘1946-
F. E. VALENTINE ETAL
2,409,914’
SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
Filed March 20, 1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 2
‘H::5
Frank E. ValeTrEine,
- Walter F? Skillin,
Their“ AtEoT‘I'IeM
535
Oct. 22, 1946-
F. E. VALENTINE ETAL,
2,409,914
SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
Filed March 20, 1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
75a.“
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Inventors:
Frank E. Valera-tine,
Walter“ T? Skill'm,
by #44“!
8. BMW
Their‘ Attorneg.
Oct. 22, 1946.
F. E. VALENTINE EI‘AL
2,409,914
SYSTEM AND APPARATUSFOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
Filed March 20, 1935
.
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
\nventors:
v
Frank E. Valentine,
Walter“ F Skilhn,
Then" Attorney.
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GEUMKHK'IUAL H‘h) l Huwwn ‘Q,
Oct. 22, 1946.
F. E. VALENTINE EI‘AL
2,409,914
SYSTEM AND‘ APPARATUS FOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
Filed March 20, 1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
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: inventors: _
Frank E..Valewt|ne2
Walter‘ F Skillin,
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The‘? Attorney
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2,409,914
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
vUNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,914
SYSTEM AND APPARATUS FOR GUNFIRE
CONTROL
Frank E. Valentine and Walter F. Skillin, Sche
nectady, N. Y., assignors to General Electric
Company, a corporation of New York
Application March 20, 1935, Serial No. 12,006
17 Claims.
(Cl. 33-49)
1
2
This invention relates to the control of guns
and the like, more particularly to the control of
guns mounted on swaying foundations, such as
on a rolling ship, and it has for its object the pro
vision of an improved system and apparatus for
directing guns whereby corrections are applied to
the guns compensating for the inclination of the
trunnions of the guns due to the roll of the ship,
for movement about train and elevation axes cor
responding to the train and elevation axes of the
main gun perpendicular to and parallel with the
deck of the ship. The gimbal system further
provides for inclination of these axes with ref
erence to the true vertical and horizontal in ac
cordance with the inclination of the deck so as
to cause the mimic gun to move in space with
reference to the true vertical and horizontal to
or other foundation on which the guns are
10 assume the position that the main gun would
mounted.
assume if permitted to move with the ship-un
In the directing of guns, the calculated ad
compensated for its roll-—to thereby generate the
justments of range to be applied to the gun in
corrections that should be applied to the calcu
elevation and of deflection to be applied to the
lated values of range and deflection to be applied
gun in train are based on the assumption that
the adjustments will be applied to the gun in true 15 to the main gun to hold it in its correct position
in space.
vertical and horizontal planes; that is, it is as
For a more complete understanding of this in
sumed that the trunnions of the gun about which
vention, reference should be had to the accom
the gun is elevated lie in a true horizontal plane,
panying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a diagram
and that they are mounted so that the gun is
adjusted in train on a true vertical axis. The 20 matic representation of a system and apparatus
for controlling guns and the like arranged in ac
gun, however, is mounted with its trunnions par
cordance with this invention; Fig. 2 is an eleva
allel with the deck of the ship on which it is
tion of a sighting device or director used in the
carried, and thus, it is adjustable in elevation
system of Fig. 1 and arranged in accordance with
in a plane which is perpendicular to the deck and
in train in a plane which is parallel to the deck. 25 this invention; Fig. 3 is a plan view of the director
shown in Fig. 2; Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view
Therefore, it is only when the ship is on .even
showing a certain means for transmitting mo
keel that the gun is adjusted on train and eleva
tion used in the system of Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is an en
tion axes which are truly vertical and horizontal.
larged perspective view illustrating a portion of
Consequently, it is only when the ship is on even
keel that the calculated corrections for range and 30 the mechanism used in the director of Figs. 3 and
4; Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 are diagrammatic
de?ection are properly applied to the gun.
views illustrating the principle of operation of
This invention contemplates the provision of
the mechanism shown in Fig. 5; Fig. 12 is a per
an improved system and apparatus whereby the
spective view illustrating a modi?ed form of the
roll or inclination of the ship or other support
mechanism shown in Fig. 5; and Fig. 13 is a per
on which the gun is mounted about the line of
sight of a target is continuously calculated and
spective view of a further modi?ed form of the
introduced as a correction so that the calculated
mechanism shown in Fig. 5.
As pointed out previously, in directing guns on
elevation and train adjustments, based on the
assumption that the gun is to be adjusted in true
a target, the range correction, which will be called
vertical and horizontal planes, are continuously 40 “sight angle” hereinafter, is a function ofithe
modi?ed in accordance with the inclination of
range of the target, as calculated, and is an angu
lar adjustment to be applied to the gun in a ver
the ship so as to direct the adjustment of the
tical plane. That is, for a given de?nite range,
gun to cause it to assume continuously the posi
tion in space that it would occupy when adjusted
the gun must be adjusted to a de?nite “sight an
with reference to the true vertical and horizontal. 45 gle” in a vertical plane. The deflection correc
In accordance with this invention, suitable gun
tion, which will be called “sight de?ection,” is
directing apparatus is provided comprising means
calculated from the velocity and direction of the
for generating the range and de?ection correc
wind, drift, speed, direction of ship and target,
tions, calculated on the assumption that they will
etc., as calculated, and is an angular adjustment
be applied to the gun with the ship on even keel, 50 to be applied to the gun in a horizontal plane. A
together with means for regenerating these values
gun on shipboard is mounted to be adjusted in
continuously in accordance with the inclination
elevation on its trunnions in a plane that is per
of the ship's deck when the ship rolls about the
pendicular to the deck, and in a train plane which
line of sight, as corrections which can be applied
directly to the gun in elevation and train to cause 55 is at right angles to the elevation plane. It is
clear, therefore, that when the ship is rolling so
it to assume (the proper position in space with ref
that the gun support inclines from the horizon
erence to the true vertical and horizontal.
tal, the gun is not elevated and trained in true
More speci?cally, the gun directing apparatus
vertical and horizontal planes respectively, but
in accordance with this invention comprises a
mimic gun which is mounted in a gimbal system 60 in planes at angles to these planes, the magni
2,409,914
4
3
tively by means of a clutch member Zlj. The
tude of the angles depending on the inclination
of the ship.
It is a function of this system and aparatus to
compensate for the inclination of the trunnions of
5
the gun l0.
gears 21d and 2le are secured to a shaft Zlg,
which is connected with the shaft 19a by means
of gears 2lh.
The director may be revolved
rapidly in train to bring it onto a target by
throwing the gear 2lc into mesh with the gear
It is to be understood that it is assumed in
this application that when the ship is on even
keel its deck will be truly horizontal. In prac
Me, and is accurately adjusted when approxi
mately on the target by means of the gears 2| b
and Zld. It will be observed that when the
tice it may be that the dick is not in a true hori
zontal plane when the ship is on even keel; in 10 handwheels 20 are rotated, the frame l1 and
the mechanism supported thereby will be turned
in a train plane. It will be understood that it
is the function of the training mechanism to
such cases, a reference plane must be established.
It is intended for the sake of simplicity to use the
term “deck” to denote the reference plane,
whether it be the actual ship’s deck or the estab
lished plane. Thus, if the deck is truly horizontal
bring the director to bear on a target so as to
measure its hearing. The director is provided
with a training sight or telescope 23 (Figs. 2 and
3) to assist the “trainer” in bringing the director
to bear on the target.
when the ship is on even keel, then the term
“deck” denotes the actual deck of the ship; if not,
the word “deck” denotes the calculated reference
The director further comprises elevation sight
plane.
Referring to the drawings, this invention has 20 ing means. The elevation sighting means con
sists of an eye-piece 24 (Figs. 1, 2, and 3) through
been shown as applied to the control of guns on
which the target is observed; the line of sight 24a
war-ships. It is to be understood, however,
is
directed to the eye-piece by an adjustable mir
that the invention is not limited to this appli
ror 25 (Fig. 1) and a suitable prism (not shown)
cation but has general application to those
systems where guns and the like are mounted on 25 arranged in the eye-piece 24 to direct the path
‘ of light from the mirror 25 into a path through
any swaying foundation or platform.
the eye-piece and to the eye of the observer, who
As shown in Fig. l, a gunimtll is mounted in
is known as the “pointer.”
a turret 10a, or other suitable mount on a ship,
The adjustment of the director in elevation is
and is controlled by means of a sighting device
or director H, usually situated at some position 30 made by adjusting the angular position of the
‘ mirror 25 about an axis at right angles to the
remote from the gun, such as at some suitable
position aloft. It will be understood that usually
a plurality of guns will be controlled by the direc
tor, but for the sake of simplicity but a single
gun is shown. The trunnions l?b of the gun II]
are mounted to rotate on a suitable mount Hlc.
The gun is arranged to be adjusted in elevation
on its trunnions which rotate on an axis :r-x that
35
train axis of the director II; that is, about an
axis which is perpendicular to the axis about
which the director is moved in train. The mir
ror 25, as shown in Fig. 1, is mounted on a shaft
26, which is perpendicular to the training axis
The mirror 25 is adjusted in
of the director.
elevation by means of handwheels 21 which are
connected to drive the mirror by means of a
is perpendicular to the plane of the drawing in
the position of the gun shown in Fig. 1, and which 40 mechanical drive which is arranged so that cer
tain corrections may be introduced into it, as will
is parallel to the deck of the ship. The mount
be pointed out in greater detail hereinafter.
[0c rotates in a train plane on an axis y-—y which
The mirror 25 is adjusted in elevation by the
is perpendicular to the axis :c-x and to the deck
handwheels 21 so that the line of sight is ad
of the ship.
The director ll comprises a pedestal [2 (Figs. 2 45 justed to and maintained in the proper relation
to the elevation of the gun In. That is, the
and 3) which is provided with feet l3, usually
"pointer” adjusts the mirror 25 so as to bring the
three in number, positioned 120° apart. Each
cross-hairs of the sight onto the target at the
foot l3 has one levelling screw l4 and two hold
proper point in the roll of the ship that it is de
ing-down bolts l5. The pedestal is mounted on
the deck [6 of a suitable director station, which 60 sired the ?re of the gun shall take place. Usu
ally, the deck of the ship will not be horizontal at
deck is approximately parallel with the deck of
the instant of ?re. The angle between the ship’s
the ship. The levelling screws provide means for
deck at the instant of ?re and the line of sight
levelling the director relative to the reference
is known as the “director correction angle” and is
plane, or “deck,” of the ship.
All of the controlling units or elements of the 55 introduced by controlling the position of the line
of sight in the proper relation to the elevation of
director are supported by the pedestal I2 and are
the gun, as pointed out previously.
arranged to rotate around it in a train plane.
The director I I is moved in train and the line
The elements are mounted on and supported by a
of sight 24a is moved in elevation at the same
frame H, which is freely rotatable in train on
suitable bearings (not shown) carried by the 60 speed, while certain other elements of the mech
anism operate at relatively high speeds. The
pedestal.
Arranged on and carried by the lower end of
the pedestal I 2 is a relatively large gear I8, with
which a worm gear l9 meshes.
The latter gear
is mounted on a shaft I 9a (Fig. 1) which is driven
by trainer handwheels 20. The handwheels 20
drive a shaft 2| through gears 2Ia. Mounted
on this shaft to rotate with it, but having sliding
speed of the director in train is 1 speed and so is
that of the line of sight 24a. In view of the
fact that the line of sight moves through an an
5 gle twice as great as the angle through which the
mirror moves, the mirror 25 is operated at one
half speed.
