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0d. 22, _1946.
A. v.' Louer-@REN
2,409,944
SYSTEM FOR SPACE SCANNING WITH A RADIATED BEAM OÈ‘- WAVE SIGNALS
'origina1._Fi1ed May 2e, 1941
ART>
INVENTOR
RV. LOUGHREN
- ATTORNEY
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
2,409,944
UNITED STATES PATENT ÜFFICE
2,409,944
SYSTEM Fon sPAoE-soANNiNGWiTH A 'RÄ
DIATED BEAM 0F WAVE SIGNALS
Arthur V. Loughren, Great Neck, N. Y., assig?or
by mesne assignments, to Hazeltine Research,
Inc., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois
Original application May 2‘6, 1941, Serial No.
395,172. Divided and this application Novem'
ber 12, 1941, Serial No. 418,712
1c claims. (ol. 25o-11')
l
2
‘This invention relates to systems for space
scanning with a radiated beam of wave signals
and, while the invention is of general application,
it is oi particular utility in systems of the type
in which a predetermined space is scanned with
a sharply-concentrated radiated beam in order to
locate a radiated-signal reñector, such as an air
craft.
The present application is a division of appli
cant’s copending application Serial No. 395,172,
filed May 26, 1941, for a “System for locating a
radiated-signal reñector.”
It has been proposed inr aircraft locating sys
tems to scan a predetermined space in two direc
tions with a sharply-concentrated radiated beam
nals from said source to the signal radiators for
directive radiation effectively in the form of a
sharply-concentrated beam and means for vary
ing the frequency of the wave signals effectively
to vary the relative phase of the signals as applied
to the signal radiators which are spaced in one
of the two above-mentioned dimensions thereby
to’ vary the direction of transmission of the radi
ated beam to eiîect a scanning operation in one
dimension. If the radiators are geometrically
spaced in two dimensions, the system includes
also means for varying the relative phase' of the
signals as applied to said signal radiators which'
are spaced in the other of said predetermined di
mensions at a second predetermined frequency,
of wave signals and to receive the signal which
thereby to vary the direction of transmission of
is reñected from the aircraft to provide an indi
the radiated beam in two dimensions to' scan a
cation of its direction from the locating station.
predetermined space.
It has also» been proposed to deflect the radiated
For a better understanding of the invention,
beam at adiiîerent frequency in each of two di 20 together withother and further objects there
rections in order to scan a given space and to
or, reference is had to the following description
utilize a cathode-ray tube at the receiving sta
taken in connection with the accompanying
tion as the direction-indicating device, the elec
drawing and its'scope will be pointed out inthe
tron beam of the cathode-ray tube being de
appended claims.
ñected synchronously with the deñection of the 25 Fig. 1 of the drawing is a circuit diagram, partly
radiated beam. However, such systems of the
schematic, of a system for scanning a predeter
prior art have had the disadvantage that me
mined space with a sharply-concentrated radi
chanical beam-dellectíng arrangements were
ated beam of wave signals; and Fig. 1a comprises
necessary for causing the radiated- beam to scan
a set of' graphs’which are used in explaining a
the desired space. The general disadvantages of sol portion of the operation of the arrangement of
mechanical scanning arrangements are well un
Fig. 1'.
derstood by those skilled in the television art and
. Referring now more particularly to Fig. 1 of
many of these disadvantages arev also present in
the drawing, the system there represented com
mechanical scanning arrangements of the type
prises an antenna> system IU, means for apply
under consideration.
35 ing a wave signal tothe antenna system for direc
It is an object of the present invention, there
fore, to provide an improved system for scanning
a p-redetermined space with a sharply-concen
tive radiation eiîectively in the form of a sharply
concentrated bieam,. and means for cyclically
Varying the frequency of the wave signal and, by
tratedl radiated beam of wave signalsY which is
virtue of the antenna characteristics as described
not subject to one or more of the disadvantages 40 hereinafter, causing the beam to scan a predeter
of-prior art systems of the type mentioned above.
mine'drspace in one direction. lI'he antenna sys
I >Itis ya further object of the invention to pro
vide a nonmechanical scanning system for scan
ning á, predetermined space with a radiated beam>
ofwave signals.
_
Y
. In accordance with a feature Yof the invention, a
system for scanning a predetermined space with
a radiated beam comprises, a radiating system in
cluding a plurality of signal radiatorslgeometri
tem l0 includes a plurality of directional signal
radiators vshown as dipoles D1-D24, inclusive, ge
ometrically, or vphysically spaced in two dimen
sions and electrically spaced` in` one dimension.
