Патент USA US2409951код для вставки
Get. 22, ’1946. ’ w. J. Low-Es 2,409,945 AMMUNITION Filed Jung 25, 1943 3 Sheets-Sheet l l/E' _DR mííiamßfllpwes M5. Oct 22, 1946- w. J. Lowes AMMUNITIQN 2,409,945 ` Filed June 25, 1945 'Nv u h 32. S ß N /7 3 Sheets-Shee‘rl 2 @et 22, 1946. w. J. LowEs v 2,409,945 AMMUNITION ‘ Filed June 25, 1945 . 49,“ \ " L, :6 ä 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 . » zw W 4~ ,Y 25 37 2 - 52 . 298 \ \ _ ‘ 27'15’ 26 l a( I9 „ . z/E ZDF( /Íí‘íípm Jlfoweá l I@ MM5 Patented Oct. 22, 1946 UNETE 2,469,945 STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,409,945 AMMUNITION William J. Lowes, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Harris Trust and Savings Bank, Chicago, Ill., a cor poration of Illinois, as trustee 1 Application .lf une 25, 1943, Serial No. 492,257 6 Claims. (c1. 1oz-64) My invention relates in general to ammuni tion, but more specifically to a grenade or shell which may be thown by hand, or which may be projected by a propelling charge from a mortar or from a riñe grenade launcher. The shell unit comprises in general a grenade body filled with explosive and having ñn structure at one end and at its other end having a nose assembly Within which are elements controlled upon impact of the shell with the terrain to elîect ignition of a fuse for explosion and dis 2 FigureV 3 is a section of the cartridge support ing bushing before insertion into the ñn struc ture bore; Figure 4 is a section like Figure 2 but showing the fin structure bore receiving a rifle attachment for projection of the shell from a rifle; Figure 5 is an end View of the fin structure; Figure 6 is an enlarged section on plane II--II of Figure l of a portion of the shell body and the impact structure frame showing the retention pin and the safety pin or bar in normal position; ruption of the grenade body. Figure ’7 is a section on plane VII-_VII of An important object of my invention is to Figure’ô; ' provide, in the fuse controlling assembly, a Figure 8 is a section on plane VIII-VIII of ' movable vexplosive impact member or nose pro 15 Figure '7; Vided with a Vprimer or ñring cap engageable, Figure 9 is a section like Figure 'l but with the upon impact of said impact element with the retention pin withdrawn and the safety bar re terrain, with a liring pin for explosion, and igni- k leased from the safety latch structure; and tion of the fuse for explosion of. the grenade Figure 1I) is a section like Figure 6 showing the body. 20 arrangement of the various parts upon impact A further object is -to provide improved safety of the impact member ñring cap with the firing means normally held interposed between the priming cap and the firing pin by latch mecha The shell comprises the substantially ellipti nism from which the safety means may be man cal Íbody I0 ñlled with a suitable explosive and ually released when the shell is to be thrown by serrated on its outerside to provide segments II. hand, and which latch means will automatically Intermediate its ends the body has the cylindrical release the safety means when the shell is pro belt I2 which will act as a piston when the shell pin. jected from the mortar or other weapon by a pro pelling charge. v Still another object is to provide latching means, which, upon projection of the shell by a propelling charge, will be controlled by inertia for release movement of the safety means so that, upon impact of the impact member with the terrain, the iiring cap may engage the firing pin for the explosion to set oiî the fuse, and with c , is to be fired from a weapon such as a mortar. The inner end wall of the body III has the opening I3 in which is secured the end I4 of the body I5 of the fin structure F, fins I6 extending from the body in radial direction and with the radial ex tent of the fins such that their outer edges may engage in the bore of a mortar to assist the piston belt I2 of the body IIJ in guiding the shell through . the mortar bore, the ñns also serving to guide the such explosion of the impact member tending to flight of the shell. . hurl the shell back into the air for explosion of Mounted on the outer end of the grenade body the shell body while in the air by the fuse which I Il, concentric therewith, is a nose frame I'I hav 40 `ing the outer dome-shaped or substantially semi has been accordingly timed. Still another object is to provide the fin struc spherical end I 8. This frame has the exteriorly ture with a bore for receiving the end of a threaded flange I9 extending from its base for riñe, or a rifle attachment, Vfor rifle projection threaded engagement in the outer end of the of the shell, or to receive a cartridge holder and grenade body I 0 to seat against the annular cartridge when the shell is to be projected from shoulder 2li. The domed end I8 has the cylindri a weapon such as a mortar. cal