The angular adjustment to be applied to the
gun in elevation above the deck of the ship is
motion relative to it, are a pair of gears 2| 1) and
210 of relatively small and large diameters re 70 introduced at the director. This adjustment is
known as the “gun elevation order” and is ap
spectively. The smaller gear meshes with a
gear 2|d, while the larger gear 210 is intended
plied by turning the handwheels 21. It is trans
to mesh with a gear 2le, smaller than the gear
2ld. The gears 21b and 2|c are selectively con
mitted directly to the gun ID. The “gun elevation
order” is the total gun elevation above the deck
trolled to mesh with the gears 2 Id and 2 I6 respec
75 at the instant of ?re. That is, the “gun eleva
aii?iiil an iiiUUHt
14.1;
2,409,914
5
6
tion order” will be equal to "sight angle,” which.
operate with ring dials 36 and 31 driven by the
handwheel 28. The dials 34 and 35 are provided
as pointed out previously, is the calculated cor
’rection to be applied to the gun in elevation for
a de?nite range of the target corrected for the
"director correction angle,” trunnion tilt and ver
tical parallax.
The “sight angle” is calculated on the assump
tion that the ship’s deck is horizontal and is in
troduced into the director by means of a hand
wheel 28 (Fig. 1). The “sight angle” is calcu
lated by suitable auxiliary means (not shown),
such as a range keeper, located at some remote
with indices which are aligned with similarly ar
ranged indices on the ring dials 36 and 31 when
the dials 34 and 35 are in their zero positions.
When the receiving devices 29 and 30 drive the
dials 34 and 35 from their zero positions to indi
cate the “sight angle” calculated by the remote
range keeper, the handwheel 28 will be turned in
order to cause the dials 36 and 31 to follow the
indices on the dials 34 and 35 to bring them into
alignment with them. In doing so, the correction
for “sight angle” is automatically introduced into
station, usually in the plotting room of the ship.
the director by means of a shaft 38. The hand
The value of the calculated range of "sight angle”
is transmitted by suitable means to the director 15 wheel 28, as shown, is mechanically connected
with the ring dials 36 and 31 and the shaft 38 by
where suitable reproducers of the angles 29 and
means of gears 39 connecting the handwheel 28
30 are located, and the adjustment is introduced
by the handwheel 28. While “sight angle” may be
to a shaft 40; the shaft 40 carries a worm 4|
which meshes with a worm wheel 42 carried on a
transmitted from the range keeper to the director
by any suitable motion transmitting system, pref 20 shaft 43. Mounted on this shaft is a spur gear 44,
which meshes with a spur gear 45 that is con
erably an alternating current system of the self
nected to the ring dial 36 to drive it. Also
synchronous type will be used wherein the trans
mitting and reproducing devices are similar in
mounted on the shaft 43 is a spur gear 46‘ which
construction and are each provided with a poly
circuit armature winding and a single circuit ?eld
winding. As sown diagrammatically in Fig. 4, the
drives a shaft 41 through a shaft 48. The gear 46
is connected with the shaft 48 by means of a
gear 49 and the shaft 48 is connected with the
transmitting devices 29a and 30a, located at the
range keeper, and reproducing devices 29 and 30
shaft 41 by means of spur gears 50 and 5|. The
shaft 4‘! drives the ring dial 31 through spur gears
may each be provided with a poly-circuit arma
52 and 53, and the shaft 38 through bevel gears
ture winding 3| which is physically similar to a 30 54. The gearing between the dials 36 and 31 in
three-phase bi-polar, Y-connected armature
troduces a velocity ratio of 6:216. The shaft 38
winding, and which is mounted on a stator mem
is driven at a speed 216 times as great as the
line of sight 24a.
her; and each is further provided with a single
circuit ?eld winding 32. The transmitters and
The shaft 38 introduces the calculated value of
reproducers are connected together by sets of 35 “sight angle” into mechanism 56 which corrects
three conductors 33 connecting like Points of
the angle for tilt of the gun trunnions and issues
their armature windings, as shown in Fig. 4.
The ?eld windings 32 of each set of connected
instruments are connected to a suitable source
it from the mechanism as “sight angle” corrected
for trunnion tilt, which angle hereinafter will be
known as f‘corrected sight angle.” This angle is
of alternating current supply 33a. The ?eld 40 issued from the mechanism 56 by means of a
wingings induce alternating electromotive forces
shaft 51. The trunnion tilt correction mechan
in the circuits of their respective armature wind
ings, the relative magnitude of the electromotive
forces in the respective circuits of the armature
windings depending upon the angular relation of
the ?eld windings therewith. When the rotors
of each set of the transmitters and reproducers
29a, 30a and 29, 39 are in angular agreement,
the electromotive forces induced in the various
circuits of the armature windings are equal and
opposite and, therefore, no current is produced.
However, when the transmitter is turned and
held in a new position, this voltage balance no
longer exists, whereby currents are caused to flow
in the armature windings, and a torque is there
by exerted upon the rotor of the reproducer, which
torque turns the rotor into a position in which
the voltages are again balanced; in this posi
tion, the rotors will again be in angular agree
ment. In this particular case, low and high speed
transmitters of motion 29a. and 30a and low and
high speed receivers 29 and 30 are employed in
order to provide greater accuracy of transmis
The rotors of the transmitters 29a and
' sion.
36a, as shown, are connected together by gearing 65
332) which operates the rotor of the transmitter
30a. at a high speed relative to the rotor of the
transmitter 29a. In this particular case, the ra
tio of operation between the low and high speed
transmitters 29a and 39a is 4 to 216. The rotor
of the low speed transmitter is operated by suit
‘able means indicated diagrammatically by a
handwheel 33c.
The reproducers 29 and 30 drive indicator dials,
34 and 35 respectively (Figs. 1 and. 4) which co 75
ism 56 will be described in greater detail
hereinafter.
“Sight de?ection,” which is utilized to generate
the adjustment to be applied to the gun |'0 in
train, is introduced into the director mechanism
by means of a handwheel 58. “Sight de?ection”
is calculated from the velocity and direction of the
Wind, drift, speed, and direction of the ship and
target, etc. and is generated inthe range keeper
referred to above. The value of “sight de?ection”
thus computed in the range keeper is transmitted
to the director by a motion transmission system
similar to that between the range keeper and the
sight angle dials 34 and 35 with the exception
that in the case of “sight de?ection” a single
speed transmitter and reproducer only is used.
As shown, a reproducer 59 of the “sight de?ec
tion” angle is provided in the director; its trans
mitter has not been illustrated. This reproducer
drives an indicating dial 69. The handwheel 58
drives a ring dial 6| which co-operates with the
dial 66 as do the ring dials 36 and 31 with their
dials 34 and 35. The handwheel drives the dial
through a shaft 62 to which the handwheel is
connected by a worm 63 and a wormwheel 64; the
shaft 62 drives a shaft 64a by means of bevel gears
65 and 66 and the shaft 64a in turn drives the
dial 6| through spur gears 61 and 68. The shaft
62 also functions to introduce “deflection correc
tion” into the trunnion tilt mechanism 56. When
the dial 60 is operated from its zero position by
the reproducer 59 in response to a generation of
“sight deflection” in the range keeper, the hand
wheel 58 is turned to bring the ring dial 6| into
2,409,914.
7
8
agreement with the dial 80 and in doing so oper
ates the shaft 62 to introduce “sight de?ection"
into the trunnion tilt mechanism 56. This mech
anism, as will be pointed out in greater detail
hereinafter, utilizes the “sight de?ection” intro
duced by the shaft 62, modi?es it in accordance
with the tilt of the gun trunnions and issues it by
the gun l8 so that it can be adjusted to its cor
rect position in space with reference to the true
vertical and horizontal.
The mimic gun 10, as shown, is provided with
trunnions ‘II, which are journaled in bearings
provided for them in the opposite sides of a square
ring ‘I2 to rotate on an axis :c'—a:'. The ring 12
is mounted in a square ring 13 in bearings to ro
means of a shaft 69 as the “sight de?ection”
tate on an axis y'—y' which is perpendicular to
compensated for trunnion tilt. This value, which
will be known hereinafter as “corrected sight de 10 the axis m'--:z:'. The speci?c means mounting the
ring 12 in ring 73 will be described below.
?ection,” is used to generate the proper adjust
ment of the gun in train. The shaft 62 is driven
The
ring 13 is provided with trunnions 13a and 131)
which are mounted in ?xed bearings 14 so as to
rotate on an axis o-a ?xed with relation to the
at 216 speed.
The "sight angle” correction and the “sight de
?ection,” as pointed out previously, are computed 15 ship. That is, the mimic gun 18 is mounted in
rings 12 and 13 so as to rotate on axes .r'—a:’
on the assumption that the trunnion axes of the
gun lie in a horizontal plane, and that the gun is
elevated in a vertical plane and trained in a hori
zontal plane. When the deck of the ship is in
clined, it is clear that it is no longer possible to
adjust the gun in vertical and horizontal planes.
The mechanism 56 introduces corrections con
and y'--y’ corresponding to the axes of rota
tion o:—a: and y—-y of the main gun II], which are
respectively parallel to and perpendicular to the
deck of the ship.
tinuously compensating for tilt of the gun trun
nions caused by cross roll of the ship across the
line of sight.
The trunnion tilt mechanism 56 is shown in
detail in Fig. 5. In this ?gure, it is to be noted
that the shafts 38, 51, 62 and 69 do not occupy
the same positions relatively to each other that
they do in the diagrammatic illustration shown
in Fig. 1. The shafts have not been shown in the
diagrammatic form of Fig. 1 in the same positions
relative to each other that they occupy in the
detailed disclosure of the trunnion tilt mecha
nism shown in Fig. 5 in the interests of simplicity
of disclosure.
The trunnion tilt mechanism 56, as shown in
Fig. 5, comprises a mimic gun 10 mounted in a
gimbal system. The gimbal system is so arranged
It is contemplated that the
mimic gun 10 will be moved on the a:'—-—a:' and
y'--y' axes to generate the “sight angle” and
“sight de?ection,” as calculated, and as gener
25
ated in the shafts 38 and 82 respectively.
The shaft 38, as shown, is mechanically con
nected to the mimic gun 10 through a differential
15 which drives an output shaft 16 at 108 speed;
the shaft 18 is mechanically connected with the
planetary gears 15a of the differential, while the
input gear 15b of the differential is mechanically
connected to the shaft 38 through spur gears 11.
