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Патент USA US2409951

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Get. 22, ’1946.
’ w. J. Low-Es
2,409,945
AMMUNITION
Filed Jung 25, 1943
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Filed June 25, 1945
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Patented Oct. 22, 1946
UNETE
2,469,945
STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,409,945
AMMUNITION
William J. Lowes, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Harris
Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago, Ill., a cor
poration of Illinois, as trustee
1
Application .lf une 25, 1943, Serial No. 492,257
6 Claims. (c1. 1oz-64)
My invention relates in general to ammuni
tion, but more specifically to a grenade or shell
which may be thown by hand, or which may
be projected by a propelling charge from a
mortar or from a riñe grenade launcher.
The shell unit comprises in general a grenade
body filled with explosive and having ñn structure
at one end and at its other end having a nose
assembly Within which are elements controlled
upon impact of the shell with the terrain to
elîect ignition of a fuse for explosion and dis
2
FigureV 3 is a section of the cartridge support
ing bushing before insertion into the ñn struc
ture bore;
Figure 4 is a section like Figure 2 but showing
the fin structure bore receiving a rifle attachment
for projection of the shell from a rifle;
Figure 5 is an end View of the fin structure;
Figure 6 is an enlarged section on plane II--II
of Figure l of a portion of the shell body and the
impact structure frame showing the retention
pin and the safety pin or bar in normal position;
ruption of the grenade body.
Figure ’7 is a section on plane VII-_VII of
An important object of my invention is to
Figure’ô;
'
provide, in the fuse controlling assembly, a
Figure 8 is a section on plane VIII-VIII of '
movable vexplosive impact member or nose pro 15 Figure '7;
Vided with a Vprimer or ñring cap engageable,
Figure 9 is a section like Figure 'l but with the
upon impact of said impact element with the
retention pin withdrawn and the safety bar re
terrain, with a liring pin for explosion, and igni- k
leased from the safety latch structure; and
tion of the fuse for explosion of. the grenade
Figure 1I) is a section like Figure 6 showing the
body.
20 arrangement of the various parts upon impact
A further object is -to provide improved safety
of the impact member ñring cap with the firing
means normally held interposed between the
priming cap and the firing pin by latch mecha
The shell comprises the substantially ellipti
nism from which the safety means may be man
cal Íbody I0 ñlled with a suitable explosive and
ually released when the shell is to be thrown by
serrated on its outerside to provide segments II.
hand, and which latch means will automatically
Intermediate its ends the body has the cylindrical
release the safety means when the shell is pro
belt I2 which will act as a piston when the shell
pin.
jected from the mortar or other weapon by a pro
pelling charge.
v
Still another object is to provide latching
means, which, upon projection of the shell by
a propelling charge, will be controlled by inertia
for release movement of the safety means so that,
upon impact of the impact member with the
terrain, the iiring cap may engage the firing
pin for the explosion to set oiî the fuse, and with
c
,
is to be fired from a weapon such as a mortar.
The inner end wall of the body III has the opening
I3 in which is secured the end I4 of the body I5
of the fin structure F, fins I6 extending from the
body in radial direction and with the radial ex
tent of the fins such that their outer edges may
engage in the bore of a mortar to assist the piston
belt I2 of the body IIJ in guiding the shell through .
the mortar bore, the ñns also serving to guide the
such explosion of the impact member tending to
flight of the shell.
.
hurl the shell back into the air for explosion of
Mounted on the outer end of the grenade body
the shell body while in the air by the fuse which
I Il, concentric therewith, is a nose frame I'I hav
40 `ing the outer dome-shaped or substantially semi
has been accordingly timed.