passageway ZI therethrough concentric with The above referred to -and other features of the frame I‘I and the body Ill, and axially mov my inventon are shown embodied in the structure able in this passageway is the impact member shown on the accompanying drawings in which: or _nose 22 in the form of a cylindrical cartridge 50 Figure 1 is a side elevation of the shell; having the head 2,3 at its inner end and inter Figure 2 is a section of plane II-II of Figure 1 mediate its ends a circumferential ridge 24 which of the shell body and fin structure showing the normally engages againstthe inner side of-the application of a blank cartridge and a supporting domed end I8, as shown on Figure 6. The bushing therefor in the lbore of the ñn structure cartridge is filled with suitable explosive mate for' mortar firing of the shell; rial and in its head it has the firing cap 25. 2,409,945 The base 26 of the nose frame I1 has a threaded opening therethrough for receiving the plug 21 from which a post 28 extends axially in the frame I1 and terminates in a firing point or pin 29 in ali-gnment with the ñring cap 25. The base 26 and the plug 21 form a closure for the outer end of the grenade body I0, the plug having the 4 44, this being accomplished by a short outward pull of the safety pin to bring the outer end of the longitudinal slot 5l] into register with the latch pin 49 so that the spring 43 may swing the safety pin with its inner end away from the ledge 36 and with the central portion of the safety pin away from its normal position between the impact member ñring cap and the firing pin, as shown on Figure 9, the pin coming to rest hole 3B therethrough for a fuse 3|, the linterior of the nose frame I1 constituting a firing cham ber 32 for the fuse. When, after projecting of 10 when its inner end strikes the wall of the frame I1» at the end of the recess 52 in the wall. After the shell, the impact nose 22 impacts the terrain release of the safety pin, the retention pin will or an obstruction and is shifted inwardly to still’b‘e in with its inner end between the firing explode upon engagement of its firing cap with the firing pin 29, the ignited fuse will, after’a pre determined time interval, ignite the explosive charge in the grenade body I0. cap and the firing pin, and just before the shell is-thrown, the retention pin is pulled out. Now, when the projected impact nose hits the terrain or other obstruction, it will be shifted inwardly in the frame I1 for engagement of its firing cap Safety means for normally preventingY engage ment of the impact nose firing cap with the firing with the firing pin, as shown in Figure 10. The pin comprises a safety pin 33 and a retention pin 34. The safety pin is shown in the form of 20 impact nose or cartridge will then explode and create fire in the firing ‘chamber 32 for ignition a bar insertable through the opening 35 in the of the fuse 3I and then ignition of the explosiveside of thenose frame I1 to extend normally charge within the grenade body It). When the diametrally through the firing chamber 32 with impact nose or cartridge» is fired upon hitting its inner end resting on a ledge 36 at the-oppo site side o-f the frame I1, the bar being thus 25 the ground, the explosion thereof will tend to recoil and throw the vshell back up into the air, normally disposed between the firing cap and the and the’rate of' burning or timing of the fuse firing pin, andthe bar inwardly of its» middle 3»I» is such that .the explosive within the grenade pointhaving upwardly extending cross> ridges 31 bodyl I0 will be ignited when the shell is in the air engaging the head23 vof the impact nose to hold it with its ridge 24> normally in engagement with 30 after such> recoil or rebound, thus making the shell much more» effective in destructiveness. the inner side of the domed» end I8 of the frame Provision is made for projecting the shell from I1, as shown'on Figure 6. a weapon such as a mortar by- a propelling The retention pin 34 is shown in the form ofV a fiat bar insertable through a passage 387m the charge as from a cartridge. For this purpose, the l side wall- of frame I1 and the safety pin 33 tends for firing ofthe explosive‘material 59. Before the shell' is put' into` the mortar, the Abody- i5 of the nn structure F is provided with side wall of the frame I1 for extension radially a cylindrical axial bore 53r` into which a bushing in the firing chamber 32 with its inner end be 54 may be inserted for seating a blank cartridge tween the safety bar 33 andthe firing pin, as 55. Spring legs 56- onthe bushing will tend to shown in Figures 6 and 7. A ring 39'at the outer hold it frictionally in the bore 53, thecartridge end of the retention pin facilitates withdrawal thereof at. the proper time before the shell is 40. being inserted through the bushing hole 51 for engagement