The shaft 18 is connected with a worm shaft ‘I8
through spur gears 19, the worm shaft 18 having
a worm 80 which meshes with a worm wheel 8|
mounted on a shaft 82. The shaft 82 is connected
with a shaft 83 mounted in the axis y'--y’ by
means of bevel gears 84 so as to drive the shaft
83 at 1 speed, and the latter shaft is geared to
rotate the mimic gun trunnions ‘H at 1 speed by
that the mimic gun can be adjusted in elevation 40 means of bevel gears 85. In view of the fore
going arrangement, the value of “sight angle” as
and in train in planes representing the true ver
calculated in the range keeper and introduced
tical and horizontal planes respectively, whereby
into the director by the handwheel 28 is applied
the calculated “sight angle” and “sight de?ecto the mimic gun 10 about its axis :c'—m'. The
tion” may be applied to the mimic gun. The
function of the differential 15 will be described
mimic gun may be moved in these planes to a
presently. The shaft 83, it will be observed, also
position that the gun l8 would occupy in space
functions to interconnect the rings 12 and 13 at
if adjusted when the deck of the ship is hori
the top and to pivotally support the top of the
zontal. In other words, the mimic gun 10 can be
ring 12.
elevated and trained so as to generate “sight an
The calculated value of “sight de?ection” is im
gle” measured in a plane representing a plane
parted to the mimic gun 18 from the shaft 82
perpendicular to the deck of the ship and to in
through a differential 86. As shown, the shaft
troduce “sight deflection” in a plane representing
82 is connected to the input gear 86a of the dif
a plane parallel to the deck of the ship. In addi
ferential by spur gears 81. The output gear 861)
tion, the gimbal system is arranged so that the
of the differential is driven by the planetary gears
trunnions of the mimic gun can be shifted with
88c and is connected with a shaft 88 by spur gears
reference to the planes representing the true ver
89 and 90. The gearing between the shafts 62 and
tical and horizontal planes in accordance with
88 reduces the speed from 216 in the shaft 82 to
the cross roll of the ship about the line of sight
108 in the shaft 88. The shaft 88 drives a shaft
so as to cause the mimic gun to occupy the posi
9| which is mounted to rotate on the ?xed axis
tion in space with reference to the planes repre
a—a about the right hand trunnion 13b of the
senting the true vertical and horizontal planes
ring 13, as viewed in Fig. 5, at one speed through
that the gun 18 would occupy in space with ref
a worm 92 mounted on the shaft 88 and a worm
erence to the true vertical and horizontal when
wheel 93 meshing with it and mounted on the
the ship's deck is inclined and the elevation and
shaft 9|, The shaft 94 is mounted to rotate in
train adjustments of the gun I8 have not been
the ring 13, as shown. The shaft 94 is geared to
compensated for the tilt of the ship. The differ
a shaft 91 to operate it at one speed through bevel
ence of adjustments the mimic gun 10 has in ele
gears 98. The shaft 91 is mounted in the axis
vation and train measured in the planes repre
y'-—y' and is secured to the ring ‘I2 to turn it
senting those perpendicular to and parallel to
the deck of the ship, and the adjustments it has 70 on this axis. In view of the foregoing arrange
ment, it will be observed that the “sight deflec
in elevation and train with reference to the planes
tion” calculated in the range keeper and intro
representing the true vertical and horizontal after
duced by the handwheel 58 is applied to the mimic
it has been shifted in accordance with the inclina
gun 10 to drive it at one speed about the axis
tion of the ship, are measured and utilized to cal
culate the correct adjustments to be applied to 75 y'--y'. The shaft 91, as shown, is extended to be
33, GEOMifltilUAl. Il‘I‘oifiUIi/ILN it.
seems item;
2,409,914
9
10
\Fig. 5) so as to move with the bail. Meshing with
the rack I08 is a similar rack I09 which is se
the ring 13.
cured to a shaft IIO. This shaft is mounted in
the adjacent upright arm of the ring I01, as
The functions of the differentials 15 and 86
will now be explained. It will be observed that 5 shown in Fig. 5.
when the shaft 62 is operated to move the mimic
The shaft H0 is connected with a shaft III
by means of bevel gears H2. The shaft III ro
gun 10 in train about its axis y’—y' to introduce
tates in the ?xed axis b-—b, and is mechanically
“sight de?ection” as calculated, the gears 98 will
received in the lower part of ring 13 so as to
plvotally mount the lower portion of ring 12 in
impart motion to the ring 12 about its axis y'—y'.
connected to drive the “corrected sight angle”
When the ring is thus moved, the bevel gear 85 10 output shaft 51 through a differential H3. As
shown, the shaft II I is connected with the input
on the trunnions 1| will be rotated on the gear
gear “31; of the differential by means of spur
85 associated with it on the shaft 83 and, there
gears I I4, one connected with the input gear I I3a
fore, will move the mimic gun 10 in elevation from
its adjusted “sight angle” position. To com
and the other with the shaft I I I. The output gear
pensate for this, the differential 15 is operated 15 II3b is connected with the output shaft 51 by
means of spur gears II5. By reason of the fore
to introduce this angle in the reverse direction
going connections between the bail I06 and the
and therefore hold the mimic gun in its correct
adjusted position. As shown, the gear 150 of the
output shaft 51, the latter member is caused to
generate the angle of elevation imparted to the
differential is mechanically connected with the
differential 86 by means of a shaft I00, which 20 mimic gun 10. The bail I06 and gear segment
I08 move at 1 speed, the segment I09 and the
at one end is connected with the input gear 150
of differential 15 through the bevel gear IOI se
shaft III at 4 speed, while the “corrected sight
cured to the gear 150 and a bevel gear I02 mesh
ing with it and mounted on the shaft I00. The
angle” shaft 51 is driven at 36 speed.
The adjustment of the mimic gun 10 in train,
other end of the shaft I00 is connected with the 25 i. e. its “de?ection correction” is transmitted to
the “corrected deflection” shaft '69 directly from
output gear 861) of differential 86 by means of a
the ring I01. This ring, as shown, drives a seg
shaft I03; the shaft I00 is connected with shaft
mental rack II6 with which a spur gear II1
I 03 by bevel gears I04, while the shaft I03 is con
mounted on the shaft 69 meshes. It will be ob
nected with the output gear 8611 by ‘means of the
spur gear I05 which meshes with the spur gear 30 served that movement of the mimic gun 10 in
90 mounted on the shaft 88. The shaft I03 is
train causes the bail I06, the ring I01 and the »
operated at 216 speed, the shaft I00 at 216 speed
rack I I6 to move with it, and hence, generate its
train adjustment in the output shaft 69. The
and the shaft 16, as before when operated by
ring I01 and rack II6 operate at 1 speed and the
shaft 38, at 108 speed. It will be observed, there
fore, that when the shaft '62 is operated to in 35 shaft 69 at 6 speed.
The function of the differential H3 is
troduce “sight deflection,” the mimic gun 10 is
adjusted not only in train, but tends to move
similar to that of the differential 15. Thus, it
from its adjusted position in elevation; the eleva
will be observed that when the ring I01 is moved
tion controlling shaft 16, however, is operated
to introduce “deflection” into shaft 69, it will
from the “sight de?ection” input shaft 62 by 40 carry the shaft IIO with it as a body around the
means of the differentials 86 and 15 to introduce
in a reverse direction the same angle that the gun
10 would be moved by the introduction of “sight
de?ection.” Consequently, it is held in its cor
axis b—b. This motion, of course, imparts mo
tion to the shaft III and would vary the “sight
angle” output in the shaft 51 by an amount pro
portional to the de?ection output in shaft 69.
45 However, a like motion of equal magnitude is sub
tracted in the differential II3 so that the shaft
ential 86 has a further function which will be
51 remains unin?uenced by the operation of the
described presently.
ring I01. This is accomplished by operating the
The mimic gun 10 is mechanically connected
input gear II3b of differential II3 by means of
with the “corrected sight angle” and “corrected
sight deflection” shafts 51 and 69 so as to impart 50 spur gears H8 and H9, the former connected to
the planetary gear I I 3b and the latter to the ring
motion to these shafts in accordance with the
adjustments of the mimic gun in elevation and
I01. When the ring I01 in turning tends to dis
train by the following mechanism: The muzzle
place the shaft 51 through a certain angle, an
equal and opposite angle is subtracted in the dif
10a of the mimic gun 10 is pivotally secured to
a semi-square ring member or bail I06 that is 55 ferential, whereby the shaft 51 is uninfluenced by
carried by a square ring or bail I 01. The ring
“deflection correction.”
I01 is mounted to rotate on an axis b—b ?xed
It will be remembered that the axes a;'—:c’ and
with relation to the ship and arranged at right
y'-—y' intersecting at right angles to each other
at the pivot of movement P of the mimic gunv 10
angles to the ?xed axis a—-a, and further, inter
secting it at the point of intersection P of the 60 represent the axes about which the main gun I0
axes :r'—-:c’ and y'—-y'. The bail I06 is provided
moves, that is, the axis a:'-ar' represents the axis
with trunnions I06a pivoted in ring I01 to rotate
:c-a: of the main gun parallel to the plane of the
rect adjusted position in elevation. The differ
on an axis 0-0, and arranged so that when the
deck and about which the main gun I0 moves in
rings 12 and I01 occupy their positions shown in
elevation, while the axis y’-—y' represents the
Fig. 5, with the axes b-b and y’—y' coinciding, 65 axis y-—y of the main gun perpendicular to the
deck and about which the gun I0 is moved in
and with the line of ?re ,of the mimic gun lying
train.
in the axis H, the trunnions I06a and axis 0-0
The mutually perpendicular ?xed axes 0-11
will lie in the axis :1:'—a:’.
and b--b represent true horizontal and vertical.
It will be observed that when the mimic gun
10 is adjusted in elevation or in train, it will carry 70 axes in space; the axis c--c represents the axis
about which the calculated “sight angle” is meas
the bail I06 with it. The motions of the bail are
impartedto the output shafts 51 and 69, respec
ured; and the axis b—b is the axis about which
tively. For this purpose, a segmental gear rack
the calculated “sight de?ection” is measured.
If there is no cross roll, the outputs of “sight
I08 is secured to one of the trunnions mm of the
bail I06 (the left-hand trunnion, as viewed in 75 angle” and “sight de?ection” shafts 51 and 69
2,409,914
11
12
will be equal to the calculated values of “sight
angle” and “sight deflection" introduced by the
to the shaft 94 on its own axis from the gear 95.
This motion of the shaft 94, unless compensated
shafts 38 and 62. If there is a cross roll, the
mimic gun 10 continuously occupies the position
for, would rotate the gears 98 and hence, the ring
12, and thereby disturb the train adjustment of
the mimic gun. The angle through which the
.
,
in space with reference to the true vertical and
horizontal that the main gun I0 would occupy,
if the calculated values of “sight angle” and “de
?ection” were applied to it and these values were
not compensated for cross roll. As a result of
shaft 94 would thus have moved the mimic gun in
train is introduced in the differential 86 from
the shaft I3I by spur gears I31, I38 and I39 and
shaft I39a, which shaft is connected with plane
this, the “sight angle” and “sight de?ection” in 10 tary gears 860 of the differential 86. Thus, when
the shaft I3I is rotated, the di?erential is oper
ated by the shaft I3I to introduce an angle in
train to the mimic gun equal and opposite to
that introduced by the shaft 94 revolving on the
provided for tilting the trunnions of the mimic 15 gear 95, whereby the mimic gun holds its ad
justed position in train. Moreover, when the
gun 10 in accordance with the roll of the ship.
position of the ring 13 is shifted, the adjustment
For this purpose, the ring ‘I3 carrying the ring 12
of the mimic gun in elevation tends to vary be
in which the mimic gun is mounted is tilted on
cause of the interaction of the gearing 84. This
its ?xed bearings 14 on the axis a—a by an angle
equal to the angle of cross roll, and is shifted in 20 is compensated in the differential 15 which is
driven from shaft I3I through the differential 86
its position to measure continuously the angle
shafts 51 and 69 are continuously compensated
for cross roll of the ship.