Specifically, the conductors of the dipoles are all
disposed in the same horizontal plane and are
parallel to'each other,v Dipoles Di-Ds, inclusive,
are spaced in a' ñrst dimension in a longitudinal
cally spaced in either of two dimensions, `or both, 50 array, while the sets of dipoles 13a-D12, inclusive,
means including a plurality >of electrical delay
D13-Dra, inclusive, îand Die-D24, inclusive, are sim
networks for electrically spacing the signal radi
ators in one of the dimensions, and a source of
high-frequency Wave signals.’ This* signal com
ilarly Y_spaced in other horizontal arrays and are
arranged, _in the order named, tov one side of the
set of f_ìipolesK D15-D6, inclusive, to form an array
prises means'for individually applying wave sig 55 of dipole sets, each set including an array of
2,409,944
3
six dipole antennae and the sets being spaced in
4
In order to suppress radiation downward from
the plane including the conductors of dipoles
Di-Dzi, inclusive, a reflecting conductor I'I is dis
posed below each of the dipoles. These reflec
tors increase the useful energy in the desired di
rection of radiation and minimize minor spurious
a second dimension. The dipoles of each of the
above-mentioned sets of dipoles are energized in
parallel except that the above-mentioned electri
cal spacing in the one dimension between the
individual dipoles of the sets is provided by delay
beams.
-networks F interposed between adjacent dipoles.
'In considering the operation of the system of
The geometrical spacing of the dipoles in each
Fig. 1 and neglecting for the moment the func
lset in the above-mentioned one dimension is pref
erably made approximately one-half wave length 10 tions of generators I3 and I5, it will be seen that
the system comprises a plurality of directional
of the mean or nominal frequency of the wave
signal radiators geometrically spaced in the
signal to be applied to the system, while the elec
above-mentioned first dimension and in the
trical spacing due to delay networks F, F is made
above-mentioned second dimension and that the
to be an integral number of wave lengths at'the
signal radiators which are geometrically spaced
nominal or mean frequency of the system. The
in the first dimension are also electrically spaced
sets of dipoles are also preferably spaced in the
by a time-phase displacement due to time-de
dimension normal to the sets, or in the above
lay units F. Considering for the moment only
mentioned second dimension, by a distance ap
the set of dipoles Di-Da, inclusive, in the con
proximately equal to one-half the wave length
of the mean or nominal frequency of the Wave 20 dition where they are all excited in the same
phase, it is seen that this is a known form of
signal t0 be applied to the system. j
antenna array by which the radiation is concen
The means for applying a Wave signal to the
trated relative to the radiation pattern of a
antenna system I9 for directive radiation effec
single dipole. The concentration of energy into
tively in the form of a sharply-concentrated beam
comprises a high-frequency oscillator II of any 25 the beam takes place at the expense of the re
gions generally in the direction of the ends of
suitable type adapted for frequency modulation
the row of dipoles. Furthermore, it is seen that
individually coupled to each of the sets of di
poles through transformers Ta, Tb, Te, and Td
the reflectors I'I limit or suppress a substantial
part of the radiation in the direction in which
having their primary windings connected in se
ries and coupled to the high-frequency oscilla 30 they are spaced from their associated dipole con
ductors. The resulting radiation pattern has a
tor II and their respective secondary windings
fan-shaped configuration with its major dimen
coupled to the above-mentioned sets of dipoles
sion vertically above the'row of dipoles, its small
through phase Shifters I2a, I2b, I2C, and I2cl, re
est dimension parallel to the row, and its inter
spectively, which have the same phase shift at
the nominal or mean value of the field-frequency 35 mediate dimension parallel to the individual di
generator.
poles.
,
. The effect of adding the other sets of dipoles
In order to vary the relative phase of the sig
is to concentrate the radiated signal to the form
nals as applied to the signal radiators of antenna
of a sharply-concentrated beam. In the case
system I0 which are spaced in the above-men
tioned one dimension at a first predetermined 40 where all rows are excited with a common phase
the direction of this beam will be at right angles
frequency, there is provided means for varying
to the plane of the lcomplete array. The reason
the frequency of the signal developed bythe
for this is that the signals radiated from any pair
high-frequency oscillator II at the above-men
of antennae are in phase only in the direction
tioned first predetermined frequency. Specifi
cally, there is provided a line-frequency gener 45 normal to the plane containing the dipoles.