Still another object is to provide the fin struc
spherical end I 8. This frame has the exteriorly
ture with a bore for receiving the end of a
threaded flange I9 extending from its base for
riñe, or a rifle attachment, Vfor rifle projection
threaded engagement in the outer end of the
of the shell, or to receive a cartridge holder and
grenade body I 0 to seat against the annular
cartridge when the shell is to be projected from
shoulder 2li. The domed end I8 has the cylindri
a weapon such as a mortar.
cal passageway ZI therethrough concentric with
The above referred to -and other features of
the frame I‘I and the body Ill, and axially mov
my inventon are shown embodied in the structure
able in this passageway is the impact member
shown on the accompanying drawings in which:
or _nose 22 in the form of a cylindrical cartridge
50
Figure 1 is a side elevation of the shell;
having the head 2,3 at its inner end and inter
Figure 2 is a section of plane II-II of Figure 1
mediate its ends a circumferential ridge 24 which
of the shell body and fin structure showing the
normally engages againstthe inner side of-the
application of a blank cartridge and a supporting
domed end I8, as shown on Figure 6. The
bushing therefor in the lbore of the ñn structure
cartridge is filled with suitable explosive mate
for' mortar firing of the shell;
rial and in its head it has the firing cap 25.
2,409,945
The base 26 of the nose frame I1 has a threaded
opening therethrough for receiving the plug 21
from which a post 28 extends axially in the
frame I1 and terminates in a firing point or pin
29 in ali-gnment with the ñring cap 25. The base
26 and the plug 21 form a closure for the outer
end of the grenade body I0, the plug having the
4
44, this being accomplished by a short outward
pull of the safety pin to bring the outer end
of the longitudinal slot 5l] into register with the
latch pin 49 so that the spring 43 may swing
the safety pin with its inner end away from the
ledge 36 and with the central portion of the
safety pin away from its normal position between
the impact member ñring cap and the firing pin,
as shown on Figure 9, the pin coming to rest
hole 3B therethrough for a fuse 3|, the linterior
of the nose frame I1 constituting a firing cham
ber 32 for the fuse. When, after projecting of 10 when its inner end strikes the wall of the frame
I1» at the end of the recess 52 in the wall. After
the shell, the impact nose 22 impacts the terrain
release of the safety pin, the retention pin will
or an obstruction and is shifted inwardly to
still’b‘e in with its inner end between the firing
explode upon engagement of its firing cap with
the firing pin 29, the ignited fuse will, after’a pre
determined time interval, ignite the explosive
charge in the grenade body I0.
cap and the firing pin, and just before the shell
is-thrown, the retention pin is pulled out. Now,
when the projected impact nose hits the terrain
or other obstruction, it will be shifted inwardly
in the frame I1 for engagement of its firing cap
Safety means for normally preventingY engage
ment of the impact nose firing cap with the firing
with the firing pin, as shown in Figure 10. The
pin comprises a safety pin 33 and a retention
pin 34. The safety pin is shown in the form of 20 impact nose or cartridge will then explode and
create fire in the firing ‘chamber 32 for ignition
a bar insertable through the opening 35 in the
of the fuse 3I and then ignition of the explosiveside of thenose frame I1 to extend normally
charge within the grenade body It). When the
diametrally through the firing chamber 32 with
impact nose or cartridge» is fired upon hitting
its inner end resting on a ledge 36 at the-oppo
site side o-f the frame I1, the bar being thus 25 the ground, the explosion thereof will tend to
recoil and throw the vshell back up into the air,
normally disposed between the firing cap and the
and the’rate of' burning or timing of the fuse
firing pin, andthe bar inwardly of its» middle
3»I» is such that .the explosive within the grenade
pointhaving upwardly extending cross> ridges 31
bodyl I0 will be ignited when the shell is in the air
engaging the head23 vof the impact nose to hold
it with its ridge 24> normally in engagement with 30 after such> recoil or rebound, thus making the
shell much more» effective in destructiveness.
the inner side of the domed» end I8 of the frame
Provision is made for projecting the shell from
I1, as shown'on Figure 6.
a weapon such as a mortar by- a propelling
The retention pin 34 is shown in the form ofV a
fiat bar insertable through a passage 387m the
charge as from a cartridge. For this purpose, the
l side wall- of frame I1 and the safety pin 33 tends
for firing ofthe explosive‘material 59.