In order to compensate for cross roll of the
ship about the line of sight, suitable means are
of cross roll of the ship as it varies.
The angle of cross roll is measured by a cross
level sighting device I20 (Figs. 1, 2,‘ and 3). This
device comprises an eye-piece I2I, and mirrors 25
I22 and I23 (Fig. 1). The mirrors, as shown,
are arranged at right angles to each other so as
to bring the opposite ?elds of the horizon to the
eyes of the observer. A prism I24 directs the
lines of sight from the mirrors to the eye-piece
I2I.
The mirrors are mounted on a shaft I25
which is driven by handwheels I26. The hand
wheels I26 drive a shaft I21 through bevel gears
I28. The shaft I21 drives a shaft I29 through
spur gears I30, which in turn drives the mirror 35
shaft I25 through gearing I30a.
It will be understood that the observer oper
ates the handwheels I26 to keep the horizon con
tinuously on the horizontal cross-hair of the
sighting device. In doing so. the observer auto 40
matically generates the angle of roll across the
line of sight of the director, which, of course, is
maintained on the target. The shaft I29 is
driven at 108 speed, which speed is reduced to 1/2
so as to cause the mimic gun to hold its corrected
adjustment in elevation.
The operation of the mechanism 56 may be
better understood by reference to Figs. 6 to 11 in
clusive. Assuming that the parts of the mecha
nism 56 are in their positions shown in Fig. 6, and
that the shaft 38 is operated to introduce “sight
angle” e, as calculated, then the mimic gun is
moved through the angle e from its position
shown in Fig. 6 to its position shown in Fig. 7.
This operation is shown diagrammatically in Fig.
9 where the mimic gun is moved through the
angle e from its dotted line position to its solid
line position. When the shaft 62 is operated to
adjust the mimic gun in train by the calculated
“sight de?ection” angle d, the mimic gun is
moved from its dotted line position in Fig. 10,
which corresponds to its full line position in Fig.
9, to its full line position in Fig. 10. This is the
position that the mimic gun takes due to the
calculated values of “sight angle” and “sight de
?ection” and is the position that the main gun I0
should take when the deck of the ship is hori
zontal. When the ring 12 is inclined through
speed in the mirror shaft. This, of course, moves 45
an angle of cross roll or (Fig. 8) in response to
the line of sight of the device I20 at 1 speed, be
the operation of the cross level shaft I3I, it in
cause the line of sight is moved at twice the speed
clines the ring 12 and the gun trunnions ‘II and
the mirror is moved.
thereby causes the mimic gun to describe a por
The shaft I29 drives a shaft I3I at 108 speed
through a shaft I32 connected to the shaft I29 50 tion of a surface of a cone about the point P from
by bevel gears I33 and to the shaft I3I by bevel
gears I34.
The shaft I3I drives the ring 13 on
its axis a--a at 1 speed by means of a worm gear
the full line position of Fig. 10, which is repre
sented in dotted lines in Fig. 11, to the full line
position of Fig. 11. The muzzle 10a is the mimic
gun, therefore describes a curve from its dotted
drive comprising a worm I35 (Fig. 5) mounted on
shaft I3I and a worm wheel I35 meshing with it 55 line position in Fig. 11 to the full line position
in this ?gure, which curve is a portion of the
and mounted on one of the trunnions 13b of the
base of the cone described by the mimic gun in
ring 13, the right hand trunnion, as viewed in
Fig. 5.
In view of the foregoing arrangement, it will
moving between these positions.
When the ring 13 is inclined through angle
be observed that when the observer at the eye 60 or to cause the muzzle of the gun 10a to move
from the dotted line position of Fig. 11 to the
piece I2I operates the handwheels I26 to hold
solid line position thereof, the muzzle 10a in mov
the sight on the horizon, he will at the same time
ing pulls the bail I06 with it and causes the point
operate the ring 13 on its ?xed axis a-a to con
of intersection of the muzzle and the bail to move
tinuously measure the angle of cross roll. The
ring 13 when thus operated moves the mimic gun 65 through a like curve. The position of the bail
I06 is thus shifted in space on its trunnions W611,
trunnions 1I through the same angle, and the
and also on the ring I01 about the ?xed axis b_-b.
resulting movement of the muzzle of the mimic
gun 10 in space modi?es the calculated values of
The ?rst of these movements of the bail on the
“sight angle” and “sight de?ection” to generate
trunnions I06a measures the difference between
the “corrected sight angle” and the “corrected 70 the “sight angle” calculated and applied by the
sight deflection” adjustments.
shaft 38 to the mimic gun 10 and the “corrected
sight angle” which the mimic gun has with ref
It will be observed that when the ring 13 is
rotated on its axis a--a by the cross level shaft
erence to the true vertical and horizontal axes
w-a and 12-h after it has been shifted by tilt—
I3I, it will swing the shaft 94 in an are about
this axis, and hence, will impart a rotary motion 75 ing of ring 13. In the case illustrated, the “cor
5d. litUlt'lI; I Hillel. me I, Human Io.
2,409,914:v
14
rected sight angle” is less than the “sight angle,”
handwheels 21 are rotated they will impart mo
tion to the mirror 25 through the two differen
tials I40 and I5I.
The differential I5I is introduced in the con
nection between the handwheels 21 and the mir
as calculated, and as shown in Fig. 11, and this
difference is subtracted from the calculated “sight
angle,” the resultant being applied to the shaft
51 through gears I08, I09, shafts H0 and III,
differential I I3 and gears H5.
The second move
ror 25 for the purpose of introducing a correction
ment of the bail I06 due to tilting of the ring 12,
that is, its movement about the ?xed axis b—b,
rotates the ring I01 with it about this axis and
for “vertical parallax” between the director II
and the gun. “Vertical parallax” is introduced
into the differential I 5I by means of a hand
measures the difference between the calculated 10 wheel I52a, which drives a worm I53. This worm
“sight de?ection” imparted to the mimic gun by
in turn drives a worm wheel I54 that is mounted
the shaft 62 and the “corrected sight de?ection”
upon a, shaft I55. This shaft is mechanically
that the mimic gun has in space with reference
connected to a shaft I56 which drives the plane;
to the horizontal and vertical axes H and b-b
tary gears I5Ic of the differential I5I by means
after the mimic gun has been shifted, and trans 15 of spur gears I55a. A suitable scale I51 reading
mits the resultant “corrected de?ection” to the
in terms of range is provided to assist in making
shaft 69 through the rack and gear H6 and Ill.
the parallax correction. This scale, as shown, is
In the particular example illustrated, the “cor
driven from the shaft I55 through gears I51a.
rected sight de?ection” is greater than calcu
It will be observed that both the introduction
lated “sight de?ection” as shown in Fig. 11.
20 of the “corrected sight angle” from the shaft 51
It will be understood that as the angle of in
and of “vertical parallax” correction from the
clination of the ship’s deck varies about the line
handwheel I52a will turn the mirror 25 to move
of sight, the muzzle 10a of the mimic gun 10 will
the line of sight 24a from the target so that when
be weaved back and forth through a conical path
the “pointer” operates the handwheels 21 to re
by the ring 13 as the latter is moved back and 25 turn the line of sight to the target, he will auto
forth on its axis in accordance with the cross roll
matically generate thecorrection that should be
of the ship. The particular conical path through
applied to the gun in elevation. In addition to‘
which the muzzle moves depends, of course, upon
these corrections, the "director correction,” which
the calculated values of “sight angle” and “sight
is the angle between the ship’s deck at the instant
de?ection” that have been imparted to it.
30 of ?re and the line of sight selected by the “point
The “corrected sight angle” generated in the
er” is automatically applied by the “pointer” in
shaft 51 is combined with the “director correc
adjusting the line of sight to bear upon the target
tion” adjustment and is issued to the gun as “gun
at the particular point in the roll of the ship
elevation order.” The “corrected sight de?ec
that it is desired ?re shall take place.
tion” generated in the shaft 69 is combined with 35
The resulting elevation order, that is, the order
the “target bearing” generated by moving the '
which is the resultant of the “corrected sight
director in train to bring it to bear on the target
angle,” “vertical parallax” correction, and “di
and is issued to the gun as “gun train order.”
rector correction," known as “gun elevation
The “corrected sight angle” shaft 51 is me
order,” is transmitted to the turret I0a by means
chanically connected to the mirror 25 through 4,0 of a suitable motion transmission system which
a differential I40. As shown in Fig. 1, the shaft
is similar to the transmission systems between the
51 is connected with a shaft I4I through spur
range keeper and the reproducers 29, 30, and 59,
gears I42. The shaft I5I is mechanically con
which have been previously described. As shown,
nected to the planetary gears I40a of the dif
the transmission system between the “pointer”
ferential I40; the output gear I40b of the dif 45 and the gun I0 comprises low and high speed
ferential is mechanically connected to a shaft I43
transmitters of angular motion I58 and I 59, which
by means of spur gears I44. The shaft I43 car
are driven by the handwheels 21 to generate “gun
ries a worm I45, which meshes with a Worm seg
elevation order.” The handwheels 21 drive the
ment I46 that is mounted on the mirror shaft
transmitters I58 and I59 through the shaft I49,
so as to effect a mechanical drive between the
mirror 25 and the shaft I43.
50 the spur gears I500. and a spur gear I60 meshing
In view of the
with these gears and mounted on the rotor shaft
foregoing arrangement, it will be observed that
I6I of the high speed transmitter I59. The rotor
the “corrected sight angle” generated in the shaft
shaft I62 of the low speed transmitter I58 is me
51 is applied to the mirror 25. The shaft I43 is
chanically connected to the rotor shaft I6I
driven at '72 speed, while the mirror 25 is driven 55 through reduction gearing I63. The shaft I6I is
at 1A>_ speed; the line of sight, therefore, is driven
driven at 72 speed, while the shaft I62 is driven
at 1 speed.
at 4 speed. Mechanically connected with the
When the “sight angle” generated in the shaft
shafts I6I and I62 respectively are indicating
51 is applied to the mirror 25, the line of sight is
dials I64 and vI65 which are driven at the same
moved from the target. The “director pointer” 60 speed as the associated shafts. As shown, the
in returning the line of sight on to the target ' ‘ shaft I6I is connected with the dial I64 through
by operation of the handwheels 21 will automati
cally generate the “corrected sight angle.” The
handwheels 21 are mechanically connected with
the mirror 25 by means of a shaft I41 which is
connected with the handwheels 21 by means of
bevel gears I48. The shaft I41 is connected with
the shaft I49 by means of bevel gears I50, and
the shaft I49 is mechanically connected with
the input gear I5Ia of the differential I5I by
means of spur gears I50a. The output gear I5Ib
of the differential is connected with the input
gear I40c 0f the differential I40 by means of spur
gears I52. It will be observed, in view of the
65
gears I66, while the shaft I62 is connected with
the dial I65 through gears I61.
The low and high speed transmitters I58 and
I59 are electrically connected to low and high
speed reproducers of angular motion I68 and I69
respectively located near the gun I0. These re
producers operate dials I10 and HI respectively
m
so as to indicate the angle of “gun elevation
order.” Matched with these dials I10 and "I are
dials I12 and I13 which are operated when the
gun is elevated so as to inform the “gun pointer”
that the gun I0 has been elevated through the
angle of “gun elevation order.” The gun I0, as
foregoing mechanical connections, that when the 75 shown, is provided with a rack I14 secured to its
2,409,914
'15
trunnions which is operated by a worm I15
mounted upon a shaft I16. The shaft I16 is oper
16
I94 being provided to assist in the setting of the
range. The parallax mechanism I92 generates
the correct angle for parallax in a shaft I95.