of its end in the recess 58 in the to be thrown. Thus the safety pin and the reten extension I4 of thefinstruc'ture which is secured tion pin are normally interposed between the in the opening I3 of the grenade body IIJ. Now, fir-ing pin and the impact member firing cap. when the shell is inserted into- the bore of a AtV its-outer end the safety pin 33 has a head 4D`normally ñtting into a recessliI in theA framel 45 mortar, andthe cartridge is ñred'by a ñring pin, the shellwillbe projected from the‘mortar. To I1 to shut off the firing chamber 32 from the provide- additional» projection force, powder or exteriorya grip flange or knob 42 being formed other explosive increments 59‘may beinserted in at the outer end of the pinV so that it may be or through slots 60 in the ñns I6 so’that when grasped forV manual pulling when the shellY is'to 50 thecartridge 55-is-fired, the >flame therefrom may be-thrown by hand; pass through openings 6 I »in the ñn structure'body A compression spring 43«extending between the to swing the safety pin out of its normal posi retention pin 34` isV withdrawn. Now, when the’ ing normally resisted by latch mechanism.- This 55 shell-is projected from-the mortar, the latch‘bolt 44- Will be automatically withdrawn to release latch mechanismcomprises a latch bolt 4l!V shift the safety pin 33'from-the latch pinA 49' for swing able in a bore 45 in the base wall-26 of the frame of the safety pin out of its- normal position by I1, the bore at its-inner end being closed by a the spring 43 so that the' impact' nose 22 will be plug 46.- The latch boltterminates in a head 41 between which and the base 26 is‘interposedy a 60 free to engage its ñring cap with the firing pin when the impact nose strikes the ground. This spring 48 which tends tofhold'the bolt out. The» automatic action» of the latch bolt is caused by latch bolt head has the latch pin- 49y extending the force of inertia` when thel shell is projected therefrom for engagement' normally» in the inner from the mortar, this inertia effect on the latch endvof a longitudinally extending slot 53 in the end of the safety pin, from the outer'end of which 65 bolt causing it to be shifted to withdraw the latch pin 49 from the slotv Eßin the safety pin to per slot a transverse slot` 5| extends to the rear mit the latchbolt to be moved‘readily into the edge of the-safety pin, as shown onFigures 7- and' bore 45 by the inertia effect, the bolt may be pro 9.. When the safety pin is thus held in its’norrnal vided witha longitudinal groove 62 for escape of' position against swing by the spring 43,»the spring 43 willurge the latch bolt upwardly against the 70 the air out> of the bore 45fwhen the bolt is shifted inner end of the safety pin to hold the safety thereinto. When theA shell is projected from' a mortar', pin ridges Y3.1 against the `impact nose tohold this the impact> nose-or cartridgeZZ'will also beA sub nose> in its normal position, as shown in Figure 6. jectedrto inertia force tending to shift it inwardly. If the shell’is to be thrown by hand, the safety tion (counterclockwise Figure '7) , such swing be pin 33 will ñrstv be released from the latçh 130.11? ‘ As the mass of the:` impact nose is‘greater'tharr 2,409,945 that of the latch bolt 44, and response of the bolt 44 to the inertia is resisted ~by the spring 48, the safety pin 33 which normally rests at its outer 6 impacted, said `firing cap may come into en gagement with said ñring pin for explosion' of said impact member and ignition of said fuse connection and the explosive material in said grenade body. end on the bottom of the slot`35 and at its inner end on the shoulder 36, will absorb and dissipate the inertia pressure of the impact nose before 2. In a shell of the type described a grenade the inertia becomes effective to shift the latch body containing explosive material, a nose frame bolt 44 for unlatching of the safety pin. The im secured to said body, a fuse connection between pact nose thus remains in its normal or outer the interior of said body and said nose frame, position until impact thereof with the ground 10 an impact member -mounted in the end of said and then, as the released safety pin has been frame to project therefrom for axial inward swung to its released position by the spring 43, movement upon impact, said impact element con the impact nose will be shifted inwardly by the taining an explosive and having a, firing cap impact for engagement of its firing cap with the therefor, a firing pin in said frame in the path ñring pin 29, the safety pin, during such inward 15 of said element, a safety bar extending intomovement of the impact nose, being swung down said frame from the exterior thereof to be nor as shown on Figure 10. If the shell is to be mally disposed between said firing cap and pin launched from a rifle, the bushing 54 is with