Before the shell' is put' into` the mortar, the
Abody- i5 of the nn structure F is provided with
side wall of the frame I1 for extension radially
a cylindrical axial bore 53r` into which a bushing
in the firing chamber 32 with its inner end be
54 may be inserted for seating a blank cartridge
tween the safety bar 33 andthe firing pin, as
55. Spring legs 56- onthe bushing will tend to
shown in Figures 6 and 7. A ring 39'at the outer
hold it frictionally in the bore 53, thecartridge
end of the retention pin facilitates withdrawal
thereof at. the proper time before the shell is 40. being inserted through the bushing hole 51 for
engagement of its end in the recess 58 in the
to be thrown. Thus the safety pin and the reten
extension I4 of thefinstruc'ture which is secured
tion pin are normally interposed between the
in the opening I3 of the grenade body IIJ. Now,
fir-ing pin and the impact member firing cap.
when the shell is inserted into- the bore of a
AtV its-outer end the safety pin 33 has a head
4D`normally ñtting into a recessliI in theA framel 45 mortar, andthe cartridge is ñred'by a ñring pin,
the shellwillbe projected from the‘mortar. To
I1 to shut off the firing chamber 32 from the
provide- additional» projection force, powder or
exteriorya grip flange or knob 42 being formed
other explosive increments 59‘may beinserted in
at the outer end of the pinV so that it may be
or through slots 60 in the ñns I6 so’that when
grasped forV manual pulling when the shellY is'to
50 thecartridge 55-is-fired, the >flame therefrom may
be-thrown by hand;
pass through openings 6 I »in the ñn structure'body
A compression spring 43«extending between the
to swing the safety pin out of its normal posi
retention pin 34` isV withdrawn. Now, when the’
ing normally resisted by latch mechanism.- This 55 shell-is projected from-the mortar, the latch‘bolt
44- Will be automatically withdrawn to release
latch mechanismcomprises a latch bolt 4l!V shift
the safety pin 33'from-the latch pinA 49' for swing
able in a bore 45 in the base wall-26 of the frame
of the safety pin out of its- normal position by
I1, the bore at its-inner end being closed by a
the spring 43 so that the' impact' nose 22 will be
plug 46.- The latch boltterminates in a head 41
between which and the base 26 is‘interposedy a 60 free to engage its ñring cap with the firing pin
when the impact nose strikes the ground. This
spring 48 which tends tofhold'the bolt out. The»
automatic action» of the latch bolt is caused by
latch bolt head has the latch pin- 49y extending
the force of inertia` when thel shell is projected
therefrom for engagement' normally» in the inner
from the mortar, this inertia effect on the latch
endvof a longitudinally extending slot 53 in the
end of the safety pin, from the outer'end of which 65 bolt causing it to be shifted to withdraw the latch
pin 49 from the slotv Eßin the safety pin to per
slot a transverse slot` 5| extends to the rear
mit the latchbolt to be moved‘readily into the
edge of the-safety pin, as shown onFigures 7- and'
bore 45 by the inertia effect, the bolt may be pro
9.. When the safety pin is thus held in its’norrnal
vided witha longitudinal groove 62 for escape of'
position against swing by the spring 43,»the spring
43 willurge the latch bolt upwardly against the 70 the air out> of the bore 45fwhen the bolt is shifted
inner end of the safety pin to hold the safety
thereinto.
When theA shell is projected from' a mortar',
pin ridges Y3.1 against the `impact nose tohold this
the impact> nose-or cartridgeZZ'will also beA sub
nose> in its normal position, as shown in Figure 6.
jectedrto inertia force tending to shift it inwardly.
If the shell’is to be thrown by hand, the safety
tion (counterclockwise Figure '7) , such swing be
pin 33 will ñrstv be released from the latçh 130.11?
‘ As the mass of the:` impact nose is‘greater'tharr
2,409,945
that of the latch bolt 44, and response of the
bolt 44 to the inertia is resisted ~by the spring 48,
the safety pin 33 which normally rests at its outer
6
impacted, said `firing cap may come into en
gagement with said ñring pin for explosion' of
said impact member and ignition of said fuse
connection and the explosive material in said
grenade body.