The generated bearing of the shaft I89 is ad
justed for the parallax angle in the differential
I96. As shown, the shaft I95 is connected di
rectly with the input gear I96a of the differen
‘ shaft I16 by bevel gears I80. The handwheels
tial I96, while the bearing shaft I89 is mechani
I11 are operated to elevate the gun at 1 speed
cally connected with the input gear I96b of the
and at the same time function to drive the dials
I12 and I13. For this purpose, the shaft I16 is 10 differential. Planetary gears I960 of the differ
ential are mechanically connected with a shaft
mechanically connected to the dial I13 by means
I91‘which is the output of the differential and
‘of a shaft I8I to which the shaft I16 is connected
which generates target bearing compensated for
by means of bevel gears I82. The shaft I8I is
horizontal parallax. The shaft I91 is mechani
mechanically connected with the dial I12 by
means of spur gears I83, one of which is mounted 15 cally connected to a shaft I98 by means of bevel
gears I99. The shaft I98, it will be observed,
on the shaft I8I and the other on a shaft I84.
generates target bearing correction for horizontal
This shaft in turn is connected with a shaft I85
parallax. This shaft is mechanically connected
by spur gears I86, the shaft I85 being mechani
with the “corrected sight de?ection” of output
cally connected with the armature member or
stator of the reproducer. I68 through spur gears 20 shaft 69 through a differential 200 whereby the
target’s bearing compensated for parallax and
I81. The shaft I8I is also connected with the
“corrected sight de?ection” will generate “gun
stator or armature member of the reproducer I69
train order,” which is the angle that the gun I0
by means of a spur gear I88 meshing with the
is to be adjusted in train. In other words, the
spur gear I83 mounted on the shaft I84.
Thus, when the “director pointer” operates the 25 target’s bearing generated in the shaft I98 is
combined with the “corrected sight de?ection”
handwheels 21, he will operate the transmitters
generated by the shaft 69 in the differential 200.
I58 and I59 which will operate the reproducers
As shown, the shaft I98 is mechanically connect
I68 and I69 to reproduce the angle of “gun ele
ed to the input gear 200a of the differential by
vation order” on the dials I10 and HI, the dials
I10 and HI being driven at 4 and '72 speeds 30 means of bevel gears 20I while the shaft 69 is
mechanically connected to the differential input
respectively. The “gun pointer” operates the
gear 20% by the spur gears 202. The planetary
handwheels I11 to elevate the gun by the amount
gears 2000 of the differential are mechanically
of “gun elevation order” by returning the dials
connected to the output shaft 203 of the differen
I10 and HI to their zero positions, and at the
same time drives the dials I12 and I13 to indi 35 tial which generates “gun train order.” The shaft
I89, as has been pointed out previously, is driven
cate the angle that the gun has been elevated.
at 12 speed, the shaft I98 is driven at 36 speed,
The “gun train order” is the value of the tar
and the shaft 203 is likewise driven at 36 speed.
get’s bearing, as determined by the director, com
The shaft 203 drives a transmitter of angular
pensated for “corrected sight de?ection” and hor
izontal parallax. The target’s bearing is gener 40 motion 204, which is the high speed unit of a
motion transmission system, the low speed unit
ated when the director is turned in train by the
being designated by the numeral 205. The low
handwheels 20 to bring the sight 23 to bear upon
speed unit will be driven at 1 speed through re
the target. When the director is turned upon its
duction gearing 206. These transmitters 204 and
pedestal I2 by means of the handwheels 20, it au
tomatically generates target’s bearing in a shaft 45 205 transmit the “gun train order.”
A high speed indicating dial 201 is mechanical
I89. Supported upon the pedestal I2 is relatively
ly connected with the shaft 203 by means of bevel
large spur gear I90 which is ?xed to the pedestal,
and meshing with this relatively large gear is a
gears 208, while a low speed dia1 209 is driven
from this shaft through the reduction gearing
relatively small spur gear I9I which is carried by
50
206 and bevel gears 2I0. It will be understood
the shaft I89, which is mounted in the rotating
that these dials indicate “gun train order.”
part I I of the director. Thus, when the director
The high and low speed transmitters of angu
is rotated on the pedestal, motion will be im
lar motion 204 and 205 are electrically connected
parted to the shaft I89. The shaft I89 is driven
to high and low speed reproducers of angular
at 12 speed by the gear I90.
The bearing of the target generated in the 55 motion 2H and 2I2 located near the gun I0.
The rotor of the reproducer 2“ drives a high
shaft I89 is corrected for horizontal parallax
by referring the bearing generated to a suitable
speed dial 2I3, while the rotor of the reproducer
2I2 drives the low speed indicating dial 2I4. Co
reference point. The director itself may be the
operating with the high speed dia1 2I3 is a ring
reference point, or if a number of directors are
used in the system, the point may be located 60 indicating dial 2I5 and a companionate dial 2I6,
both of which are operated by the gun when
at the vertical axis of any one of the directors.
moved in train. Co-operating'with the dial 2I4
It will be understood, however, that any suitable
point may be chosen as the reference point. This
is a dial 2I1 which likewise is driven when the
gun is adjusted in train. The gun is adjusted
particular director I I is removed from the refer
ence point and the bearing is compensated for 65 in train by means of handwheels 2I8 which are
parallax by referring it to the reference point.
mechanically connected with a shaft 2I9 through
The train parallax may be calculated by any suit
a shaft 220. As shown, the handwheels 2I8 are
able mechanism which is designated in general
geared to the shaft 220 through bevel gears 22I,
by the numeral I92. Thus, for example, the train
and the shaft 220 is geared to the shaft 2I9
parallax mechanism described in the United 70 through bevel gears 222. The shaft 2I9 is geared
to the gun mount I0b to rotate the gun in train
States patent to W. W. Willard, No. 1,942,079,
dated January 2, 1934, may be used. In this
by means of spur gears 223 and 224. It will be
parallax mechanism, the only variable to be con
understood that the gearing is such that the
sidered is the range of the target and this is in
gun will be moved at one speed in train. When
troduced by means of a handwheel I93, a scale 75 the handwheels 2I8 are operated to adjust the
ated by handwheels I11 which are mechanically
connected with the shaft I16 through a shaft
I18. As shown, this shaft I18 is geared to the
handwheels I11 by bevel gears I19 and to the
2,409,914
18
17
gun in train, the wheels at the same time impart
motion to the dials 2I5, 2I6, and 2I1. For this
purpose, the dia1 2I5 is mechanically connected
to the shaft 2I9 through spur gears 225, while
the dial 2I6 is directly connected with the shaft
2I9. The shaft 2I9 drives the dials 2I5 and
2I6 at 36 speed. The shaft 219 is also mechani
cally connected with the stator of the low speed
reproducer 2I2 through reduction gearing 226 so
that the stator 2I2 is driven at 1 speed. The 10
turns the dial 235 and 236 to their zero positions.
Any difference between the bearings generated in
the two stations will, of course, at once become
apparent by movement of the dials from their
zero positions. By means of this arrangement,
a director which is not in control of the gun I0
can be operated by the handwheels 20 so that it
will generate the same bearing as the director
which is in control of the gun whereby the in
active director can take over the control when
necessary without undue waste of'time.
an...“
dial 2I1 is driven at 1 speed by means of a spur
In the operation of the apparatus and system,
gear 221 which is geared to the gearing 226.
it will be understood that the director “trainer”
In the operation of this portion of the mech
will operate his handwheels 20 so as to bring the
anism, it will be understood that when the re
training telescope 23 to bear on the target and
producers 2H and 2I2 are operated by the trans
that he will maintain this telescope bearing on
mitters 204 and 205, they will turn the dials 2I3
the target. I\n____doing so, he will generate the
and 2I4 to designate “gun train order.” When
.targegsmbearingmimthggshaft I89, which angle
the handwheels 2I8 are operated to adjust the
Ftf?'nsmitted to the differential‘ I96 where it is
gun in train, the ring dial 2 I 5 is operated to cause
it to follow the angle designated by the dial 2I3 20 compensated for horizontal parallax, and thence
to the shaft I98, which introduces the bearing
to bring them into agreement. At the same time,
angle corrected for horizontal parallax into the
the dial H4 is operated so as to return it to its
differential 200. The value of “sight de?ection”
zero position, while the dials 2I6 and 2H, the
which will have been calculated in the remote
former a high speed and the latter a low speed
dial, are operated to indicate the angle through 25 range keeper is introduced by the handwheel
58. As has been pointed out previously in detail,
which the gun is adjusted in train.
this operation causes the mimic gun 10 to gen
It is generally necessary to utilize the value of
erate the calculated "sight de?ection” in train.
the target's bearing compensated for horizontal
The calculated value of “sight de?ection” in train
parallax generated in the shaft I91 at other points
in the ship. For this purpose, the shaft I91 30j/GOIIWOHSIY corrected for cross roll of the shipw ,_
about,tnéjj?neio'flsrghtmghirting‘"the""'miiiiie
drives high and low speed transmitters of angu
gu?nwlglwas pointed out previously?"W’Themangle
lar motion 228 and 229. As shown, the trans
‘6f cross roll, of course, is continuously intro
mitter 228 is driven directly by the shaft I91,
duced into mechanism 56 by the handwheels
while the low speed reproducer 229 is driven by
this shaft through reduction gearing 230. A high 35 I26.
The “corrected sight deflection” output
is introduced into the differential 200 by the
shaft 69. The target’s bearing and “corrected
of the transmitter 228 by means of bevel gears
sight de?ection” are combined in the differen
23Ia, while the low speed indicating dial 232 is
tial 200 and “gun train order” is generated in
connected to the rotor of the low speed repro
ducer through bevel gears 232a. It wil1 be un 40 the output shaft 203 of the differential. This
shaft operates the transmitters 204 and 205,
derstood that the transmitters 228 and 229 also
which in turn operate the reproducers 2H and
preferably will be of the self-synchronous type
2I2 in the turret, whereby the gun “trainer” is
similar to the transmitters 29a and 30a.
instructed to adjust the gun I0 in train by the
Suitable target designators or reproducers of
angular motion 233 and 234 are provided, the ' amount of “gun train order.” It will be under
stood, of course, that the handwheel I93 will have
former operating on a high speed of 36 while the
been operated to introduce correction for hori
latter operates on the low speed of 1. The ro
zontal parallax in terms of range.