Considering now the function of `line-frequency
ator I3 which is adapted to be synchronized from
generator I3, it is seen that it is effective to vary
al timer I4, the output circuit of the line-fre
the frequency of the output of oscillator I I cycli
quency generator I3 being` coupled to high-fre
cally and directly in accordance with its wave
quency generator II in order to vary the output
frequency ofithis unit in accordance’withV the 50 form, which is preferably a linear saw-tooth
wave form.I Due to the fact that the dipoles of
wave form of the signal developed by line-fre
each of the above-mentioned sets are electrically
quency generator I3, in any conventional man
spaced by the time-delay networks F, the effect
of this frequency variation is to vary the relative
In order to vary the relative phase of the sig
nals as applied to the signal radiators of antenna 55 phase of the excitation of the dipoles of each
set. VThus, for a frequency somewhat different
I0 which are spaced in the above-mentioned sec
than the nominal or mean frequency of the sys
ond dimension at a second predetermined fre
tem, the signals radiated by each of a pair of
quency, there is provided a field-frequency gen'
adjacent dipoles of a set are not in phase in the
erator I5, also adapted to be synchronized by
timer I4 and having an output circuit coupled 60 vertical direction but are in phase in a direction
displaced therefrom by an amount dependent
across a voltage-divider resistor 9, the mid-tap
upon the relative phase of antenna excitation.
of which is grounded. A control voltage is de
Thus, the line-frequency generator I3 comprises
rived from one end of resistor 9 and utilized to
means for Varying the phase of thesignal as ap
control phase shifter I2a while a Voltage of
opposite polarity is derived from the other end 65 plied to the signal radiators of each of the above
mentioned sets at the frequency of the signal gen
of resistor 9 and utilized to control phase shifter
erated by line-'frequency generator I3 as a result
I2d. Control voltages for phase Shifters l2b- and
ner.
.
.
I2C are derived from intermediate points on re
of the frequency variation of the output of oscil
lator II by «line-frequency generator I3 and for
sistor 9 as illustrated in the drawing. The phase
Shifters I2a_-i2d, inclusive, may be of any con 70 eñecting space-scanning by the concentrated
radiated beam in lines in the above-mentioned
ventional type and it is to be understood that
one dimension.
Y
the phase shift of each of these units is de
- If the effect of field-frequency generator I5
pendent upon the magnitude and polarity of the
is now considered, it is seen that the voltage out
control voltage derived from the resistor 9 for
75 put of this generator, which is also preferably
the particular unit under consideration.
2,409,944
E,
of a linear saw-tooth wave form, is effective to
changes and modifications as fall Within the true
vary the relative phase of the dipoles which are
spirit and scope of the invention.
'
spaced in the above-mentioned second dimension
What is claimed is:
at the frequency of this generator. Reference is
- 1. A system for scanning a predetermined space
made to Fig. la for an explanation of the oper Ul with a radiated beam comprising, a radiating
ation of this generator. Thus, curves lla, 1lb,
llc, and il'd represent the control voltages ap
system including a plurality of signal radiators
geometrica'lly spaced in one dimension, means
plied to phase Shifters 62a, l2b, I2C, and IZd,
including a plurality of electrical delay networks
respectively. It is thus seen that, at the begin
for electrically spacing said signal radiators in
ning of the field-trace period, the signals applied 10 said one dimension, a source of high-frequency
wave signals, means for individually applying
to sets of dipoles Di-DG, inclusive, and Bft-D12,
inclusive, are shifted in phase in one sense and
Wave signals from said source to said signal
radiators for directive radiation effectively in
plied to sets of dipoles D13-D18, inclusive, and
the form of a sharply-concentrated beam, and
Dis-D24, inclusive, are correspondingly shifted 15 means for varying the frequency of said wave sig
in phase in the opposite sense and by different
nals effectively to vary the relative phase of
amounts. The result of this excitation is to tilt
said signals as applied to said signal radiators,
the transmitted beam in the above-mentioned
thereby to vary the direction of transmission of
second dimension because it is only in such a
said radiated beam.
direction that the signals radiated by two adja 20
2. A system for scanning a predetermined space
cent dipoles which are spaced in the second dimen
with a radiated beam comprising, a radiating sys
sion, for example, dipoles De and D12, are exactly
tem including a plurality of signal radiators geo
in phase. Furthermore, it is seen that the amount
metrically spaced in one dimension and means
of this tilt in the seco-nd dimension changes dur
for electrically spacing them in the said one
ing the field-scanning period due to the change 25 dimension, a source of high-frequency wave sig
of relative excitation phase of the sets of dipoles
nals, means for individually applying wave sig
eñected by field-scanning generator I5. Speci
nals from said source to said signal radiators
fically, the amount of tilt in the second dimen
for directive radiation effectively in the form of
a sharply-concentrated beam, and means com
sion decreases to Zero, at which time the beam
is vertical and then increases in the opposite
prising said electrical spacing means and means
sense. The arrangement of Fig. l is thus effec
for varying the frequency of said wave signals
effectively to vary the relative phase of the sig
tive to vary the direction of transmission of the
sharply-concentrated beam in two directions to
nals as applied to said radiators which are spaced
scan a predetermined space with the beam.