end on the bottom of the slot`35 and at its inner
end on the shoulder 36, will absorb and dissipate
the inertia pressure of the impact nose before
2. In a shell of the type described a grenade
the inertia becomes effective to shift the latch
body containing explosive material, a nose frame
bolt 44 for unlatching of the safety pin. The im
secured to said body, a fuse connection between
pact nose thus remains in its normal or outer
the interior of said body and said nose frame,
position until impact thereof with the ground 10 an
impact member -mounted in the end of said
and then, as the released safety pin has been
frame to project therefrom for axial inward
swung to its released position by the spring 43,
movement upon impact, said impact element con
the impact nose will be shifted inwardly by the
taining an explosive and having a, firing cap
impact for engagement of its firing cap with the
therefor, a firing pin in said frame in the path
ñring pin 29, the safety pin, during such inward 15 of said element, a safety bar extending intomovement of the impact nose, being swung down
said frame from the exterior thereof to be nor
as shown on Figure 10. If the shell is to be
mally disposed between said firing cap and pin
launched from a rifle, the bushing 54 is with
to prevent engagement thereof, a spring tending
drawn from the bore of the ñn structure and
to swing said bar out of its normal position, a
an A, T. grenade launcher 63 is attached to a 20 safety latch normally engaged by the inner end
riñe and its end projected into the ñn structure
of said safety bar to hold said bar in normal
bore 53, as shown on Figure 4. For such rifle
position against the force of said spring, means
launching, powder increments 59 would not be
whereby said bar upon outward manual move
applied to the fins. The powder increment would
ment thereof will be released from said safety
be applied before launching of the shell from a 25 latch for swing by said spring out of its normal
weapon such as a mortar, but would not be ap
position, whereby, when said shell is thrown and
plied for rifle launching or for hand throwing.
said impact element is impacted, said ñring cap
In the face of capture by an enemy, the reten
may come into engagement with said firing pin
tion pin could be pulled out and the safety pin
for explosion of said impact element and ignition
released from the latch bolt so that the impact 30 of said fuse connection and the explosive ma
nose would be free and any attempt by the enemy
terial in said grenade body, said fuse connection
to use the shell would probably result in engage
being timed so that the explosion of said impact
ment of the impact cartridge with the ñring pin
element may rebound the shell back into the air
and explosion of the shell during launching from
before the explosive material in said grenade body
a weapon such as a mortar or rifle and with 35 is ignited.
destruction of the enemy within range of the ex
plosion, The shell could also be used as a per
sonal mine or booby trap after withdrawal of
v
3. A shell of the type ‘described comprising a
grenade body loaded with explosive material and
having a iin structure extending from one end
the retention pin and release of the safety pin.
thereof, a nose frame secured to the other end of
I have thus produced a shell which can be 40 said body and defining a firing chamber, a fuse
thrown by hand or launched by a propelling
connection between said firing chamber and the
charge from weapons such as mortars or riñes
interior of said grenade body, an impact member
and which, after impact of the impact nose with
projecting through the outer end of said nose
the ground, will be hurled back into the air for
frame for inward movement therein upon impact
explosion of the grenade body while in the air
on the outer end thereof after projecting of the
`by the delayed fuse connection,
shell, said impact member containing explosive
I have shown a practical and eii‘lcient embodi
ment of my invention but I do not desire to be
material and having a firing cap therefor, a firing
pin within said firing chamber in the path of said
limited to the exact construction, arrangement 50 firing cap when said impact element is shifted
inwardly, said nose frame having an opening
and operation shown and described as changes
and modifications may be made without depart
ing from the scope of the invention.
I claim as follows:
through one side and an internal shoulder on the
other side, a safety bar extending through said
opening for engaging with its inner end on said
shoulder to be normaly between said impact ele
1. In a shell of the type described, a grenade 55 ment and firing pin and to hold said element in its
body containing explosive material, a nose frame
outer position, a spring tending to swing said
secured to said body, a fuse connection between
safety bar laterally out of its normal position,
the interior of said body and said nose frame, an
said bar at its inner end having a bayonet slot,
impact member mounted in the end of said frame
a spring urged latch bolt having a latch pin
to project therefrom for axial inward movement
normally extending into said slot to hold said
upon impact, said impact element containing an
safety bar on said shoulder and against swing
explosive and having a firing cap therefor, a fir
ing pin in said frame in the path of said element,
a safety bar extending into said frame from the
exterior thereof to be normally disposed between
said firing cap and pin to prevent engagement
thereof, a spring tending. to swing said bar later
ally out of its normal position, a safety latch nor
mally engaged by the inner end of said safety
bar to hold said bar in normal position against
the force of said spring, means whereby said bar
upon outward manual movement thereof will be
released from said safety latch for swing by said
spring out of its normal position, whereby, when
said shell is thrown and said impact member is
by said spring, a short manual outward move
ment of said safety bar releasing the inner end
of the slot from said latch bolt pin whereby said
spring becomes effective to swing said safety bar'
out of its normal position for exposure of said
ñring pin to said firing cap when said impact
member is shifted inwardly upon impact thereof
after projection of the shell.