to prevent engagement thereof, a spring tending drawn from the bore of the ñn structure and to swing said bar out of its normal position, a an A, T. grenade launcher 63 is attached to a 20 safety latch normally engaged by the inner end riñe and its end projected into the ñn structure of said safety bar to hold said bar in normal bore 53, as shown on Figure 4. For such rifle position against the force of said spring, means launching, powder increments 59 would not be whereby said bar upon outward manual move applied to the fins. The powder increment would ment thereof will be released from said safety be applied before launching of the shell from a 25 latch for swing by said spring out of its normal weapon such as a mortar, but would not be ap position, whereby, when said shell is thrown and plied for rifle launching or for hand throwing. said impact element is impacted, said ñring cap In the face of capture by an enemy, the reten may come into engagement with said firing pin tion pin could be pulled out and the safety pin for explosion of said impact element and ignition released from the latch bolt so that the impact 30 of said fuse connection and the explosive ma nose would be free and any attempt by the enemy terial in said grenade body, said fuse connection to use the shell would probably result in engage being timed so that the explosion of said impact ment of the impact cartridge with the ñring pin element may rebound the shell back into the air and explosion of the shell during launching from before the explosive material in said grenade body a weapon such as a mortar or rifle and with 35 is ignited. destruction of the enemy within range of the ex plosion, The shell could also be used as a per sonal mine or booby trap after withdrawal of v 3. A shell of the type ‘described comprising a grenade body loaded with explosive material and having a iin structure extending from one end the retention pin and release of the safety pin. thereof, a nose frame secured to the other end of I have thus produced a shell which can be 40 said body and defining a firing chamber, a fuse thrown by hand or launched by a propelling connection between said firing chamber and the charge from weapons such as mortars or riñes interior of said grenade body, an impact member and which, after impact of the impact nose with projecting through the outer end of said nose the ground, will be hurled back into the air for frame for inward movement therein upon impact explosion of the grenade body while in the air on the outer end thereof after projecting of the `by the delayed fuse connection, shell, said impact member containing explosive I have shown a practical and eii‘lcient embodi ment of my invention but I do not desire to be material and having a firing cap therefor, a firing pin within said firing chamber in the path of said limited to the exact construction, arrangement 50 firing cap when said impact element is shifted inwardly, said nose frame having an opening and operation shown and described as changes and modifications may be made without depart ing from the scope of the invention. I claim as follows: through one side and an internal shoulder on the other side, a safety bar extending through said opening for engaging with its inner end on said shoulder to be normaly between said impact ele 1. In a shell of the type described, a grenade 55 ment and firing pin and to hold said element in its body containing explosive material, a nose frame outer position, a spring tending to swing said secured to said body, a fuse connection between safety bar laterally out of its normal position, the interior of said body and said nose frame, an said bar at its inner end having a bayonet slot, impact member mounted in the end of said frame a spring urged latch bolt having a latch pin to project therefrom for axial inward movement normally extending into said slot to hold said upon impact, said impact element containing an safety bar on said shoulder and against swing explosive and having a firing cap therefor, a fir ing pin in said frame in the path of said element, a safety bar extending into said frame from the exterior thereof to be normally disposed between said firing cap and pin to prevent engagement thereof, a spring tending. to swing said bar later ally out of its normal position, a safety latch nor mally engaged by the inner end of said safety bar to hold said bar in normal position against the force of said spring, means whereby said bar upon outward manual movement thereof will be released from said safety latch for swing by said spring out of its normal position, whereby, when said shell is thrown and said impact member is by said spring, a short manual outward move ment of said safety bar releasing the inner end of the slot from said latch bolt pin whereby said spring becomes effective to swing said safety bar' out of its normal position for exposure of said ñring pin to said firing cap when said impact member is shifted inwardly upon impact thereof after projection of the shell. 