tors of these devices operate high and low speed
The “gun‘elevation order” will be determined
indicating dials 235 and 236 respectively. It will
by the operation of the handwheels 21 in main
be understood that these reproducers of angular
taining the line of sight 24a on the target. As
motion are operated by suitable transmitters of
previously pointed out, the director “pointer”
angular motion located at some other director sta
operates the handwheels 21 so as to operate the
tion in the ship whereby the dials 235 and 236
mirror 25 to bring the line of sight 24a on the
continually reproduce in the director station II
the target’s bearing compensated for horizontal 55 target in the position of the roll of the ship where
it is desired the gun I0 shall be ?red. The “sight
parallax, if any, between the other director sta
angle,” which is the correction for the range
tion and the reference point. The stators of the
to be applied to the gun I0 in elevation will be
reproducers 233 and 234 are continuously driven
calculated in the remote range keeper and trans
by the shaft I91, the stator of the reproducer 233
being driven by this shaft at 36 speed through 60 mitter to the director where it is reproduced by
the receivers 29 and 30. When the handwheel
an intermediate shaft 231; this shaft as shown,
28 is operated to generate in the shaft 38, the
is mechanically connected to the shaft I91 through
value of “sight angle,” as indicated on the dials
bevel gears 238 and with the stator of the re
34 and 35 the 'Lalue‘isautornaticallyintroduced
producer 233 through spur gears 239. The stator
of the reproducer 234 is driven at 1 speed by the 65 illlN tlrejrunniomiilt..mehchfanismgi?...where""the“
‘mii?'ic
1Mis elevatgd.bytheampunt of ffmsight
shaft I91 through reduction gearing 239 and a
‘angle; This mechanism, as has been previously
shaft 240, which is connected with the rotor shaft
»—pointed out, shifts the mimic gun to regenerate
of the low speed transmitter 229 by means of bevel
this value as “corrected sight angle” in the shaft
gears 24! and connected with the stator of the
reproducer 234 through spur gears 242. In view 70 51 which operates through the differential I40 to
turn the mirror 25 from its adjusted position.
of the foregoing, it will be observed that the dials
The director “pointer” previously had operated
235 and 236 will be driven from their index points
the handwheels 21 so as to hold the line of sight
to indicate the bearing of the target, as deter
in a predetermined relation with the gun which
mined by the remote director, whereas the sta
tors 233 and 234 operated by the shaft I91 re 75 he chose arbitrarily. When the “pointer” notices
speed indicating dial 23I is connected to the rotor
2,409,914
19 -
that the line of sight is not on the target at the
position in the roll of the ship in which he desires
it to cross the target, he again operates his hand
wheels 21 to restore the line of sight to the target
at the desired point in the roll. _In_ret11.rning
the line of sight to the target, the “pointer”
20 ‘
shaft 263 also mounted in the ring 248, and as
shown arranged at right angles to the shaft 26!;
the shaft 26! is connected with the shaft 263
through bevel gears 264. The shaft 263 is con
nected with the mimic gun 245 to adjust it in
elevation through a differential 265. As shown,
the shaft 263 is connected with the input gear
..Qll?lfateswthewtransmitters,of..angu1an.moti0nm I58
265a of the differential through the spur gears
‘ and , 159 to generatewtfgunelevatiomordenii...
266. The output gear 265b of this differential is
operation....is__~repeated until the "pointer” feels
that the target is brought onto his sight at the 10 mechanically connected with a shaft 261 through
spur gears 268. The shaft 261 is mechanically
proper point in the roll of the ship for ?re.
connected to the trunnions 246 of the mimic gun
This method of control in elevation possesses
295 by means of bevel gears 269.
the advantage that the line of sight is weaved up
It will be observed in view of the foregoing that
and down, rather than the gun l0 itself, as the
trunnion tilt correction is continually changed to 15 when the shaft 25! is operated it will operate the
mimic gun 245 in elevation through the worm
compensate for roll and pitch of the ship.
shaft 254, the differential 251, the shaft 26!, the
It will be understood, of course, that the hand
shaft 263, differential 265 and the shaft 261. To
wheel l52a will have been operated so as to
adjust the mimic gun in elevation, the shaft 25!
introduce the proper value for the vertical paral
lax, whereby the “gun train order” takes into 20 in this particular form of the invention is oper
' ated at 240 speed, the shaft 252 at 80 speed, and
account the elevation of the director !! above
the shafts 26! and 263 at 1 speed, which in turn
the gun !0.
The gun “pointer” adjusts his gun in elevation
operate the shaft 261 and the mimic gun 245 at
1 speed.
in accordance with the amount and direction of
The "sight angle” input shaft 25! has been
displacement of the dials I16 and !1! to repro 25
"shown diagrammatically as operated by a hand
duce in the turret !0a the value of "gun train
Wheel 21!), but it will be understood that this shaft
order” generated in the director station.
will be operated by a mechanism similar to the
As previously pointed out, when the gun "I is
mechanism which drives the shaft 38 of the ?rst
adjusted in elevation, the dials I12 and I13 are
driven with the gun to\iffdi'cate-the""angle“of“ 30 .form shown in Figs. 1 and 5. As shown, the
handwheel 210 may be connected to shaft 25! by
elevation, while the dials
L1-!»are"re’
means of a shaft 216a. which is connected with
turned to their zero positions. Of course, when
the shaft 25! by bevel gears 2111b. A scale 2100
the dials I10 and !1! are returned to their
is shown as means supplied to assist in setting
zero positions, the angle of “gun train order”
will have been imparted to the gun. Simi 35 ,“sight angle”. correction.
The calculated value for “sight deflection" is
larly, when the gun “trainer” operates the
introduced into the mechanism by the shaft 21!.
handwheels 2!8 to adjust the gun in train, he
which is operated by a handwheel 212 through
will operate the ring dial M5 to follow the dial
a shaft 213, which is connected with shaft 21! by
2l3 and the dial 2" to follow the dial 2!4. The
dials 2!_6 and 2H will be operated to indicate 40 means of bevel gears 213a. A dial 21% similar
to dial 2160 is provided. The shaft 21! drives a
the angle of adjustment in train, while the dial
shaft 214 through bevel gears 215. The shaft 214
2!4 will be returned to its zero position.
drives a worm 216 which in turn drives a worm
In Fig. 12, there is illustrated a modi?ed mech
Wheel 211 mounted upon a shaft 218. The shaft
anism for compensating for tilt of the gun trun
nions, which in general has the same construe 45 218 operates through a differential 219 to drive
a spur gear 286, which in turn drives a shaft 28!
tion as that shown in Fig. 5, and which operates
through a spur gear 282. As shown, the shaft
on the same principle. In Fig. 12, however, there
218 is connected to the input gear 2190, of the
are certain differences in details of construction.
For example, the differentials corresponding to
differential, the output gear 2191) of which is
the differentials 15 and 86 are located in the 50 connected to the gear 280 through a spur gear
283. The shaft 28! is mounted in the ring 248, as
low speed portions of the mechanism, rather than
shown, and is mechanically connected to the ring
in the high speed portions of the mechanism, as
241 through a shaft 284 which is secured to the
is the case of Fig. 5. As shown in Fig. 12, the
ring 241 and which is connected with the shaft 28!
mimic gun 245 is provided with trunnions 246
by means of bevel gears 285. When the hand
which are mounted in a ring 241 to rotate on the
axis :r'—:r'. The ring 241 is supported on the
wheel 212 is operated, the motion of the wheel is
ring 248 for rotation in train in the axis y'-y'.
transmitted to the ring 241 to adjust the mimic
This ring 248 is provided with trunnions 249 which
gun 245 in train through the shaft 21 !, the shaft
are mounted in ?xed bearings 25!) so that the ring
214, the shaft 218, the differential 219, gears 283
rotates on the ?xed axis a—-a.
60 and 288, and the shaft 28! and 284. The shaft
The mimic gun 245 is operated in elevation by
21! is driven at 240 speed, while the shafts 28!
means of a “sight angle” input shaft 25!, which
and 284, the ring 241 and mimic gun are all driven
at 1 speed.
as shown drives a worm shaft 252 through bevel
gears 253. The shaft 252 carries a worm 254,
It will be observed that when the ring 241 is
which meshes with a worm wheel 255 on a shaft 65 rotated on its train axis, the bevel gear 269 carried
256. The shaft 256 operates a differential 251;
upon the trunnions 246 of the mimic gun 245
as shown, the shaft 256 is connected with the
will revolve on the gear 269 carried by the shaft
input gear 251a of the differential by means of
261 so that the position of the mimic gun in ele
spur gears 258. The output gear 251b of the
vation will be changed by the amount of "deflec
differential 251 is mechanically connected to 70 tion” turned in unless this movement is suitably
drive the spur gear 259 by means of a spur gear
compensated for. It is for the purpose of making
266. The spur gear 259 drives a. shaft 26! through
this compensation that the differential 265 has
a spur gear 262. The shaft 26! is mounted on one
been provided. It will be observed that when
of the upright arms of the ring 248, the left hand
the shaft 284 is rotated to adjust the ring 241
arm, as shown in Fig. 12, and functions to drive 9. 75 in train, it will at the same time rotate a shaft
“$55M bit lillUUi H
33. GiZOMETREiJM H‘itsi liUl‘v‘liLl‘i
2,409,914
21
22
line of sight is imparted to the ring 248 by means
286 through spur gears 281. The shaft 286 is
connected to the planetary gears 2650 of the
of a shaft 303 which is driven by mechanism
similar to that which drives the shaft 131 of
differential 265. The gearing is so arranged
the form of this invention shown in Figs. 1 to 11,
that when the ring 241 is operated in train, the
differential device 265 will be operated by the
inclusive. The shaft 303 drives a shaft 304
through bevel gears 305» The shaft 304 drives a
shaft 286 to subtract an angle equal to that
through which the mimic gun would have been
worm 306 which in turn drives a worm wheel 301
mounted upon a shaft 308. The shaft 308 drives
moved by movement of the ring 241 in train so
that the mimic gun is held in its correct ad
one of the trunnions 249 of the ring 248, the
justed position in elevation. The shaft 286 is 10 right hand trunnion as viewed in Fig. 12, through
spur gears 309 and 3l0. The shaft 303 is driven
driven at 1/2 speed from the shaft 284.
at 90 speed, the shaft 304 at 90 speed, the shaft
The motions of the mimic gun 245 in elevation
308 at 3 speed, while the shaft 249, that is, the
and train are transmitted to a suitable bail 288
trunnion of the ring 248, is driven at 1 speed.
which is pivoted to rotate on a ring 289 in an
When the ring 248 is inclined, it functions to
axis c-—c; this ring in turn rotates on the ?xed 15
correct the “sight angle” and “sight de?ection”
axis b-b. The muzzle 245a of the mimic gun
corrections in the shafts 294 and 298 respectively
is pivotally connected to the bail 288. Secured
for tilt of the gun trunnions in precisely the same
to rotate with the bail 288 is a gear segment 290
fashion as does the ring 13 of the form of cor
and meshing with this gear segment is a simi
rector shown in Fig. 5.
lar segment 290a which is carried by a shaft 29l.