in said one dimension at a first predetermined
frequency, thereby to vary the direction of trans
While applicant does not intend to limit the
by different amounts and that the signals ap
invention to any particular design constantsthe
mission of said radiated beam to eñect a scan
following values are appropriate for a system
for scanning space with a radiated beam for use
ning operation in said one dimension.
3. A system for scanning a predetermined space
with a radiated beam comprising, a radiating
system including a plurality of signal radiators
in a plane-locating system:
Mean
or normal frequency
for
oscillator l1 _______________ __
10D-1000 megacycles
Frequency of line-scanning gen
geometrically spaced in two dimensions and
means for electrically spacing them in one of
Frequency of field-scanning gen`
the two dimensions, a source of high-frequency
erator 15 __________________ __ 10~30 cycles
10 periods at
Time delay of Networks F ____ ___ 5 to
Wave signals, means for individually applying
nominal carrier fre 45
wave signals from said source to said signalr radi
quency.
ators for directive radiation effectively in the form
It has heretofore been stated that the spacing
erator 13 __________________ __
50G-5000 cycles
between the dipoles of the sets of dipoles Di-De,
of a sharply-concentrated beam, means compris- ~
inclusive, Bfr-D12, inclusive, etc., is preferably
ing said electrical spacing means and means for
varying the frequency of said wave signals eiîec
made approximately one-half wave length of the
mean or nominal frequency of the operating fre 50 tively to vary the relative phase of the signals
as applied to said radiators which are spaced
quency range of the antenna system. When the
in said one dimension at a lirst predetermined
networks F have a time delay of iive periods at
frequency, and means for varying the relative
the nominal operating frequency of the system,
phase of said signals as applied to said signal
it will be evident that the networks provide be
tween any adjacent pair of dipoles an electrical 55 radiators which are spaced in the other dimen
sion at a second predetermined frequency, thereby
spacing having a value, measured in wave lengths
to vary the direction of transmission of said
of the nominal operating frequency of the sys
radiated ‘beam in two dimensions to scan a prede
Vtem, ten times the value of physical spacing of
termined space.
the dipoles of a set. Likewise, a time delay of
4. A system for scanning a predetermined space
ten periods provides an electrical spacing twenty 60
times the physical spacing. Electrical spacings
with a radiated beam comprising, a radiating
“higher order of magnitude” as used in the ap
a source of high-frequency wave signals, means
system including a plurality of signal radiators
of ten to twenty times the physical spacings,
effectively grouped in one dimension in a plu
as referred to adjacent pairs of dipoles, are> of
rality of arrays which are spaced in alignment '
a higher order of magnitude than thephysical
65 in another dimension, means for electrically spac
spacings and this is the meaning of the term
ing said signal radiators in said one dimension,
pended claims.
for individually applying wave signals from said
While there has been described what is at
source to said signal radiators for directive radi
present considered to be the preferred embodi 70 ation eifectively in the form of' a sharply-con
ment of this invention, it will be obvious to
centrated beam, means comprising said electrical
those skilled in the art that various changes and
spacing means and means for varying the fre
quency of said wave signals effectively to vary the
modifications may be made therein without de
effective phase of the signals as applied to said
parting from the invention, and it is, therefore,
aimed in the appended claims to cover all such 75 radiators which are spaced in said one dimension
2,409,944
7
8
cal spacing of said pair of elements, whereby
at a first predetermined frequency, ‘and-means
for varying the relative phase of said signals
said system has a sharply-directive characteristic
as applied to said signal radiators which are
spaced in said other dimension at a second prede
having a maximum value in a direction which
varies with the frequency of a wave signal trans
termined frequency, thereby to vary the direc
lated by said antenna elements, and translating
tion of transmission of said radiated beam in two
dimensions to scan a predetermined space.
means interposed Ibetween said antenna elements
which are spaced in the other dimension and
said wave-signal translating circuit for effectively
5. , A system for scanning a predetermined space
varying the relative phases of the wave signals
system including a plurality of signal radiators 10 translated between said antenna elements spaced
in said other dimension and said circuit, whereby
geometrically spaced in two dimensions and
the directive characteristic of said system has a
means for electrically spacing them in one of
with a radiated beam comprising, a radiating
maximum value in a direction additionally vary
ing with the relative phases of said last-men
wave signals, means for individually applying
tioned translated wave signals.