4. A shell of the type described comprising a grenade body loaded with explosive material and having a iin structure extending from one end thereof, a nose frame secured to the other end of said body and deíining a firing chamber, a fuse connection between said ñring chamber and the 2,409,945> 7 interior of said-grenade body, an impact element projecting- through the outer end of said nose frame rfor inward movement therein upon impact on the outer end thereof after» projecting of the shell, said impact element containing explosive material and having a firing cap therefor, a firing pinvvithin said firing chamber in the path of said ñring cap when said impact element is shifted in wardly, said nose frame having an opening through one side and an internal shoulder on the other side, a safety bar extending through said opening for engaging with its inner end on said shoulder to be normally betweensaid impact element and’ firing pin and to hold said element it its outer position, a spring tending to shift said safety bar out of its normal position, said bar at'its inner end having a latch slot, a spring urged latch bolt having a latch pin normally ex tending into said slot to hold said safety- bar on 8 its‘iînner end on said shoulder so as to be normally disposed below said impact element to hold it in normal position and to be interposed between the firing cap and the ñring pin, a spring tending to Ul . swing said safety bar away from said shoulder for exposure of the ñring pin to the firing cap, said safety bar at its inner end having a latch slot, the base of said nose frame having a bore, a latch bolt movable inwardly in said bore and termi nating at its outer end in a latch pin, a spring for said latch Vbolt normally holding it shifted out with its latch pin in said slot for holding said safety bar in normal position`v against the force of saidv ñrst mentioned spring, said latch bolt, upon projection of said shell under a projecting charge, being' responsive to inertia to withdraw its pin from said slot whereby said iirst mentioned spring may swing said safety bar for exposure of said firing pin to said ñring cap for explosion of said shoulder and against movement by said 20 said impact element when it strikes’ the ground. spring, said latch bolt, upon launching of the shell from a weapon such as a mortar or riiie, 6. A grenade firing head having a chamber thereinA having ñring connection with the grenade interior, an explosive impact member within said being responsive to inertia to withdraw its latch chamber having- a firing cap at its inner end, a pin from the slot in said safety bar Jfor move firing in said’ chamber in alignment with said ment of the safety bar out'of normal positionV by 25 ñring pin cap, a safety bar extended through said said spring for exposure of said firing pin to said chamber from the exterior thereof and abutments iiring cap when said impact element is shifted normally holding said bar against the lower end inwardly upon impact engagement with the ter of said impact member to be interposed between rain or other obstruction. 5. A shell of thev type described comprising a 30 the firing cap and the firing pin, a spring tend ing to shift said bar from said abutments for ex grenade body loaded with explosive material and posure of the firing pin to the firing cap, said having an ñn structure extending from one end bar at its inner end having a bayonet slot com thereof, a nose frame secured to the other end of prising atransverse portion extending from one said body and deûning a firing chamber, a fuse edge of the bar and an inner portion extending connection between said íiring chamber and the 35 longitudinally of the bar, a lath pin normally interior of said grenade body, an impact element engaging inthe inner end of said slot to hold said mounted in the end of said nose frame for inward bar against displacement from its normal posi movement upon impact of its outer end with the tion by the spring, a slight outward movement oíA ground when the shell is projected, said impact element containing explosive‘material and hav 40 said bar manually bringing the transverse end of said slot into alignment with said pin whereby said ing a ñring cap, a firing pin in said firing chamber spring may then shift said bar out of its norma] in the path of said firing cap when said impact position for firing of the impact member upon element is shifted inwardly, said nose frame at impact thereof with the ground When the shell is one side having an opening and at its other side having an internal shoulder, a safety bar extend ing through said opening to rest normally With projected. Y WILLIAM J. LOWES.