4. A shell of the type described comprising a
grenade body loaded with explosive material and
having a iin structure extending from one end
thereof, a nose frame secured to the other end
of said body and deíining a firing chamber, a fuse
connection between said ñring chamber and the
2,409,945>
7
interior of said-grenade body, an impact element
projecting- through the outer end of said nose
frame rfor inward movement therein upon impact
on the outer end thereof after» projecting of the
shell, said impact element containing explosive
material and having a firing cap therefor, a firing
pinvvithin said firing chamber in the path of said
ñring cap when said impact element is shifted in
wardly, said nose frame having an opening
through one side and an internal shoulder on
the other side, a safety bar extending through
said opening for engaging with its inner end on
said shoulder to be normally betweensaid impact
element and’ firing pin and to hold said element
it its outer position, a spring tending to shift said
safety bar out of its normal position, said bar
at'its inner end having a latch slot, a spring
urged latch bolt having a latch pin normally ex
tending into said slot to hold said safety- bar on
8
its‘iînner end on said shoulder so as to be normally
disposed below said impact element to hold it in
normal position and to be interposed between the
firing cap and the ñring pin, a spring tending to
Ul . swing said safety bar away from said shoulder for
exposure of the ñring pin to the firing cap, said
safety bar at its inner end having a latch slot, the
base of said nose frame having a bore, a latch
bolt movable inwardly in said bore and termi
nating at its outer end in a latch pin, a spring for
said latch Vbolt normally holding it shifted out
with its latch pin in said slot for holding said
safety bar in normal position`v against the force
of saidv ñrst mentioned spring, said latch bolt,
upon projection of said shell under a projecting
charge, being' responsive to inertia to withdraw
its pin from said slot whereby said iirst mentioned
spring may swing said safety bar for exposure of
said firing pin to said ñring cap for explosion of
said shoulder and against movement by said 20 said impact element when it strikes’ the ground.
spring, said latch bolt, upon launching of the
shell from a weapon such as a mortar or riiie,
6. A grenade firing head having a chamber
thereinA having ñring connection with the grenade
interior, an explosive impact member within said
being responsive to inertia to withdraw its latch
chamber having- a firing cap at its inner end, a
pin from the slot in said safety bar Jfor move
firing
in said’ chamber in alignment with said
ment of the safety bar out'of normal positionV by 25 ñring pin
cap, a safety bar extended through said
said spring for exposure of said firing pin to said
chamber from the exterior thereof and abutments
iiring cap when said impact element is shifted
normally holding said bar against the lower end
inwardly upon impact engagement with the ter
of said impact member to be interposed between
rain or other obstruction.
5. A shell of thev type described comprising a 30 the firing cap and the firing pin, a spring tend
ing to shift said bar from said abutments for ex
grenade body loaded with explosive material and
posure of the firing pin to the firing cap, said
having an ñn structure extending from one end
bar at its inner end having a bayonet slot com
thereof, a nose frame secured to the other end of
prising atransverse portion extending from one
said body and deûning a firing chamber, a fuse
edge of the bar and an inner portion extending
connection between said íiring chamber and the 35 longitudinally of the bar, a lath pin normally
interior of said grenade body, an impact element
engaging inthe inner end of said slot to hold said
mounted in the end of said nose frame for inward
bar against displacement from its normal posi
movement upon impact of its outer end with the
tion by the spring, a slight outward movement oíA
ground when the shell is projected, said impact
element containing explosive‘material and hav 40 said bar manually bringing the transverse end of
said slot into alignment with said pin whereby said
ing a ñring cap, a firing pin in said firing chamber
spring may then shift said bar out of its norma]
in the path of said firing cap when said impact
position for firing of the impact member upon
element is shifted inwardly, said nose frame at
impact thereof with the ground When the shell is
one side having an opening and at its other side
having an internal shoulder, a safety bar extend
ing through said opening to rest normally With
projected.
Y
WILLIAM J. LOWES.
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