wave signals from said source to said signal radi
8. A radiated-signal translating system having
ators for directive radiation eiîectively in the
a sharply-directive characteristic variable in di
form of a sharply-concentrated beam, means
rection with frequency over a predetermined
comprising said electrical spacing means and
operating frequency range comprising, a plural
means for varying the frequency of said wave sig
nals in accordance with a saw-tooth wave form 20 ity of radiated-signal translators physically
spaced in one dimension by predetermined wave
effectively to vary the relative phase of the sig
length values at the nominal frequency of said
nals as applied to said radiators which are spaced
range, a wave-signal translating circuit, and
in said one dimension at a first predetermined
wave-signal delay means coupling said transla
frequency, and means for varying the relative
phase of said signals as applied to said signal 25 tors to said circuit and providing between any
adjacent pair of translators an electrical spac
radiators which are spaced in the other dimen
ing having a wave length value at said nominal
sion at a second predetermined- frequency, there
frequency of a higher order of magnitude than
by to vary the direction of transmission of said
said predetermined value of physical spacing of
radiated beam in two dimensions to scan a prede
30 said pair of translators, whereby said system has
termined space.
a sharply-directive characteristic having a maxi
6. A radiated-signal translating system having
mum value in a direction which varies with the
a sharply-directive characteristic variable in one
frequency of a Wave signal translated by said
direction with frequency over a predetermined
radiated-signal translators.
operating frequency range and variable in an
9. A radiated-signal translating system having
other direction with phase comprising, a plu 35
a sharply-directive characteristic variable in
rality of radiated-signal translators physically
the two dimensions, a source of high-frequency
spaced in two dimensions by predetermined wave
length values at the nominal frequency of said
range, a wave-signal translating circuit, means
direction with frequency over a predetermined
operating frequency range comprising, a plurality
of radiated-signal translators physically spaced
coupling said translators to said circuit and pro 40 in one dimension by predetermined wave length
values at the nominal frequency of said range,
viding between any adjacent pair of translators
a wave-signal translating circuit, and a plurality
spaced in one of the two dimensions an electrical
of electrical delay networks individually inter
spacing having a wave length value at said nom
posed between said translators for coupling said
inal frequency of a higher order of magnitude
than said predetermined value of physical spac 45 translators to said circuit and for providing be
tween any adjacent pair of translators an elec
ing of said pair of translators, whereby said
trical spacing having a wave length value at said
system has a sharply directive characteristic hav
nominal frequency of a higher order of magni
ing a maximum value in a direction which varies
tude than said predetermined value of physical
with the frequency of a wave signal translated
by said radiated-signal translators, and trans 50 spacing of said pair of translators, whereby said
system has a sharply-directive characteristic hav
lating means interposed between said translators
ing a maximum value in a direction which varies
which are spaced in the other dimension and said
with the frequency of a wave signal translated
wave-signal translating circuit for effectively
by said radiated-signal translators.
varying the relative phases of the wave signals
10. An antenna system having a sharply-direc
translated between said translators spaced in 55
tive characteristic variable in direction with fre
said other dimension and said circuit, whereby
quency over a predetermined operating frequency
the directive characteristic of said system has a
range comprising, a plurality of antenna elements
maximum value in a direction additionally vary
physically spaced in one dimension by prede-v
ing with the relative phases of said last-men
60 termined wave length values at the nominal fre
tioned translated wave signals.
quency of said range, a wave-signal translating
7. An antenna system having a sharply-direc
circuit, and wave-signal delay means coupling
tive characteristic variable in one direction with
said antenna elements to said circuit and provid
frequency over a predetermined operating fre
ing between any adjacent pair of elements an
quency range and variablein another direction
electrical-spacing having a wave length value
with p-hase comprising, a plurality of antenna
at said nominal frequency of a higher order of
elements physically spaced in two dimensions by
magnitude than said predetermined value of
predetermined wave length values at the nominal
physical spacing of said pair of elements, whereby
frequency of said range, a wave-signal vtranslat
said system has a sharply-directive characteris
ing circuit, means coupling said elements to said
circuit and providing between any adjacent pair 70 tic having a maximum value in a direction which
varies with the frequency of a wave signal trans
of elements in one of the two dimensions an
lated by said antenna elements.
electrical spacing having a wave length value at
said nominal frequency of a higher order of mag
nitude than said predetermined value of physi
ARTHUR V. LOUGHREN.
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