It will be observed that when the ring 248
The shaft 29I is mounted to rotate in a verti
is inclined in response to the operation of the
cal arm of ring 289, the left-hand arm as shown
shaft 303, the shaft 281 mounted in the ring 248
in Fig. 12. The shaft 29l is connected to rotate
will be revolved due to the interaction of the
a shaft 292 mounted in the axis of rotation of
bevel gears 285 and that the motion of this shaft
the ring 289 by means of bevel gears 293. The
will tend to change the train adjustment of the
shaft 292 drives the “corrected sight angle” out
mimic gun 245. This motion imparted to the
put shaft 294 through a differential 295. As
shaft 28! is compensated for in the differential
shown, the shaft 292 is connected to the input
‘219. As shown, the gear 3|0 driven by the shaft
gear 295a. of the differential by means of spur
gears 296, and the output gear 29% of this dif 30 303 also drives a shaft 3“ through a spur gear
312. The shaft 3“ is connected to the plan
ferential is connected to the shaft 294 through
etary gears 2190 of the differential 219. The
spur gears 291. In view of the foregoing ar
gearing is so arranged that when the ring 248
rangement, it will be observed that movement
is inclined, and as a result the shaft 281 tends
of the mimic gun in elevation will be transmitted
to move from its adjusted position, the dif
to the shaft 294.
ferential 219 will be operated to introduce an
The adjustment of the mimic gun 245 in train
equal angle but of opposite sign whereby the
is transmitted to the “corrected sight de?ection”
shaft 28I, and hence, the mimic gun, hold their
output shaft 298. As shown, the movement of
correct train adjusted positions.
the mimic gun in train carries the bail 288 with
In a similar manner, when the ring 248 is in
it and the motion of the bail is imparted to the 40
clined, the shaft 261 carried by it will tend to
ring 289 about its axis of rotation b-b. This
rotate about the gear 259 and unless this tend
motion of the ring 289 is transmitted to a shaft
ency were compensated for, the adjustments of
299 through a gear 300 secured to the ring and
the mimic gun 245 in elevation would be changed.
which meshes with a gear 30I carried by the
The differential 251 provides this compensation.
shaft 299. The shaft 299 is secured to the plan
As shown, the left-hand trunnion 249 carries a
etary gears 2950 of the differential 295 and also
gear 3l3 which meshes with a, gear 3l4 carried
is mechanically connected to the output shaft
by a shaft 3l5. The shaft 3l5 is mechanically
298 through spur gears 302.
connected to the planetary gears 2510 of the dif
The mimic gun, as has been pointed out, moves
at 1 speed in elevation and train. The gear seg 50 ferential 251 so that when the ring 248 is in
clined, the differential will be operated to sub
ment 290 is driven at 1 speed, the shaft 29f at 3
tract an angle equal to that which would be
speed, the shaft 292 at 3 speed, while the “cor
imparted to the shaft 261 by inclination of the
rected sight angle” shaft 294 is driven at 24
ring, whereby the mimic gun holds its correct
speed. In “sight de?ection,” the ring 289, of
adjusted position in elevation. The shaft 3l5 is
course,‘is driven at 1 speed with the mimic gun,
driven at 2 speed by the trunnion 249.
the shaft 299 is driven at 2 speed, and the “cor
The operation of this form of the trunnion tilt
rected sight de?ection” shaft 298 is driven at 6
speed.
compensator is the same as that described in
Figs. 5 to 11 inclusive. It will be observed, how
It will be observed that when the ring 289 is
adjusted in train, the gear 293 carried on the 60 ever, that the differential devices 251, 265, and
219 of the form shown in Fig. 12 are located in
shaft 292, which controls the “corrected sight
relatively low speed portions of the mechanism,
angle” output, rotates with reference to the gear
whereas those in the form shown in Fig. 5 are
293 carried on the shaft 29I so that unless other
located in relatively high speed portions of the
wise compensated for, the shaft 294 will be op
mechanism. The advantage of the form shown
erated by the “sight deflection” output mecha
in Fig. 5 is that the differentials can be made con
nism. It is the function of the differential 295
siderably smaller than those shown in Fig. 12,
to make this compensation. When the shaft 299
and provide greater accuracy.
is operated by the ring 289, it will operate the
The axes a:'—:r', y'-—y', a-a, b—-b, and c—c
planetary gears '295c of the differential 295 to
subtract an angle equal to that which is intro 70 correspond to the similarly indicated axes of
Fig. 5.
duced into the differential by the shaft 292 in re
In Fig. 13, there is illustrated still another
ponse to motion of the ring 289, whereby the
modified form of trunnion tilt correction mech
position of the shaft 294 remains unchanged
anism. In this form, the mimic gun 3|6 has a
when the ring 289 is operated.
The angle'of cross roll of the ship about the 75 U shape, as shown, the ends of the two legs of
2,409,914
24
23
the U being pivotally mounted upon a support
The movement of the bail 346 in elevation by
3| 1 of cross shape. The arm 3|1a of the member
3|1 supports the mimic gun to move in elevation
on the axis a:’—a:' which corresponds to the axis
.the mimic gun 3|6 is imparted to a “corrected
sight angle” shaft 349 by means of a gear seg
ment 359, which is secured to move with the
bail 346, as shown in Fig. 13, and which meshes
:c'-—-.r' of Fig. 5. The arm 3|1b of the support
is mounted in a ring 3|8 to rotate on an axis
y’—y’ corresponding to axis y'—-y' of Fig. 5.
The mimic gun 3|6 is moved in elevation to
generate “sight angle” by means of a “sight an
with a gear 35| connected to drive a shaft 352.
gle” input shaft 3|9, which corresponds to shaft 10
38 of Fig. 5. The shaft 3|9 is connected to the
mimic gun through a differential device 320. As
shown, the shaft 3|9 is connected to the input
gear 320a of the differential device by means of
spur gears 32 I. The output gear 3201) of the dif 15
ferential is mechanically connected to a shaft 322
through gears 323. The shaft 322 in turn is me
chanically connected to a shaft 324 through gears
325. The shaft 324 drives a worm 326 which
meshes with a worm rack 321. The rack 321 is 20
connected to drive a shaft 328 which in turn
drives a gear segment 329. The gear segment
329 meshes with a gear 338 which drives a gear
33|. The gear 33| in turn drives a gear seg
ment 332, which is connected to one arm of the 25
mimic gun 3|6, the right hand arm, as viewed in
Fig. 13. The gears 330 and 33| are mounted to
rotate freely on the shaft 3|1c in the axis y'—y’.
That is, the gears 339 and 33| do not drive the
shaft 3| 10. It will be observed in view of the 30
foregoing arrangement that when the shaft 3|9
is operated, it will adjust the mimic gun 3|6 in
elevation through the differential device 329, the
shaft 322, the shaft 324, the shaft 328, and the
gears 329, 330, 33|, and 332. The sight angle in 35
put shaft 3|9 is driven at 216 speed, the shaft 322
The shaft 352 is mounted in the ring 348, as
shown, and drives a shaft 353 through gears 354.
The shaft 353, as well as the ring 348, are ar
ranged to rotate in a ?xed axis 22-22, which cor
responds to the ?xed axis b-b of Fig. 5. The
shaft 353 is mechanically connected to drive the
output shaft 349 through a differential 355. As
shown, the shaft 353 is connected to the input
gear 355a of the differential through gears 356.
The planetary gears 3550 of the differential de
vice are connected to a shaft 351, which is con
nected to the output shaft 349 by means of gears
358. The gear segment 350 is driven at 1 speed,
the gear 35| at 4 speed, the shaft 352 and the
shaft 353 are driven at 4 speed, the shaft 351 is
driven at 12 speed and the shaft 349 is driven at
36 speed.
The adjustment of the bail 346 in train re
sponsively to the operation of the mimic gun
3|6 in train is transmitted to a “corrected sight
de?ection” output shaft 359 by means of the
ring 348 which drives a gear segment 360 that
in turn drives the shaft 359 through a gear 36|
meshing with the segment. The ball 346, the
ring 348 and the gear segment 360 move at 1
speed, while the shaft 359 is driven at 6 speed
from the gear rack 360.
The angle of cross roll about the line of sight
is introduced into the mechanism by means of
a shaft 362 which drives a shaft 363 through
gears 364. The shaft 363 drives a shaft 365
is driven at 108 speed, the shaft 328 is driven at 1
through gears 366. The shaft 365 drives a worm
speed, the gear 330 is driven at 1 speed, and the
361 which drives a gear segment 368 attached
gears 33l, 332 and the mimic gun 3|6 are driven
40 to the ring 3|8 so as to shift its position on the
at 1 speed.
?xed axis (c—c in accordance with the opera
The mimic gun 3|6 is adjusted in train to gen
tion of the shaft 362. The shaft 362 is driven
erate “sight deflection” by means of a “sight de
by mechanism similar to that which drives the
flection” input shaft 333. The shaft 333 is con
cross level input shaft |3| of the ?rst form of
nected through a differential device 334. As
this invention described. The shaft 363 is driven
shown, the shaft 333 is connected to the input
at 108 speed, the shaft 365 is driven at 120 speed,
gear 334a of the differential by means of gears
‘ while the gear segment 368 and the ring 3|8 are
335. The planetary gears 3341) of the differen
driven at 1 speed.
tial are mechanically connected to drive a shaft
The differential devices 320, 334, and 355 per
336. The shaft 336 is connected to a shaft 331
through gears 338. The shaft 331 is connected 50 form functions similar to the corresponding dif
ferential devices in the trunnion tilt corrector
to drive a shaft 339 through gears 34!]. The
mechanism shown in Fig. 5. Thus, it will be ob
shaft 339 drives a worm 34| which in turn drives
served that when the ring 348 is adjusted in
a gear segment 342. The gear segment 342 drives
train responsively to the operation of the mimic
a shaft 343, which in turn drives a gear segment
344. This gear segment 344 meshes with a gear 55 gun 3|6, motion will be imparted to the “sight
angle” shaft 353 by reason of the fact that the
segment 345 which is connected directly to the
arm 3| 1b of the support 3|1 so that when it is
gear 354 attached to it will rotate on the gear
operated, it adjusts the mimic gun 3|6 in train
354 attached to the shaft 352. This, of course,
would introduce an error into the adjustment
about the axis y'—y'. The shaft 333 is driven
at 216 speed, the shaft 336 is driven at 216, the 60 of the “sight angle” shaft 349. However, when
shafts 331 and 339 are driven at 120 speed, the
the ring 348 is adjusted in train, the angle of
shaft 343 is driven at 1 speed, and the gear seg_
error that would be imparted to the shaft 349
ment 345 and the mimic gun are moved at 1
is subtracted in the differential 355. For this
speed. It is to be noted that the vertical arm
purpose, the ring 348 is connected to an input
3 | 1b of the support 3| 1 is mounted to rotate free 65 gear 35511 of the differential device 355 through
gears 369.
ly upon the shaft 3|1c. That is, the motion of
the mimic gun in train does not impart any
Moreover, when the shaft 333 is operated to
motion to the shaft 3| 1c.
adjust the mimic gun in train, it will be observed
The adjustments of the mimic gun 3|6 in ele
that the position of the mimic gun in elevation
vation and train are imparted to a ring or bail 70 would be changed by the interaction of the gear
346. The bail is provided with trunnions 341
segment 332 with the gear 33l, unless this move
mounted in a ring 348 to rotate in an axis c—c
ment were compensated for. This is compen
corresponding to axis c—c of Fig. 5. The muz
sated for in the differential device 320. As shown,
zle 3|6a of the mimic gun, as shown, is pivotally
the shaft 336 which is driven by the shaft 333
connected to the bail 346.
75 through the differential 334 is mechanically con
33. GEOMETRECM INSTRUMENW.
, ;
gag
,
2,409,914
26
heated to a shaft 310 through the shaft 331,
ferential devices be located in parts of the mech
which is connected to the shaft 310 by gears
anism that operate at speeds relatively high as
31!. The shaft 310 is mechanically connected
compared with the speeds of operation of the
to the planetary gears 3200 of the differential
mimic guns ‘I0 and 3l6; in the form shown in
320 through gears 312. Thus, when the shaft 5 Fig. 12, the differential devices operate in rela
333 is operated to adjust the mimic gun in train,
tively low speed portions of the mechanism.
it will operate the differential device 320 at the
While we have. shown particular embodiments
same time to subtract in this device the angle
of our invention, it will be understood, of course,
of error that would be imparted to the mimic
that we do not wish to be limited thereto, since
gun in elevation by the adjustment of the mimic 10 many modi?cations may be made, and we, there
gun in train.
fore, contemplate by the appended claims to
cover any such modi?cations as fall within the
Furthermore, when the cross level shaft 362
is operated to adjust the position of the cross
true spirit and scope of our invention.
level ring 318, the gear segment 345 will rotate
What we claim as new and desire to secure by
on the gear 344 so as to introduce an error in 15 Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. Gun directing apparatus for a gun support
the train adjustment of the mimic gun, and the
position of the mimic gun in elevation would tend
ed on a mount whose angular position varies
to change by the interaction of the gearing 329
comprising a member adjustable about a set of
and 330. The differentials 334 and 320 com
train and elevation axes, means for adjusting
pensate for these errors respectively. It will be 20 said member about said axes in accordance with
the calculated adjustments to be applied to said
observed that the shaft 363 is connected to the
gun in train and elevation respectively reckoned
input gear 3340 of the differential 334 by means
with reference to a set of planes ?xed with ref
of gears 313 so that when the shaft 363 is oper
ated to adjust the ring 3|8, the shaft 336 will
erence to the earth, means for inclining the po
at the same time be operated through the dif 25 sitions of said axes with reference to said mount
in accordance with the inclination of the trun
ferential device 334 to operate the mimic gun
nions of said gun due to inclination of said mount
to hold it in correct adjusted position in train.
so as to cause said member to assume a position
The shaft 336 also will operate the differential
with reference to mutually normal planes ?xed
320 through gears 3H, shaft 310 and gears 312
to hold the mimic gun in its correct adjusted 30 relatively to the mount corresponding to the po
position in elevation.
sition said gun assumes with reference to said
set of planes ?xed with reference to the earth
‘The operation of this form of the trunnion
when said calculated adjustments are applied to
tilt compensator is substantially the same as that
it and said mount is inclined, and means for
described in Figs. 5 to 11 inclusive and that de
scribed in Fig. 12. In this case, as in the case 35 measuring the angular movement of said mem
ber with reference to said mutually normal
of Fig. 5, the differential devices are located in
planes.
the high speed portions of the mechanism which
2. Gun directing apparatus for a gun mount;
is an advantage in that the differentials can be
ed on a moving support, pomprisiugammimiwcngunh,
made smaller and operate more accurately. Fur
thermore, in the compensator of Fig. 13, the 40 means mounting said mimic gun for adjustment
about a pair of mutually perpendicular train and
mimic gun 3l6 having a U shape and being some
elevation axes, means for adjusting said mimic
what larger than the mimic guns of the other
two forms
will
have
a
greater
mechanical
gun about said axes to generate the train and
elevation adjustments calculated to be applied to
It is to be noted in particular that the axes 45 said gun on mutually perpendicular train and
elevation axes respectively reckoned with refer
x'—-:c' and y’-—y’ of the trunnion tilt compen
ence to true horizontal and vertical planes,
sating mechanisms are representative of the axes '
means for shifting the position of the trunnions
a:—:c and 11-21 about which the main gun I0 is
of said mimic gun with reference to a second set
adjusted, but that it is unnecessary that the axes
:r'--a:’ and y'—y’ bear any de?nite position or 50 of mutually perpendicular axes ?xed with ref
erence to said moving support and representing
relationship on the ship with reference to the
strength.
'
axes of the main gun. In other words, it is not
necessary that the axis m'-—a:' be parallel to the
deck of the ship or that the axis y'—-y' be per
. true vertical and horizontal axes in accordance
with the inclination of the trunnions of said gun
due to movement of said support so as to cause
pendicular to the deck of the ship. These axes 55 said mimic gun to assume a position in space
with reference to said axes ?xed with reference
are merely representative and may take any po
to said moving support that said gun assumes in
sitions relative to the ship. Likewise, while the
{space with reference to the true vertical and hor
axes a—a and c—c, and b—b, are representative
izontal when said calculated adjustments are ap
of the true horizontal and vertical respectively,
it is unnecessary that they actually be positioned 60 plied to it and its trunnions are inclined by move
ment of said support and means measuring the
or maintained in the true horizontal or in the
angular movement of said mimic gun in train
true vertical. They may take any position with
and elevation with reference to said axes ?xed
reference to the true horizontal and the true ver- ~
with reference to said moving support.
tical. These features are very important in that
they obviate the necessity of the provision of 65 3. Gun directing} apparatus for a gun sup
means for maintaining a true vertical.
ported on a mount whose angular position varies
comprising a mimicgun, a support for said mimic
It is to be understood that the numerical val
gun, means mounting said mimic gun on said
ues of the speeds of various elements given in this
support for adjustment on a pair of mutually
speci?cation are by way of example and are not
to be interpreted as limiting the invention to 70 perpendicular train and elevation axes, means
these particular speeds; the speeds of operation of
for adjusting said mimic gun on said axes to gen
each of these elements may vary widely from the
erate the train and elevation adjustments cal
values given by way of example in the speci?ca
culated to be applied to said gun on mutually
tion. The important feature is that in the forms
perpendicular train and elevation axes reckoned
of the invention shown in Figs. 5 and 13, the dif 75 with reference to true horizontal and vertical
‘2,409,914
27
28
planes, WHSiQLLIDCIiHiHEjaQQQUDPOYt continu
mimic gun measuring the position of said mimic
ously with reference to a set of ni'ut?dally perpen
dicular planes representative of the true vertical
gun in train with reference to the ?rst of said
?xed axes and means connected to said connect
and horizontal and ?xed with reference to said
mount in
ordance with the cross roll of said
mount about__the_,line~-of---sight of a target so as
to tilt the trunnions of said mimic gun to cause it
to assume continuously a position with reference
ing member arranged to measure the position of
said mimic gun in elevation with reference to the
second of said ?xed axes.
6. Gun directing apparatus for a real gun sup
ported on a mount whose angular position varies,
comprising a mimic gun, a member supporting
to said mutually perpendicular planes corre
sponding to the position said gun assumes with 10 the trunnions of said mimic gun for adjustment
of said mimic gun in elevation about an axis cor
reference to true vertical and horizontal planes
responding to the axis of adjustment of said gun
when said calculated adjustments are applied to
in elevation, a ring, means supporting said mem
it and the angular position of said mount is
ber in said ring for adjustment in train about a
changing, a movable member connected to said
mimic gun and means operated by movement of 15 second axis perpendicular to said ?rst axis, said
second axis representing the axis of adjustment
said member for generating the adjustments to
of said gun in train, means mounting said ring
be applied to said gun in both train and eleva
for rotation about a ?xed axis representing the
tion.
horizontal, said ?xed axis intersecting said ?rst
4. Gun directing apparatus for a gun support
ed on a, mount whose angular position varies 20 and second axes at their point of intersection, a
second ring mounted to rotate about a second
comprising a mimic gun, a member supporting
the trunnions of said mimic gun for adjustment
?xed axis representing the vertical perpendicular
to said ?rst ?xed axis and intersecting it at the
point of intersection of said ?rst ?xed axis with
responding to the axis of adjustment of said gun
in elevation, a support for said member mount 25 said ?rst and second axes on which said mimic
gun is adjusted, a member connecting the muzzle
ing it for rotation about a second axis perpen
of said mimic gun with said second ring, a pair
dicular to said ?rst axis and representing the
of shafts mounted on said ?rst ring geared to said
axis of adjustment of said gun in train, means
mimic gun and member respectively to adjust said
mounting said support for rotation about a ?xed
axis representing a true horizontal axis, means 30 mimic gun in elevation and train about said ?rst
named axes, means for operating said shafts so
for inclining said support about said ?xed axis in
as to adjust said mimic gun in elevation and train
accordance with the inclination of the trunnions
to generate the calculated adjustment to be ap
of said gun due to inclination of said mount, a
plied to the real gun in elevation and train, means
member mounted to move about a second ?xed
axis perpendicular to said ?rst ?xed axis and 35 for operating said ?rst ring about its ?xed axis
so as to generate the angle of cross roll of said
representing a true vertical, and a connecting
mount across the line of sight to said target, and
member between said mimic gun and said last
means connected to said pair of shafts operating
named member so that said last named member
them responsively to the operation of said operat
is moved to measure the angular position in train
said mimic gun has with reference to the ?rst of 40 ing means for said ?rst ring to compensate for
the changes in adjustment applied to said mimic
said two ?xed axes, said connecting member be
gun in elevation and train by the interaction of
ing arranged to measure the position said mimic
the gearing between said pair of shafts and said
gun has in elevation with reference to‘ the sec
mimic gun and member respectively as said ?rst
ond of said two ?xed axes.
ring in which said shafts are mounted is adjusted
5. Gun directing apparatus for a gun supported
to generate said angle of cross roll.
on a mount whose angular position varies com
7. Gun directing apparatus for a gun sup
prising a mimic gun, a member supporting the
ported on a mount whose angular position varies
trunnions of said mimic gun for adjustment of
of said mimic gun in elevation about an axis cor
said mimic gun in elevation about an axis cor
comprising a mimic gun, a member supporting
responding to the axis of adjustment of said gun 50 the trunnions of said mimic gun for adjustment
of said mimic gun in elevation about an axis cor
in elevation, a ring, means supporting said mem
responding to the axis of adjustment of said gun
ber in said ring for adjustment in train about a
in elevation, a ?rst ring, means supporting said
second axis perpendicular to said ?rst axis, said
member in said ring for adjustment in train about
second axis representing the axis of adjustment
a second axis perpendicular to said ?rst axis, said
of said gun in train, means mounting said ring
second axis representing the axis of adjustment
for rotation about a ?xed axis representing the
of said gun in train, means mounting said ring for
horizontal, said ?xed axis intersecting said ?rst
rotation about a ?xed axis representing the hori
l and second axes at their point of intersection,
zontal, said ?xed axis intersecting said ?rst and
a second ring mounted to rotate about a second
?xed axis representing the vertical perpendicular
second axes at their point of intersection, a sec
ond ring mounted to rotate about a second ?xed
to said ?rst ?xed axis and intersecting it at the
axis representing the vertical perpendicular to
point of intersection of said ?rst ?xed axis with
said ?rst ?xed axis and intersecting it at the point
said ?rst and second axes about which said mimic
of intersection of said ?rst ?xed axis with said
gun is adjusted, a member connecting the muzzle
of said mimic gun with said second ring, means 65 ?rst and second axes about which said mimic gun
is adjusted, a member connecting the muzzle of
connected to said mimic gun to adjust it in eleva
said mimic gun with said second ring, a pair of
tion and train about said ?rst and second axes in
shafts mounted on said ?rst ring geared to said
accordance with the calculated adjustment in ele
mimic gun and member respectively to adjust said
vation and train to be applied to said gun, means
for shifting said ?rst ring about said ?rst ?xed 70 mimic gun in elevation and train about said two
?rst named axes, a second pair of shafts gener~
axis in accordance with the angle of cross roll
ating respectively the calculated adjustments to
of said mount across the line of sight of said tar
be applied to said gun in elevation and train con
get, whereby the trunnions of said mimic gun
nected to said ?rst named shafts respectively, the
are shifted with reference to said two ?xed axes,
the position of said second ring adjusted by said 75 connections including respective differential de
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